An eraser, is an article of stationery, used for removing writing from paper or skin. Erasers have a rubbery consistency and come in a variety of shapes and colours; some pencils have an eraser on one end. Less expensive erasers are made from synthetic rubber and synthetic soy-based gum, but more expensive or specialized erasers are vinyl, plastic, or gum-like materials. At first, erasers were made to erase mistakes made with a pencil; the term is used for things that remove writing from chalkboards and whiteboards. Ink erasers are denser. Before rubber erasers, tablets of wax were used to erase charcoal marks from paper. Bits of rough stone such as sandstone or pumice were used to remove small errors from parchment or papyrus documents written in ink. Crustless bread was used as an eraser in the past. So we thought nothing of taking these and eating a firm part to at least satisfy our hunger. "In 1770 English engineer Edward Nairne is reported to have developed the first marketed rubber eraser, for an inventions competition.
Until that time the material was known by its Native American name caoutchouc. Nairne sold natural rubber erasers for the high price of three shillings per half-inch cube. According to Nairne, he inadvertently picked up a piece of rubber instead of breadcrumbs, discovered rubber's erasing properties, began selling rubber erasers; the invention was described by Joseph Priestley on April 15, 1770, in a footnote: "I have seen a substance excellently adapted to the purpose of wiping from paper the mark of black-lead-pencil.... It is sold by Mr. Nairne, Mathematical Instrument-Maker, opposite the Royal-Exchange." In 1770 the word rubber was in general use for any object used for rubbing. However, raw rubber was perishable. In 1839 Charles Goodyear discovered the process of vulcanization, a method that would cure rubber, making it durable. Rubber erasers became common with the advent of vulcanization. On March 30, 1858, Hymen Lipman of Philadelphia, USA, received the first patent for attaching an eraser to the end of a pencil.
It was invalidated because it was determined to be a composite of two devices rather than an new product. Erasers may be conical caps that can slip onto the end of a pencil. A barrel or click eraser is a device shaped like a pencil, but instead of being filled with pencil lead, its barrel contains a retractable cylinder of eraser material. Many, but not all, wooden pencils are made with attached erasers. Novelty erasers made in shapes intended to be amusing are made of hard vinyl, which tends to smear heavy markings when used as an eraser. Made from natural rubber, but now from cheaper SBR, this type contains mineral fillers and an abrasive such as pumice with a plasticizer such as vegetable oil, they are hard and coloured pink. The stylized word "Artgum" was first used in 1903 and trademarked in the USA in 1907; that type of eraser was made from oils such as corn oil vulcanized with sulfur dichloride although may now be made from natural or synthetic rubber or vinyl compounds. It is soft yet retains its shape and is not mechanically plastic, instead crumbling as it is used.
It is suited to cleaning large areas without damaging paper. However, they are so soft; the removed graphite is carried away in the crumbles, leaving the eraser clean, but resulting in a lot of eraser residue. This residue must be brushed away with care, as the eraser particles are coated with the graphite and can make new marks. Art gum erasers are traditionally tan or brown. High-quality plasticized vinyl or other "plastic" erasers trademarked Mylar in the mid-20th century, are softer, non-abrasive, erase cleaner than standard rubber erasers; this is because the removed graphite does not remain on the eraser as much as rubber erasers, but is instead absorbed into the discarded vinyl scraps. Being softer and non-abrasive, they are less to damage canvas or paper. Engineers favor this type of eraser for work on technical drawings due to their gentleness on paper with less smearing to surrounding areas, they come in white and can be found in a variety of shapes. More very low-cost erasers are manufactured from plasticized vinyl compounds and made in decorative shapes.
Kneaded erasers are common to most artists' standard toolkit. They can be pulled into a point for erasing small areas and tight detail erasing, molded into a textured surface and used like a reverse stamp to give texture, or used in a "blotting" manner to lighten lines or shading without erasing them, they lose their efficacy and resilience as they become infused with particles picked up from erasing and from their environment. They are not suited to erase large areas because of their tendency to deform under vigorous erasing. Sold in retail outlets with school supplies and home improvement products, this soft, malleable putty appears in many colours and under numerous brand names. Intended to adhere posters and prints to walls without damaging the underlying wall surface, poster putty works much the same as trad
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was an American writer and literary critic. Poe is best known for his poetry and short stories his tales of mystery and the macabre, he is regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and of American literature as a whole, he was one of the country's earliest practitioners of the short story. He is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre and is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction, he was the first well-known American writer to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career. Poe was born in the second child of actors David and Elizabeth "Eliza" Arnold Hopkins Poe, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by Frances Allan of Richmond, Virginia, they never formally adopted him. Tension developed as John Allan and Poe clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, the cost of Poe's secondary education.
He left after a year due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name, it was at this time that his publishing career began with the anonymous collection Tamerlane and Other Poems, credited only to "a Bostonian". Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement after the death of Frances Allan in 1829. Poe failed as an officer cadet at West Point, declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, he parted ways with John Allan. Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism, his work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore and New York City. He married Virginia Clemm in his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845, Poe published his poem "The Raven" to instant success, but Virginia died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. Poe planned for years to produce his own journal The Penn.
He died in Baltimore on October 7, 1849, at age 40. Poe and his works influenced literature around the world, as well as specialized fields such as cosmology and cryptography, he and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today; the Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre. He was born Edgar Poe in Boston on January 19, 1809, the second child of English-born actress Elizabeth Arnold Hopkins Poe and actor David Poe Jr, he had a younger sister Rosalie Poe. Their grandfather David Poe Sr. had immigrated from County Cavan, Ireland around 1750. Edgar may have been named after a character in William Shakespeare's King Lear which the couple were performing in 1809, his father abandoned the family in 1810, his mother died a year from consumption. Poe was taken into the home of John Allan, a successful merchant in Richmond, Virginia who dealt in a variety of goods, including tobacco, wheat and slaves.
The Allans served as a foster family and gave him the name "Edgar Allan Poe", though they never formally adopted him. The Allan family had Poe baptized in the Episcopal Church in 1812. John Allan alternately spoiled and aggressively disciplined his foster son; the family sailed to Britain in 1815, Poe attended the grammar school for a short period in Irvine, Scotland before rejoining the family in London in 1816. There he studied at a boarding school in Chelsea until summer 1817, he was subsequently entered at the Reverend John Bransby's Manor House School at Stoke Newington a suburb 4 miles north of London. Poe moved with the Allans back to Richmond, Virginia in 1820. In 1824, he served as the lieutenant of the Richmond youth honor guard as Richmond celebrated the visit of the Marquis de Lafayette. In March 1825, John Allan's uncle and business benefactor William Galt died, said to be one of the wealthiest men in Richmond, leaving Allan several acres of real estate; the inheritance was estimated at $750,000.
By summer 1825, Allan celebrated his expansive wealth by purchasing a two-story brick home named Moldavia. Poe may have become engaged to Sarah Elmira Royster before he registered at the University of Virginia in February 1826 to study ancient and modern languages; the university was in its infancy, established on the ideals of its founder Thomas Jefferson. It had strict rules against gambling, guns and alcohol, but these rules were ignored. Jefferson had enacted a system of student self-government, allowing students to choose their own studies, make their own arrangements for boarding, report all wrongdoing to the faculty; the unique system was still in chaos, there was a high dropout rate. During his time there, Poe lost touch with Royster and became estranged from his foster father over gambling debts, he claimed that Allan had not given him sufficient money to register for classes, purchase texts, procure and furnish a dormitory. Allan did send additional money and clothes, he gave up on the university after a year but did not feel welco
University of the Sciences
The University of the Sciences known as the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, is a private university in the Spruce Hill neighborhood of Philadelphia, United States. USciences offers bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees in pharmacy and a variety of other health-related disciplines including health policy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, biomedical sciences. USciences was established in 1821 as the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, to become the first pharmacy college in the nation; the history of the University of the Sciences began when 68 Philadelphia apothecaries met in Carpenters' Hall in 1821 to establish improved scientific standards and to train more competent apprentices and students. They sought to enhance their vocation, as well as protect public welfare. Nearly a year they organized and incorporated the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the first college of pharmacy in the nation. Thus, education in the profession of pharmacy in the U. S. was born. Today, the University continues to build on that reputation and is now home to over 30 degree-granting programs in three colleges.
Its more than 2,300 students have enrolled in premier programs in the health sciences, ranging across pharmacy with its direct entry doctoral program to pre-med to physical therapy to healthcare business and health policy. Students study the entire range of the health sciences in one of its three colleges: Philadelphia College of Pharmacy — North America's first school of pharmacy and the start of the University, graduates the pharmacists and scientists who deliver and discover the healthcare innovations that advance patient care. Samson College of Health Sciences — educates the vital healthcare professionals who add immeasurably to the quality of life at each step—from prevention to diagnosis to recovery of the patient care continuum. Misher College of Arts and Sciences — provides a specialized undergraduate foundation for the sciences, with research and discovery at its core, for students seeking advanced degrees to lead in the basic and applied health sciences and serve humanity. After its conception in 1821, the college began to grow in enrollment and stature.
Although matriculation was limited to men, the college became coeducational in 1876, issued the first pharmacy degree to a woman in the United States, Dr. Susan Hayhurst, in 1883; the college emphasized the biological and chemical sciences as mainstays of the curriculum in pharmacy but instituted separate curricula in three other areas: bacteriology and chemistry. In 1921, the name of the institution was changed to Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, with state authorization to grant not only the baccalaureate degree, but the master's and doctorate in all four disciplines; as the world of science continuously made advancements throughout the decades, the college evolved and expanded its curriculum to prepare students for the new wave of scientific breakthroughs. The college enhanced the role of the humanities and social sciences in its science-based curricula. A commuter campus in its early days, the institution began to transform into one in which residential life and extracurricular activities played a larger role in student development.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania approved the institution's application for university status in February 1997. In recognition of the broad spectrum of new health and science programs introduced by the institution, the college changed its name to reflect the broader range of academic opportunities offered to its students. On July 1, 1998, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science unveiled its new identity as University of the Sciences in Philadelphia. A brand update in 2010 refocused the University's messaging and logos; the overall name was simplified for marketing purposes to University of the Sciences in order to emphasize a national and global reach, while a new logo transitioned the USP acronym to USciences to address awareness issues. In addition, the tag line “Where science and healthcare converge” was adopted to define both what the University is and what it is not. In September 2017, the University launched a tuition reset for all students who enroll beginning in fall 2018. Undergraduate students will not pay more than $25,000 per year in tuition and general fee* for undergraduate coursework.
And for those students who are accepted into one of the University's accelerated, 6-year doctoral programs in pharmacy, physical therapy, or occupational therapy, the University lowered and simplified the tuition and general fee*. The lower tuition is fixed for the student's academic career. *This pricing does NOT include room and board, health insurance, or any professional, clinical, or transportation fees. In February 2018, the University announced that Mayes College of Healthcare Business and Policy would be dissolved as of July 1, 2018. With that, the Department of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Business would become a part of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. William Procter, Jr. described as "the father of American pharmacy", was a PCP professor from 1846–1874, as well as serving as an officer of the board. He and Daniel B. Smith were instrumental in the founding of the American Pharmaceutical Association, the national professional society of pharmacists, founded and organized in Philadelphia in 1852.
It is now called the American Pharmacists Association, the first established and largest professional association of pharmacists in the United States. The more than 50,000 members of APhA include practicing pharmacists, pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacy students, pharmacy technicians and others interested in advancing the profession. In 1868, John Maisch, PCP professor and dean, proposed the c