Seoul Metropolitan Subway
The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a metropolitan railway system consisting of 22 rapid transit, light metro, commuter rail and people mover lines located in northwest South Korea. The system serves most of the Seoul Metropolitan Area including the Incheon metropolis and satellite cities in Gyeonggi province; some regional lines in the network stretch out to rural areas in northern Chungnam province and western Gangwon province that lie over 100 km away from the capital as well as Suwon. The network consists of numbered lines 1–9, which serve Seoul City proper and its surroundings and named regional railways that serve the greater metropolitan region and beyond. Most of the system is operated by three companies – Seoul Metro and Metro 9. However, there are several other lines stretching out to regional provinces, its first metro line, Line 1, started construction in 1971 and opened in 1974, with through-operation to Korail suburban railways. Today, the network is one of the largest and most efficient urban railway systems in the world, with 331.5 km of track on lines 1–9 alone.
Under the Japanese ODA loans, the first line of the Seoul Subway network started construction in 1971. The first section of subway was cover construction method. Line 1 opened in 1974 with through services joining surrounding Korail suburban railway lines similar to the Tokyo subway. Today, many of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway's lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national passenger and freight railway operator; this is similar to Europe and Japan, where the national railroad operates local mainline urban railways, such as the S-Bahns in Germany, operated by subsidiaries of Deutsche Bahn, or JR East in Japan, which operates many other urban rail systems in Japanese cities. It has been described as the world's longest multi-operator metro system by route length; the system was rated as one of the world's best subway systems by CNN, Jalopnik It is notable for its cleanliness and ease of use along with advanced technology such as 4G LTE, WiFi, DMB, WiBro accessible in all stations and trains.
Nearly all stations have platform screen doors installed. By 2017, Korail will install screen doors in every station and platform; the world's first virtual mart for smartphone users opened at Seolleung station in 2011. All directional signs in the system are written in Korean and Hanja. In trains there are in addition many LCD screens giving service announcements, upcoming stop names, YTN news, stock prices and animated shorts. There are prerecorded voice announcements that give the upcoming station, any possible line transfer, the exiting side in Korean, followed by English. At major stations, this is followed by Japanese Mandarin Chinese, as well. Seoul Subway uses full-color LCD screens at all stations to display real-time subway arrival times, which are available on apps for smartphones. Most trains have digital TV screens, all of them have air conditioning and climate controlled seats installed that are automatically heated in the winter. In 2014, it became the world's first metro operator to use transparent displays for ads when it installed 48 transparent displays on major stations of Line 2 in Gangnam District.
All lines use the T-money smart payment system using RFID and NFC technology for automatic payment by T-money smart cards, smartphones, or credit cards and one can transfer to any of the other line within the system for free. Trains on numbered lines run on the right-hand track, while trains on the named lines run on the left-hand track; the exceptions are the trains on Line 1, as well as those on Line 4 south of Namtaeryeong station. These lines run on the left-hand track because these rail lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national railway operator; the system is organised such that numbered lines, with some exceptions, are considered as urban rapid transit lines located within the Seoul National Capital Area, whereas wide-area commuter lines operated by Korail provide a metro-like commuter rail service that extends far beyond the boundaries of the SNCA, rather similar to the RER in Paris. The AREX is an airport rail link that links Incheon International Airport and Gimpo Airport to central Seoul, offers both express service directly to Incheon International Airport and all-stop commuter service for people living along the vicinity of the line.
While operating hours may vary depending on the line in question, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway operates from 5.30 am until 1 am on weekdays, from 5.30 am until midnight on weekends. Line 1, from Seongbuk station to Incheon station and Suwon station, opened on 15 August 1974. On 9 December 1978, the Yongsan-Cheongnyangni line was added to Line 1. Line 2 opened on 10 October 1980. In 1985, the fare system changed from charging by distance to zone and the Edmondson railway ticket changed to a magnetic paper ticket. Line 4 opened on 20 April 1985, Line 3 on 12 July. On 1 April 1994, the Indeogwon-Namtaeryeong extension of Line 4 opened; the Bundang Line, from Suseo station to Ori station, opened on 1 September. On 15 November 1995, Line 5 opened; the Jichuk-Daehwa extension of Line 3 opened on 30 January 1996. On 20 March, the Kkachisan-Sindorim extension of Line 2 opened. Line 7 opened on 11 October, Line 8 on 23 November. On 6 October 1999, Incheon Subway Line 1 opened. Seoul Subway Line 6 opened on 7 August 2000.
In 2004 the fare system reverted to charging by distance, free bus transfers were introduced. The
Aesculus hippocastanum is a species of flowering plant in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae. It is a large deciduous, synoecious tree known as horse-chestnut or conker tree. Aesculus hippocastanum is a large tree, growing to about 39 metres tall with a domed crown of stout branches; the leaves are palmately compound, with 5 -- 7 leaflets. The leaf scars left on twigs after the leaves have fallen have a distinctive horseshoe shape, complete with seven "nails"; the flowers are white with a yellow to pink blotch at the base of the petals. Its pollens are poisonous for honey bees. Only 1–5 fruits develop on each panicle; each conker is 2 -- glossy nut-brown with a whitish scar at the base. The common name "horse-chestnut" is reported as having originated from the erroneous belief that the tree was a kind of chestnut, together with the observation that the fruit could help panting horses. Aesculus hippocastanum is native to a small area in the Pindus Mountains mixed forests and Balkan mixed forests of South East Europe.
However, it can be found in many parts of Europe as far north as Gästrikland in Sweden, as well as in many parks and cities in the United States and Canada. It is cultivated in streets and parks throughout the temperate world, has been successful in places like Ireland, the United Kingdom and New Zealand, where they are found in parks and avenues. Cultivation for its spectacular spring flowers is successful in a wide range of temperate climatic conditions provided summers are not too hot, with trees being grown as far north as Edmonton, Canada, the Faroe Islands, Reykjavík, Iceland and Harstad, Norway. In Britain and Ireland, the seeds are used for the popular children's game conkers. During the First World War, there was a campaign to ask for everyone to collect horse-chestnuts and donate them to the government; the conkers were used as a source of starch for fermentation using the Clostridium acetobutylicum method devised by Chaim Weizmann to produce acetone for use as a solvent for the production of cordite, used in military armaments.
Weizmann's process could use any source of starch, but the government chose to ask for conkers to avoid causing starvation by depleting food sources. But conkers were found to be a poor source, the factory only produced acetone for three months; the seeds those that are young and fresh, are poisonous, containing alkaloid saponins and glucosides. Although not dangerous to touch, they cause sickness. Though the seeds are said to repel spiders there is little evidence to support these claims; the presence of saponin may repel insects but it is not clear whether this is effective on spiders. Horse-chestnuts have been threatened by the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, whose larvae feed on horse chestnut leaves; the moth was described from North Macedonia where the species was discovered in 1984 but took 18 years to reach Britain. The flower is the symbol of the city of capital of Ukraine. Although the horse-chestnut is sometimes known as the buckeye, this name is reserved for the New World members of the genus Aesculus.
In Germany, horse-chestnuts are found in beer gardens in Bavaria. Prior to the advent of mechanical refrigeration, brewers would dig cellars for lagering. To further protect the cellars from the summer heat, they would plant chestnut trees, which have spreading, dense canopies but shallow roots which would not intrude on the caverns; the practice of serving beer at these sites evolved into the modern beer garden. The seed extract standardized to around 20 percent aescin is used for its venotonic effect, vascular protection, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties. Primary indication is chronic venous insufficiency. A recent Cochrane Review found the evidence suggests that Horse Chestnut Seed Extract is an efficacious and safe short-term treatment for chronic venous insufficiency, but definitive randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the efficacy. Aescin reduces fluid leaks to surrounding tissue by reducing both the number and size of membrane pores in the veins.
Two preparations are considered. Whole HCE has been used both for oral and IV routes; the rate of adverse effects are low, in a large German study, 0.6%, consisting of gastrointestinal symptoms. Dizziness and itching have been reported. One serious safety issue is rare cases of acute anaphylactic reactions in a context of whole HCE. Purified β-aescin would be expected to have a better safety profile. Another is the risk of acute renal failure, "when patients, who had undergone cardiac surgery were given high doses of horse chestnut extract i.v. for postoperative oedema. The phenomenon was dose dependent as no alteration in renal function was recorded with 340 μg kg−1, mild renal function impairment developed with 360 μg kg−1 and acute renal failure with 510 μg kg−1"; this certainly took place in a context of whole HCE. Three clinical trials were since perform
Chang-dong Station is a station on Seoul Subway Line 1 and Line 4. It is located in Dobong-gu, Seoul. A shopping center was planned for this site, but the empty lot has never been developed due to the bankruptcy of the contractor behind said project; the station is, home to a cluster of pojangmacha stalls. Chang-dong Station was opened on October 15, 1911 as part of the first segment of the Gyeongwon Line; the Line 4 station opened on April 20, 1985, while Line 1 service was extended northwards from Seongbuk Station to Chang-dong Station on December 22, 1985. Exit 1: Nogok Middle School, Nowon-gu Office, Dobong Police Station, Dobong-gu Office Annex, Sanggye High School, Seoul Wolcheon Elementary School, Eunhyeganho Hagwon, Jawoon Elementary School, Chang 4-dong Community Center, Chang 4-dong Protection Center, Hi Mart Chang-dong, Jawoon High School, Donga Cheongsol Apartment House Exit 2: Dobong-gu Office, Dobong Registry Office, Donga Green Apartment House, Seoul Bukbu District Office of Education, E-Mart Chang-dong, Chang 4-dong Catholic Church, Seoul Changdong Elementary School
Miasageori Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 4. Its name means "four-way junction in Mia-dong." It is located in Gangbuk-gu, Seoul. It was called Miasamgeori, until December 26, 2013
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Sanggye Station is a station on Line 4 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network in Nowon-gu, Seoul. It is named after the upper valley of the Suraksan mountain nearby; until the opening of Danggogae Station in 1993, this station was the northeastern terminus of Line 4. The station has 4 exits and is connected with Daeho Department Store; the name of the subway station comes from its local name. The local name is the name of a nearby river
Dongdaemun Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 1 and Line 4. It is named after one of the four great gates of the circular wall surrounding ancient Seoul, is situated on the eastern end of Jongno; this station is close to Dongdaemun Market. In December 2010 the station is recorded as having the third highest WiFi data consumption of all the Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations, following Express Bus Terminal Station, Sadang Station, followed by Jamsil Station and Jongno 3-ga Station. Changsin-dong Toy Wholesale Market - the largest toy and stationery market in Korea since 1975 Seoul City Wall Museum