A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, route of administration, quality and intended use. The term may refer to any drug marketed under its chemical name without advertising. Although they may not be associated with a company, generic drugs are usually subject to government regulations in the countries where they are dispensed. They are labeled with the name of the manufacturer and a generic name such as the United States Adopted Name or international nonproprietary name of the drug. A generic drug must contain the active ingredients as the original brand-name formulation. The U. S. Biopharmaceuticals such as monoclonal antibodies differ biologically from small molecule drugs, Generic versions of these drugs, known as biosimilars, are typically regulated under an extended set of rules. In most cases, generic products become available after the patent protections afforded to an original developer expire. Once generic drugs enter the market, competition leads to substantially lower prices for both the original brand-name product and its generic equivalents.
In most countries, patents give 20 years of protection, wholesalers and drugstores can each increase prices at various stages of production and distribution. In 2014, according to an analysis by the Generic Pharmaceutical Association, Generic drug names are constructed using standardized affixes that distinguish drugs between and within classes and suggest their action. When a pharmaceutical company first markets a drug, it is usually under a patent that, until it expires, large pharmaceutical companies often spend millions of dollars protecting their patents from generic competition. Apart from litigation, they may reformulate a drug or license a subsidiary to sell generics under the original patent, generics sold under license from the patent holder are known as authorized generics. Generic drugs are sold for significantly lower prices than their branded equivalents. One reason for this is that competition increases among producers when a drug is no longer protected by patents, the prices are often low enough for users in less-prosperous countries to afford them.
For example, Thailand has imported millions of doses of a version of the blood-thinning drug Plavix from India. Many drugs introduced by generic manufacturers have already been on the market for a decade or more and may already be known to patients and providers. In the United Kingdom, generic drug pricing is controlled by the governments reimbursement rate, the price paid by pharmacists and doctors is determined mainly by the number of license holders, the sales value of the original brand, and the ease of manufacture. A typical price decay graph will show a scalloped curve, which starts at the brand-name price on the day of generic launch
ChemSpider is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry, the database contains information on more than 50 million molecules from over 500 data sources including, Each chemical is given a unique identifier, which forms part of a corresponding URL. This is an approach to develop an online chemistry database. The search can be used to widen or restrict already found results, structure searching on mobile devices can be done using free apps for iOS and for the Android. The ChemSpider database has been used in combination with text mining as the basis of document markup. The result is a system between chemistry documents and information look-up via ChemSpider into over 150 data sources. ChemSpider was acquired by the Royal Society of Chemistry in May,2009, prior to the acquisition by RSC, ChemSpider was controlled by a private corporation, ChemZoo Inc. The system was first launched in March 2007 in a release form. ChemSpider has expanded the generic support of a database to include support of the Wikipedia chemical structure collection via their WiChempedia implementation. A number of services are available online.
SyntheticPages is an interactive database of synthetic chemistry procedures operated by the Royal Society of Chemistry. Users submit synthetic procedures which they have conducted themselves for publication on the site and these procedures may be original works, but they are more often based on literature reactions. Citations to the published procedure are made where appropriate. They are checked by an editor before posting. The pages do not undergo formal peer-review like a journal article. The comments are moderated by scientific editors. The intention is to collect practical experience of how to conduct useful chemical synthesis in the lab, while experimental methods published in an ordinary academic journal are listed formally and concisely, the procedures in ChemSpider SyntheticPages are given with more practical detail. Comments by submitters are included as well, other publications with comparable amounts of detail include Organic Syntheses and Inorganic Syntheses
These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, the simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. For example, the formula for glucose is CH2O, while its molecular formula is C6H12O6. This is possible if the relevant bonding is easy to show in one dimension, an example is the condensed molecular/chemical formula for ethanol, which is CH3-CH2-OH or CH3CH2OH. For reasons of structural complexity, there is no condensed chemical formula that specifies glucose, chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution. A chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol, in empirical formulas, these proportions begin with a key element and assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound, as ratios to the key element.
For molecular compounds, these numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the formula of ethanol may be written C2H6O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Some types of compounds, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CBn is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5. When the chemical compound of the consists of simple molecules. These types of formulas are known as molecular formulas and condensed formulas. A molecular formula enumerates the number of atoms to reflect those in the molecule, so that the formula for glucose is C6H12O6 rather than the glucose empirical formula. However, except for very simple substances, molecular chemical formulas lack needed structural information, for simple molecules, a condensed formula is a type of chemical formula that may fully imply a correct structural formula.
For example, ethanol may be represented by the chemical formula CH3CH2OH
Drugs. com is an online pharmaceutical encyclopedia which provides drug information for consumers and healthcare professionals primarily in the USA. The domain Drugs. com was registered by Bonnie Neubeck in 1994. In 1999 at the height of the boom, Eric MacIver purchased an option to buy the domain from Neubeck. com. Venture Frogs sold the drugs. com domain name to an investor in June 2001. The Drugs. com website is owned and operated by the Drugsite Trust, the Drugsite Trust is a privately held Trust administered by two New Zealand pharmacists, Karen Ann and Phillip James Thornton The Drugs. com website was officially launched in September 2001. Stedmans, AHFS, Harvard Health Publications, North American Compendiums, in March 2008, Drugs. com announced the release of Mednotes —an online personal medication record application which connected to Google Health. In May 2010, U. S. FDA announced a collaboration with Drugs. com to distribute consumer health updates on the Drugs. com website, Drugs. com is certified by the TRUSTe online privacy certification program and the HONcode Health on the Net Foundation
Excretion is the process by which metabolic wastes and other non-useful materials are eliminated from an organism. In vertebrates this is carried out by the lungs, kidneys. This is in contrast with secretion, where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell, excretion is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in urine is expelled through the urethra. In unicellular organisms, waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell, green plants produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis, oxygen is a by product generated during photosynthesis, and exits through stomata, root cell walls, and other routes. Plants can get rid of water by transpiration and guttation. These latter processes do not need added energy, they act passively, during the pre-abscission phase, the metabolic levels of a leaf are high. Plants excrete some waste substances into the soil around them, in animals, the main excretory products are carbon dioxide, urea, uric acid and creatine.
The liver and kidneys clear many substances from the blood, aquatic animals usually excrete ammonia directly into the external environment, as this compound has high solubility and there is ample water available for dilution. In terrestrial animals ammonia-like compounds are converted into other materials as there is less water in the environment. Birds excrete their nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of a paste and this is metabolically more expensive, but allows more efficient water retention and it can be stored more easily in the egg. Many avian species, especially seabirds, can excrete salt via specialized nasal salt glands, in insects, a system involving Malpighian tubules is utilized to excrete metabolic waste. Metabolic waste diffuses or is actively transported into the tubule, which transports the wastes to the intestines, the metabolic waste is released from the body along with fecal matter. The excreted material may be called dejecta or ejecta, in pathology the word ejecta is more commonly used.
UAlberta. ca, Animation of excretion Brian J Ford on leaf fall in Nature
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. These pathways are a form of biotransformation present in all groups of organisms. These reactions often act to detoxify poisonous compounds, the study of drug metabolism is called pharmacokinetics. The metabolism of drugs is an important aspect of pharmacology. For example, the rate of metabolism determines the duration and intensity of a drugs pharmacologic action, the enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism, particularly the glutathione S-transferases are important in agriculture, since they may produce resistance to pesticides and herbicides. Drug metabolism is divided into three phases, in phase I, enzymes such as cytochrome P450 oxidases introduce reactive or polar groups into xenobiotics. These modified compounds are conjugated to polar compounds in phase II reactions. These reactions are catalysed by enzymes such as glutathione S-transferases. Finally, in phase III, the conjugated xenobiotics may be processed, before being recognised by efflux transporters.
Drug metabolism often converts lipophilic compounds into hydrophilic products that are readily excreted. The exact compounds an organism is exposed to will be unpredictable, and may differ widely over time. The solution that has evolved to address this problem is an elegant combination of physical barriers, all organisms use cell membranes as hydrophobic permeability barriers to control access to their internal environment. This selective uptake means that most hydrophilic molecules cannot enter cells, in contrast, the diffusion of hydrophobic compounds across these barriers cannot be controlled, and organisms, cannot exclude lipid-soluble xenobiotics using membrane barriers. However, the existence of a permeability barrier means that organisms were able to evolve detoxification systems that exploit the hydrophobicity common to membrane-permeable xenobiotics and these systems therefore solve the specificity problem by possessing such broad substrate specificities that they metabolise almost any non-polar compound.
Useful metabolites are excluded since they are polar, and in general one or more charged groups. However, since these compounds are few in number, specific enzymes can recognize, the metabolism of xenobiotics is often divided into three phases, - modification and excretion. These reactions act in concert to detoxify xenobiotics and remove them from cells, in phase I, a variety of enzymes act to introduce reactive and polar groups into their substrates. One of the most common modifications is hydroxylation catalysed by the cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system and these enzyme complexes act to incorporate an atom of oxygen into nonactivated hydrocarbons, which can result in either the introduction of hydroxyl groups or N-, O- and S-dealkylation of substrates
The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium, the melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the change from liquid to solid. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance. For most substances and freezing points are approximately equal, for example, the melting point and freezing point of mercury is 234.32 kelvins. However, certain substances possess differing solid-liquid transition temperatures, for example, agar melts at 85 °C and solidifies from 31 °C to 40 °C, such direction dependence is known as hysteresis. The melting point of ice at 1 atmosphere of pressure is close to 0 °C. In the presence of nucleating substances the freezing point of water is the same as the melting point, the chemical element with the highest melting point is tungsten, at 3687 K, this property makes tungsten excellent for use as filaments in light bulbs.
Many laboratory techniques exist for the determination of melting points, a Kofler bench is a metal strip with a temperature gradient. Any substance can be placed on a section of the strip revealing its thermal behaviour at the temperature at that point, differential scanning calorimetry gives information on melting point together with its enthalpy of fusion. A basic melting point apparatus for the analysis of crystalline solids consists of an oil bath with a transparent window, the several grains of a solid are placed in a thin glass tube and partially immersed in the oil bath. The oil bath is heated and with the aid of the melting of the individual crystals at a certain temperature can be observed. In large/small devices, the sample is placed in a heating block, the measurement can be made continuously with an operating process. For instance, oil refineries measure the point of diesel fuel online, meaning that the sample is taken from the process. This allows for more frequent measurements as the sample does not have to be manually collected, for refractory materials the extremely high melting point may be determined by heating the material in a black body furnace and measuring the black-body temperature with an optical pyrometer.
For the highest melting materials, this may require extrapolation by several hundred degrees, the spectral radiance from an incandescent body is known to be a function of its temperature. An optical pyrometer matches the radiance of a body under study to the radiance of a source that has been previously calibrated as a function of temperature, in this way, the measurement of the absolute magnitude of the intensity of radiation is unnecessary. However, known temperatures must be used to determine the calibration of the pyrometer, for temperatures above the calibration range of the source, an extrapolation technique must be employed
United States Adopted Name
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States. Each name is assigned by the USAN Council, which is co-sponsored by the American Medical Association, the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, and the American Pharmacists Association. In addition to drugs, the USAN Council names agents for gene therapy and cell therapy, contact lens polymers, surgical materials, carriers, the USAN Council began in June 1961 after the AMA and the USP jointly formed the AMA-USP Nomenclature Committee. In 1967, a representative from the Food and Drug Administration was appointed to serve on the USAN Council. The AMA Council on Drugs no longer exists as a separate entity, FDA now has a representative on the USAN Council, which has moved away from chemically derived names. Currently, the USAN Council has five members, one from each sponsoring organization, one from the FDA, one member is nominated to the USAN Council annually by each sponsoring organization, the FDA nominates one liaison member annually.
The member-at-large is selected by the organizations from a list of candidates proposed by the AMA, APhA. The five nominees to the Council must be approved annually by the board of trustees of the three sponsoring organizations and this distinguishes them from the trademarked names that have been registered for private use. USANs assigned today reflect both present nomenclature practices and older methods used to name drug entities, early drug nomenclature was based on the chemical structure. As newer drugs became more complex and numerous, nonproprietary names based on chemistry became long and difficult to spell, pronounce. Additionally, chemically derived names provided little information to non-chemist health practitioners. Considering the needs of health led to a system in which USANs reflect relationships between new entities and older drugs, and avoid names that might suggest non-existent relationships. Current nomenclature practices involve the adoption of standardized syllables called stems that relate new chemical entities to existing drug families, stems may be prefixes, suffixes, or infixes in the nonproprietary name.
Each stem can emphasize a specific chemical structure type, a pharmacologic property, the recommended list of USAN stems is updated regularly to keep pace to accommodate drugs with new chemical and pharmacologic properties. As a general rule, the application for a USAN should be forwarded to the USAN Council after the Investigational New Drug has been approved by the FDA and clinical trials have begun. Many drug manufacturers seeking a USAN are multinational companies with subsidiaries in various parts of the world or contractual agreements with drug firms outside the United States, assigning a USAN and standardizing names internationally can take anywhere from several months to a few years
ChEMBL or ChEMBLdb is a manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug-like properties. It is maintained by the European Bioinformatics Institute, of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, based at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, the database, originally known as StARlite, was developed by a biotechnology company called Inpharmatica Ltd. acquired by Galapagos NV. The data was acquired for EMBL in 2008 with an award from The Wellcome Trust, resulting in the creation of the ChEMBL chemogenomics group at EMBL-EBI, the ChEMBL database contains compound bioactivity data against drug targets. Bioactivity is reported in Ki, Kd, IC50, and EC50, data can be filtered and analyzed to develop compound screening libraries for lead identification during drug discovery. ChEMBL version 2 was launched in January 2010, including 2.4 million bioassay measurements covering 622,824 compounds and this was obtained from curating over 34,000 publications across twelve medicinal chemistry journals.
ChEMBLs coverage of available bioactivity data has grown to become the most comprehensive ever seen in a public database, in October 2010 ChEMBL version 8 was launched, with over 2.97 million bioassay measurements covering 636,269 compounds. ChEMBL_10 saw the addition of the PubChem confirmatory assays, in order to integrate data that is comparable to the type, ChEMBLdb can be accessed via a web interface or downloaded by File Transfer Protocol. It is formatted in a manner amenable to computerized data mining, ChEMBL is integrated into other large-scale chemistry resources, including PubChem and the ChemSpider system of the Royal Society of Chemistry. In addition to the database, the ChEMBL group have developed tools and these include Kinase SARfari, an integrated chemogenomics workbench focussed on kinases. The system incorporates and links sequence, structure and screening data, the primary purpose of ChEMBL-NTD is to provide a freely accessible and permanent archive and distribution centre for deposited data.
July 2012 saw the release of a new data service, sponsored by the Medicines for Malaria Venture. The data in this service includes compounds from the Malaria Box screening set, myChEMBL, the ChEMBL virtual machine, was released in October 2013 to allow users to access a complete and free, easy-to-install cheminformatics infrastructure. In December 2013, the operations of the SureChem patent informatics database were transferred to EMBL-EBI, in a portmanteau, SureChem was renamed SureChEMBL. 2014 saw the introduction of the new resource ADME SARfari - a tool for predicting and comparing cross-species ADME targets
Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules, the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since modified and extended. In 2007, a standard called OpenSMILES was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN, the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. The Environmental Protection Agency funded the project to develop SMILES. It has since modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems. In 2007, a standard called OpenSMILES was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community.
Other linear notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN, in July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is generally considered to have the advantage of being slightly more human-readable than InChI, the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should strictly be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings, the exact meaning is usually apparent from the context. The terms canonical and isomeric can lead to confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms describe different attributes of SMILES strings and are not mutually exclusive, typically, a number of equally valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol, algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule, of the many possible strings, these algorithms choose only one of them.
This SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the algorithm used to generate it. These algorithms first convert the SMILES to a representation of the molecular structure. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database, there is currently no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, and these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES