Cologne is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth-largest city in Germany. It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, one of the major European metropolitan areas, and with more than ten million inhabitants, Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River, less than eighty kilometres from Belgium. The citys famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne, the University of Cologne is one of Europes oldest and largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the first century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the French version of the citys name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior, during the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval.
Up until World War II the city had several occupations by the French. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II, the bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many buildings as possible. Cologne is a cultural centre for the Rhineland, it hosts more than thirty museums. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics, the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, in 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD, considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007.
From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, in 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it one of the most important trade. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462, parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire, Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period, under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to an extent, battles. A normal heraldic achievement consists of the shield, above which is set the helm, on which sits the crest, the word crest derives from the Latin crista, meaning tuft or plume, perhaps related to crinis, hair. They first appeared in a context in the form of the metal fans worn by knights in the 12th and 13th centuries. These were primarily decorative, but may have served a purpose by lessening or deflecting the blows of opponents weapons. These fans were generally of one colour, evolving to repeat all or part of the arms displayed on the shield. The fan crest was developed by cutting out the figure displayed on it, to form a metal outline. Torses did not come into use in Britain until the 15th century, and are still uncommon on the Continent. Crests were mounted on a furred cap known as a chapeau. By the 16th century the age of tournaments had ended, and their illustrated equivalents consequently began to be treated as simply two-dimensional pictures.
In the same period, different helms began to be used for different ranks and knights helms faced forwards, whereas those of peers, torses suffered artistically, being treated not as silken circlets, but as horizontal bars. Heraldry in general underwent something of a renaissance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, crests are now generally not granted unless they could actually be used on a physical helm, and the rules about directions of helms are no longer rigidly observed. The use of crests was once restricted to those of tournament rank, i. e. knights and above and they are not generally used by women and clergymen, as they did not participate in war or tournaments and thus would not have helms on which to wear them. Some heraldists are of the opinion that crests, as devices, are not suited for use by corporate bodies. This practice did not exist in Britain until the modern era, and arms with more than one crest are still rare. After the 16th century, it common for armigers to detach the crest and wreath from the helm.
This led to the use of the term crest to mean arms. Unlike a badge, which can be used by any amount of relatives and retainers, a crest is personal to the armiger, and its use by others is considered usurpation
Roll of arms
A roll of arms is a collection of coats of arms, usually consisting of rows of painted pictures of shields, each shield accompanied by the name of the person bearing the arms. The oldest extant armorials date to the mid 13th century, Siebmachers Wappenbuch of 1605 was an early instance of a printed armorial. Medieval armorials usually include a few hundred coats of arms, in the medieval period sometimes up to some 2,000. In the early period, the larger armorials develop into encyclopedic projects, with the Armorial général de France, commissioned by Louis XIV of France. A roll of arms arranged systematically by design, with featuring the same principal elements grouped together as a tool to aid identification, is known as an ordinary of arms. Glovers Roll is an English roll of arms from the 1240s or 1250s, the Matthew Paris Shields, not truly a roll but a set of marginal illustrations accompanying the chroniclers illuminated manuscript works, Chronica Majora and Historia Anglorum. These date from c.
1244–59, during the reign of Henry III, walfords Roll is an English roll dating from c. 1275, containing 185 coats with blazons, the Camden Roll is an English roll dating from c.1280, containing 270 painted coats,185 with blazons. The Dering Roll, dating from the late 13th century, contains 324 coats of arms and it is 8 1⁄4 inches wide by 8 feet 8 inches long. It currently resides in the British Library, the Heralds Roll is an English roll dating from c. St Georges Roll is an English roll dating from c, Charles Roll is an English roll dating from c.1285, containing 486 painted coats. Planché however names as Charless Roll a copy of a mid-13th-century roll containing nearly 700 coats drawn in pen and ink by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald, Charles stated that the original had been lent to him by the Norroy King of Arms. The Lord Marshals Roll is an English roll dating from 1295, collins Roll is a roll dating from 1296, containing 598 painted coats. It currently resides at the College of Arms in London, the Falkirk Roll is an English occasional roll dating from c.
1298, containing 115 coats with blazons, listing the knights with King Edward I at Battle of Falkirk in 1298, the British Museum copy was formerly in the Treasury Chamber in Paris in 1576. The Galloway Roll is an English roll dating from 1300, containing 259 coats with blazons, Roll of Caerlaverock or Poem of Caerlaverock is a roll dating from 1300, containing 110 poetical blazons without images. Two other copies exist, made by Glover from a now-lost different original source, one at the College of Arms in London, the original was made in 1300 by English heralds during Edward Is siege of Caerlaverock Castle, Scotland. Commentary by Nicholas Harris Nicolas, The siege of Carlaverock in the XXVIII Edward I, a. D. Stirling Roll is an English roll from 1304, containing 102 coats
Attributed arms are Western European coats of arms given retrospectively to persons real or fictitious who died before the start of the age of heraldry in the latter half of the 12th century. Arms were assigned to the knights of the Round Table, and to biblical figures, to Roman and Greek heroes, each author could attribute different arms for the same person, but the arms for major figures soon became fixed. Notable arms attributed to biblical figures include the arms of Jesus based on the instruments of the Passion, medieval literature attributed coats of arms to the Nine Worthies, including Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and King Arthur. Arms were given to many kings predating heraldry, including Edward the Confessor and these attributed arms were sometimes used in practice as quarterings in the arms of their descendants. Attributed or imaginary arms appeared in literature in the middle of the 12th century, during the generation following Chrétien de Troyes, about 40 of Arthurs knights had attributed coats of arms.
A second stage of development occurred during the 14th and 15th centuries when Arthurian arms expanded to include as many as 200 attributed coats of arms, during the same centuries, rolls of arms included invented arms for kings of foreign lands. Around 1310, Jacques de Longuyon wrote the Voeux de Paon and this list, divided into three groups of three, became known in art and literature as the Nine Worthies. Each of the Nine Worthies were given a coat of arms, King David, for instance, was assigned a gold harp as a device. Once coats of arms were the fashion of the ruling class. In such an era, it was enough to consider that suitable armorial devices. Each author could attribute different arms for the person, although regional styles developed. Some attributed arms were incorporated into the quarterings of their descendants arms, the quarterings for the family of Lloyd of Stockton, for instance, include numerous arms originally attributed to Welsh chieftains from the 9th century or earlier. In a similar vein, arms were attributed to Pope Leo IX based on the arms of his familys descendants.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, additional arms were attributed to a number of saints and popes. Pope Innocent IV is the first pope whose personal coat of arms is known with certainty, by the end of the 17th century, the use of attributed arms became more restrained. The tinctures and charges attributed to an individual in the past provide insight into the history of symbolism, in the Arthurian legends, each knight of the Round Table is often accompanied by a heraldic description of a coat of arms. Although these arms could be arbitrary, some characters were associated with one coat or a few different coats. King Arthur was assigned many different arms, but from the 13th century, in a 1394 manuscript depicting the Nine Worthies, Arthur is shown holding a flag with three gold crowns
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Together German and Nordic heraldry are often referred to as German-Nordic heraldry. The German heraldic tradition is noted for its scant use of furs, multiple crests, inseparability of the crest, and repetition of charges in the shield. Mullets have six points, and beasts may be colored with patterns, as in other European heraldic traditions, the most prominent among the birds and beasts are the eagle and lion. These two charges in particular had a significance in Germany, where the eagle became symbolic of the Holy Roman Empire. The heraldic tinctures are the same in Imperial heraldry as in other European countries, black charges occur on red fields and vice versa more often than in other countries, as in the arms of Stadler and Homberg. Tinctures are described using the German words for each, and argent is usually called silber though weiß occurs, furs known to German heraldry include Hermelin, Feh, sometimes termed Grauwerk, Buntfeh, Krückenfeh and Kürsch. Kürsch is typically shown as dags of fur overlapping like roof tiles, while each of these variations and some others exist in German heraldry, it is worth noting that even ermine is uncommon, vair is seldom found, and the others are rarer still.
As in English heraldry, the names for the lines of division and variation are closely related with those of the corresponding ordinaries. The apparent exceptions to this rule, are that a shield divided per fess is simply termed geteilt and this works with many other charges, and may divide the shield per pale, per fess, or other ways. The seal was used extensively in the late Middle Ages, and was instrumental in spreading heraldry to the various institutions. According to Volborth, the custom of the warrior-caste of using their arms on seals made this kind of pictorial identification fashionable, noble women began using armorial seals in the 12th century. Heraldry spread to the class in the 13th century. German burgher arms may have played a key role in the development of Swedish heraldry, especially in Stockholm, in heraldry, a charge is any object or figure placed on the shield, whether placed on the field, on an ordinary, or even on another charge. In German heraldry, as in other European heraldic traditions, the most commonly used include the cross, the eagle.
Unlike other traditions, German heraldry features charges, especially lions, colored with patterns such as barry, chequy, for instance, the coats of arms of Hesse and Thuringia each depict a lion barry argent and gules. The Manesse Codex displays Wenceslaus II of Bohemias eagle chequy sable and gules and other charges colored with furs, such as ermine, and semés, but not barry or chequy, are found in French heraldry. Similarly, when the crosier was incorporated into the arms of Biberach, the result was the half of an imperial eagle and, in the sinister half of the shield. The two most commonly occurring animals in heraldry, the lion and the eagle, bore special political significance in medieval Germany, Neubecker asserts that this heraldic antagonism
They were all herald painters and genealogists and were members of the Stationers Company of Chester. All four painted memorial boards and hatchments, and some of these can still be found in Cheshire churches and he was apprenticed to Thomas Chaloner who was deputy to William Flower, Norroy King of Arms in 1578. He was elected an alderman by 1604 and appointed as a servant to Prince Henry by May 1607, in 1600 and again in 1606 Holme was appointed deputy herald of the College of Arms in Cheshire and North Wales. Holmes main duty was to arrange funerals of those entitled to arms but he made an income from painting hatchments. From the early 1620s ill health prevented him from undertaking long journeys and he was fined for not attending the coronation of Charles I in 1626 and for refusing a knighthood in 1631. Holme was sheriff of Chester in 1615–16 and mayor in 1633–34 and he remained in the city of Chester during the siege of Chester in the Civil War from September 1645 to February 1646 and during the plague of 1648.
Supported by Sir William Brereton he was made a commissioner for peace, in 1598 he married Elizabeth née Alcock, who was Thomas Chaloners widow. They had three children, William and Elizabeth, on 11 September 1635 he married Catherine Browne, daughter of Ralph Allen, alderman of Chester. He died on 16 January 1655 and was buried at St Marys on the Hill and he worked closely with his father and became deputy herald of the College of Arms for Lancashire in 1627. He was Chester city treasurer in 1633 and clerk to the Stationers Company of Chester in 1641, in 1633–34 he was sheriff of Chester and in 1643–44 he was mayor. During the siege of Chester he supported the Royalist cause and after the city fell he was dismissed as alderman, in his life he worked mainly as a genealogist. In 1625 he married Catherine Ellis of Overleigh and they had six children who survived infancy, Catherine died in 1640 and in 1643 he married Elizabeth Martyn, daughter of Thomas Dodd of Chester. He was buried at St Marys on the Hill on 1 September 1659 and he was born on 24 December 1627 and was the eldest son of the above.
He was steward to the Stationers Company of Chester in 1656, in 1664 Charles II granted him a sinecure, known as sewer of the chamber of the extraordinary. He prepared items of heraldry and took fees for them without permission from the Norroy king of arms, Dugdale took him to court, Holme lost the case and it was decided that all the offending boards should be removed, defaced or destroyed. Dugdale travelled north on at least three occasions to carry out himself. Later Holme made peace with Dugdale and by 1675 was making funeral certificates for him, in 1678 he was appointed deputy herald for Chester and North Wales. He was the one of the four Randle Holmes not to hold civic office in Chester and was one of the first Freemasons in Chester
College of Arms
The College is the official body responsible for matters relating to the flying of flags on land, and it maintains the official registers of flags and other national symbols. Though a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom the College is self-financed, unsupported by any public funds, founded by royal charter in 1484 by King Richard III, the College is one of the few remaining official heraldic authorities in Europe. Within the United Kingdom, there are two authorities, the Court of the Lord Lyon in Scotland and the College for the rest of the United Kingdom. The College has had its home in the City of London since its foundation, the College of Arms undertakes and consults on the planning of many ceremonial occasions such as coronations, state funerals, the annual Garter Service and the State Opening of Parliament. Heralds of the College accompany the sovereign on many of these occasions, the College comprises thirteen officers or heralds, three Kings of Arms, six Heralds of Arms and four Pursuivants of Arms.
There are seven officers extraordinary, who take part in ceremonial occasions but are not part of the College, the entire corporation is overseen by the Earl Marshal, a hereditary office held by the Duke of Norfolk, currently Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. King Richard IIIs interest in heraldry was indicated by his possession of two important rolls of arms, while still Duke of Gloucester and Constable of England for his brother from 1469, he in the latter capacity supervised the heralds and made plans for the reform of their organisation. Soon after his accession to the throne he created Sir John Howard as Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal of England, who became the first Howard appointed to both positions. The charter goes on to state that the heralds for the time being, shall be in perpetuity a body corporate in fact and name and this charter titled Literæ de incorporatione heraldorum is now held in the British Museum. There has been evidence that prior to this charter, the royal heralds had already in some ways behaved like a corporation as early as 1420.
Nevertheless, the charter is the earliest surviving document to affirm the chapter as a body of heralds. The charter outlines the constitution of the officers, their hierarchy, the College was granted a house named Coldharbour on Upper Thames Street in the parish of All-Hallows-the-Less, for storing records and living space for the heralds. The house, built by Sir John de Pulteney, four times Lord Mayor of London, was said to be one of the greatest in the City of London. The defeat and death of Richard III at Bosworth field was a blow for the heralds. The victorious Henry Tudor was crowned King Henry VII soon after the battle, henrys first Parliament of 1485 passed an Act of Resumption, in which large grants of crown properties made by his two predecessors to their supporters were cancelled. Whether this act affected the status of the Colleges charter is debatable, Henry granted the house to his mother Lady Margaret Beaufort, for life. This was because it was supposed that the house was granted personally to John Writhe the Garter King of Arms, as a result, the heralds were left destitute and many of their books and records were lost.
Despite this ill treatment from the King, the position at the royal court remained
In Christology, the Person of Christ refers to the study of the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ as they co-exist within one person. There is no discussion in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human. Hence, since the days of Christianity theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures. In the period following the Apostolic Age, specific beliefs such as Arianism and Docetism were criticized. On the other end of the spectrum, Docetism argued that Jesus physical body was an illusion, docetic teachings were attacked by St. Ignatius of Antioch and were eventually abandoned by proto-orthodox Christians. However, after the First Council of Nicaea in 325 the Logos, historically in the Alexandrian school of christology, Jesus Christ is the eternal Logos paradoxically humanized in history, a divine Person who became enfleshed, uniting himself to the human nature. The views of these schools can be summarized as follows, Antioch, Logos assumes a specific human being The First Council of Ephesus in 431 debated a number of views regarding the Person of Christ.
At the same gathering the council debated the doctrines of monophysitism or miaphysitism. The council rejected Nestorianism and adopted the term hypostatic union, referring to divine, the language used in the 431 declaration was further refined at the 451 Council of Chalcedon. However, the Chalcedon creed was not accepted by all Christians, because Saint Augustine died in 430 he did not participate in the Council of Ephesus in 431 or Chalcedon in 451, but his ideas had some impact on both councils. On the other hand, the major theological figure of the Middle Ages. The Third Council of Constantinople in 680 held that both divine and human wills exist in Jesus, with the divine will having precedence and guiding the human will. John Calvin maintained that there was no element in the Person of Christ which could be separated from the person of The Word. Calvin emphasized the importance of the Work of Christ in any attempt at understanding the Person of Christ, the study of the Person of Christ continued into the 20th century, with modern theologians such as Karl Rahner and Hans von Balthasar.
Balthasar argued that the union of the human and divine natures of Christ was achieved not by the absorption of human attributes, thus in his view the divine nature of Christ was not affected by the human attributes and remained forever divine
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as the handmaid of history, the shorthand of history, in modern times, heraldry is used by individuals and private organizations, cities and regions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent individuals or groups for thousands of years, similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, and the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found. In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, the Greek and Latin writers frequently describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, and units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, the medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature.
Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, and the arms attributed to the Nine Worthies. These too are now regarded as an invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to an individual, time. Yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic, in England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. A notable example of an armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders. Seals from the part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism. One of the earliest known examples of armory as it came to be practiced can be seen on the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.
An enamel, probably commissioned by Geoffreys widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a shield decorated with six golden lions rampant. He wears a helmet adorned with another lion, and his cloak is lined in vair. A medieval chronicle states that Geoffrey was given a shield of this description when he was knighted by his father-in-law, Henry I, in 1128, but this account probably dates to about 1175. Since Henry was the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, it seems reasonable to suppose that the adoption of lions as an emblem by Henry or his sons might have been inspired by Geoffreys shield. Richard is credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant and it is from this garment that the phrase coat of arms is derived
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area