Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin, was a Russian communist revolutionary and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1922 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration and the wider Soviet Union became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism. Born to a moderately prosperous middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution. Expelled from Kazan Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he devoted the following years to a law degree, he became a senior Marxist activist. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent theorist in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution of 1905, he campaigned for the First World War to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the new regime. Lenin's Bolshevik government shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry, it withdrew from the First World War by signing a treaty with the Central Powers and promoted world revolution through the Communist International.
Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign administered by the state security services. His administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin encouraged economic growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. Several non-Russian nations secured independence after 1917, but three re-united with Russia through the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922. In poor health, Lenin died at his dacha in Gorki, with Joseph Stalin succeeding him as the pre-eminent figure in the Soviet government. Considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991, he became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement.
A controversial and divisive individual, Lenin is viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class, while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder and leader of an authoritarian regime responsible for political repression and mass killings. Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs. Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility. Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863. Well educated and from a prosperous background, she was the daughter of a wealthy German–Swedish Lutheran mother, a Russian Jewish father who had converted to Christianity and worked as a physician, it is that Lenin was unaware of his mother's half-Jewish ancestry, only discovered by his sister Anna after his death. Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years later.
Five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the government's plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman. Lenin was baptised six days later, he was one of eight children, having two older siblings and Alexander. They were followed by three more children, Olga and Maria. Two siblings died in infancy. Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria—a Lutheran by upbringing—was indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children. Both parents were monarchists and liberal conservatives, being committed to the emancipation reform of 1861 introduced by the reformist Tsar Alexander II; every summer they holidayed at a rural manor in Kokushkino. Among his siblings, Lenin was closest to his sister Olga, whom he bossed around.
Pink noise or 1⁄f noise is a signal or process with a frequency spectrum such that the power spectral density is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal. Pink noise is the most common signal in biological systems. In pink noise, each octave carries an equal amount of noise energy; the name arises from the pink appearance of visible light with this power spectrum. This is in contrast with white noise. Within the scientific literature the term pink noise is sometimes used a little more loosely to refer to any noise with a power spectral density of the form S ∝ 1 f α, where f is frequency, 0 < α < 2, with exponent α close to 1. These pink-like noises occur in nature and are a source of considerable interest in many fields; the distinction between the noises with α near 1 and those with a broad range of α corresponds to a much more basic distinction. The former come from condensed-matter systems in quasi-equilibrium, as discussed below; the latter correspond to a wide range of non-equilibrium driven dynamical systems.
The term flicker noise is sometimes used to refer to pink noise, although this is more properly applied only to its occurrence in electronic devices. Mandelbrot and Van Ness proposed the name fractional noise to emphasize that the exponent of the power spectrum could take non-integer values and be related to fractional Brownian motion, but the term is rarely used. There is equal energy in all octaves of frequency. In terms of power at a constant bandwidth, pink noise falls off at 3 dB per octave. At high enough frequencies pink noise is never dominant; the human auditory system, which processes frequencies in a logarithmic fashion approximated by the Bark scale, does not perceive different frequencies with equal sensitivity. However, humans still differentiate between white pink noise with ease. Graphic equalizers divide signals into bands logarithmically and report power by octaves. Systems that do not have a flat response can be equalized by creating an inverse filter using a graphic equalizer.
Because pink noise has a tendency to occur in natural physical systems, it is useful in audio production. Pink noise can be processed, and/or effects can be added to produce desired sounds. Pink-noise generators are commercially available. One parameter of noise, the peak versus average energy contents, or crest factor, is important for testing purposes, such as for audio power amplifier and loudspeaker capabilities because the signal power is a direct function of the crest factor. Various crest factors of pink noise can be used in simulations of various levels of dynamic range compression in music signals. On some digital pink-noise generators the crest factor can be specified; the power spectrum of pink noise is 1/f only for one-dimensional signals. For two-dimensional signals the power spectrum is reciprocal to f 2 In general, in an n-dimensional system, the power spectrum is reciprocal to f n. For higher-dimensional signals it is still true that each octave carries an equal amount of noise power.
The frequency spectrum of two-dimensional signals, for instance, is two-dimensional, the area of the power spectrum covered by succeeding octaves is four times as large. In the past quarter century, pink noise has been discovered in the statistical fluctuations of an extraordinarily diverse number of physical and biological systems. Examples of its occurrence include fluctuations in tide and river heights, quasar light emissions, heart beat, firings of single neurons, resistivity in solid-state electronics. An accessible introduction to the significance of pink noise is one given by Martin Gardner in his Scientific American column "Mathematical Games". In this column, Gardner asked for the sense. Sounds in nature are not musical in that they tend to be either too chaotic; the answer to this question was given in a statistical sense by Voss and Clarke, who showed that pitch and loudness fluctuations in speech and music are pink noises. So music is like tides not in how tide heights vary; because pink noise occurs in many physical and economic systems, some researchers describe it as being ubiquitous.
In physical systems, it is present in some meteorological data series, the electromagnetic radiation output of some astronomical bodies, in all electronic devices. In biological systems, it is present in, for example, heart beat rhythms, neural activity, the statistics of DNA sequences, as a generalized pattern. In financial systems, it is referred to as a long-term memory effect, it describes the statistical structure of many natural images. Pink noise has been applied to the modeling of mental states in psychology, used to explain stylistic variations in music from different cultures and historic periods. Richard F. Voss and J. Clarke claim that all musical melodies, w
The Magnetic Fields
The Magnetic Fields is an American band founded and led by Stephin Merritt. Merritt is the group's primary songwriter and vocalist, as well as frequent multi-instrumentalist; the Magnetic Fields is a vehicle for Merritt's songwriting, as are various side-projects including The 6ths, Future Bible Heroes, The Gothic Archies. Merritt's recognizable lyrics are about love and with atypical or neutral gender roles, are by turns ironic, tongue-in-cheek and humorous; the band released their debut single "100,000 Fireflies" in 1991. The single was typical of the band's earlier career, characterized by synthesized instrumentation by Merritt, with lead vocals provided by Susan Anway. A more traditional band materialized; the band's best-known work is the 1999 three-volume concept album 69 Love Songs. It was followed in the succeeding years by a "no-synth" trilogy: i, Realism; the band's most recent album, 50 Song Memoir, was released in March 2017. The band began as Merritt's studio project under the name Buffalo Rome.
With the help of friend Claudia Gonson, who had played in Merritt's band The Zinnias during high school, a live band was assembled in Boston, where Merritt and Gonson lived, to play Merritt's compositions. The band's first live performance was at T. T. the Bear's Place in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1991 where they played to a sparse audience, expecting to see the Galaxie 500 spin-off, Magnetophone. The 1999 triple album 69 Love Songs showcased Merritt's songwriting abilities and the group's musicianship, demonstrated by the use of such varied instruments as the ukulele, accordion, mandolin, flute and the Marxophone, in addition to their usual setting of synthesizers and effects; the album features vocalists Shirley Simms, Dudley Klute, L. D. Beghtol, Gonson, each of whom sings lead on six songs as well as various backing vocals, plus Daniel Handler on accordion, longtime collaborator Christopher Ewen as guest arranger/synthesist. Violinist Ida Pearle makes a brief cameo on "Luckiest Guy on the Lower East Side".
The band's recent albums, i and Distortion, both followed the album theme structure of 69 Love Songs: The song titles on i begin with the letter "I", whilst Distortion was an experiment in combining noise music with their unconventional musical approach. The liner notes claim. According to an article: "To celebrate the release of Distortion and The Magnetic Fields played mini-residencies in cities around the country, culminating with six shows at Chicago's Old Town School of Folk Music." Realism was released in January 2010. The next album produced would feature synthesisers "almost exclusively". In 2010, the documentary film Strange Powers: Stephen Merritt and the Magnetic Fields made its debut in film festivals around the world, it was directed by Gail O'Hara. Shot over a period of 10 years, it discusses the formation of the band, Stephin's friendship with Claudia Gonson, the production of various albums, Stephin's move to California from New York, it won the Outfest 2010 Grand Jury Prize for Feature Documentary.
The band was chosen by Jeff Mangum of Neutral Milk Hotel to perform a rare festival performance at the All Tomorrow's Parties event that he curated in March 2012 in Minehead, England. The band released its tenth full-length album, Love at the Bottom of the Sea, on March 6, 2012 to critical acclaim; this album, sometimes compared to 69 Love Songs, brought back the use of a synthesizer. Merritt told fans on his website, "I was happy to be using synthesizers in ways that I had not done before. Most of the synthesizers on the record didn't exist when we were last using synthesizers." The song "Andrew in Drag" has garnered much attention, receiving play from entities such as CBS News and NPR's All Songs Considered. In 2012, the Magnetic Fields celebrated its new album by launching a North American and European tour, it began on March 6, the release date of Love at the Bottom of the Sea, continued for two months. In 2016 it was announced that the band's eleventh studio album, 50 Song Memoir would contain fifty songs, akin to the 69 Love Songs concept, one to commemorate each year since Stephin Merritt was born.
It was released in March 2017. Official membersStephin Merritt – guitar, keyboards, melodica, lead vocals Claudia Gonson – piano, percussion, group manager Sam Davol – cello, flute John Woo – banjo, guitar Shirley Simms – autoharp, vocalsOther contributorsCurrent and former contributors include singers Susan Anway, Dudley Klute, Nell Beram, LD Beghtol, as well as instrumentalists Johny Blood, Quince Marcum, Daniel Handler, Chris Ewen and engineer/producer Charles Newman and instrumentalist and singer Pinky Weitzman. Studio albumsDistant Plastic Trees The Wayward Bus The Charm of the Highway Strip Holiday Get Lost 69 Love Songs i Distortion Realism Love at the Bottom of the Sea 50 Song Memoir The House of Tomorrow, official site of TMF & side projects Aging Spinsters, a Stephin Merritt fan blog Stephin Songs, an informative fan site Strange Powers, official site of the TMF documentary
Liam Christopher O'Brien is an American voice actor and voice director in the Los Angeles area. He has been involved in many English-language adaptations of Japanese anime, is a regular in numerous video games and cartoons, his major anime roles include Gaara in Naruto, Captain Jushiro Ukitake in Bleach, Lloyd in Code Geass, Kenzo Tenma in Monster. In animation, he voices in shows such as Star Wars Rebels, Transformers: Robots in Disguise, Avengers Assemble and the X-Men, Hulk and the Agents of S. M. A. S. H.. In video games, he voiced Gollum in Middle-Earth: Shadow of Mordor, Caius Ballad in Final Fantasy XIII-2, War in Darksiders, Asura in Asura's Wrath, Illidan Stormrage in World of Warcraft, Yasuo in League of Legends, the Warden in For Honor, Barker in Titanfall 2 and most Infinite in Sonic Forces, he has directed for Naruto, The Last of Us, Resident Evil 5, Resident Evil 6. O'Brien grew up in New Jersey, his mother Lois Wiltse O'Brien worked as an educator and as a quality assurance trainer and consultant.
He started getting into acting in high school. After attending New York University Tisch School of the Arts, he worked in theater on various productions around the country. While working on a production of Romeo & Juliet in Cincinnati, he met Crispin Freeman, who helped him get into voice-over in cartoons and anime back in New York City. O'Brien married fellow voice actress Amy Kincaid in 2002, they have a son and a daughter. O'Brien has a sister named Cara; as mentioned in his interview with Brian W. Foster in Between the Sheets, O'Brien mentioned that has a condition called hyperacusis, a condition that affects how you perceive sounds. O'Brien's characters have varied in terms of styles, he affirms that he plays characters that are insane or evil geniuses, although he has voiced comedic characters such as Fukuyama in Girls Bravo where he said he would "break out in a sweat matching his level of nuttiness". He describes Cumore from Tales of Vesperia as "slightly unhinged". In Darksiders, he voices one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
He describes his voicing as deeper than his usual voice, that he portrayed him as a old soul who isn't surprised at the events around him. In the video game-based film Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children he voiced Red XIII. In addition to voice acting, O'Brien has worked as a voice director and writer on various video games and anime shows, he participates in a web series called Critical Role, where various actors band together to play Dungeons & Dragons. Jeng, Way. "Being a Brief Discussion with Liam O'Brien About Koi Kaze". Mania. Demand Media. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Bertschy, Zac. "The Liam King – ANNCast". Anime News Network. "Kana's Korner" Interview With Liam O'Brien on 91.8 The Fan Liam O'Brien on Twitter Liam O'Brien at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Liam O'Brien at Crystal Acids Voice Actor Database Liam O'Brien on IMDb Between the Sheets: Liam O'Brien – 2018 video interview by Critical Role
Stress, either physiological or biological, is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body's method of reacting to a condition such as a threat, challenge or physical and psychological barrier. Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body; the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis; the second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol, which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic and immunological functions. The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by several brain regions, including the limbic system, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and stria terminalis.
Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, immune function and susceptibility to diseases. Definitions of stress differ. One system suggests there are five types of stress labeled "acute time-limited stressors", "brief naturalistic stressors", "stressful event sequences", "chronic stressors", "distant stressors". An acute time-limited stressor involves a short-term challenge, while a brief natural stressor involves an event, normal but challenging. A stressful event sequence is a stressor that occurs, continues to yield stress into the immediate future. A chronic stressor involves exposure to a long-term stressor, a distant stressor is a stressor, not immediate. Stress and illness may have intersecting components. Several studies indicate such a link, while theories of the stress–illness link suggest that both acute and chronic stress can cause illness, lead to changes in behavior and in physiology. Behavioral changes can include smoking, changes in eating habits and physical activity.
Physiological changes can include changes in sympathetic activation or HPA activity, immunological function. However, there is much variability in the link between illness; the HPA axis regulates many bodily functions, both behavioral and physiological, through the release of glucocorticoid hormones. The HPA axis activity varies with a spike in the morning; the axis involves the release of corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin from the hypothalamus which stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH. ACTH may stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol; the HPA axis is subject to negative feedback regulation as well. The release of CRH and VP are regulated by descending glutaminergic and GABAergic pathways from the amygdala, as well as noradrenergic projections. Increased cortisol acts to increase blood glucose, blood pressure, surpasses lysosomal, immunological activity. Under other circumstances the activity may differ. Increased cortisol favors habit based learning, by favoring memory consolidation of emotional memories.
Selye demonstrated that stress decreases adaptability of an organism and proposed to describe the adaptability as a special resource, adaptation energy. One study considered adaptation energy as an internal coordinate on the "dominant path" in the model of adaptation. Stress can make the individual more susceptible to physical illnesses like the common cold. Stressful events, such as job changes, may result in insomnia, impaired sleeping, physical and psychological health complaints. Research indicates the type of stressor and individual characteristics such as age and physical well-being before the onset of the stressor can combine to determine the effect of stress on an individual. An individual's personality characteristics and childhood experiences with major stressors and traumas may dictate their response to stressors. Chronic stress and a lack of coping resources available or used by an individual can lead to the development of psychological issues such as delusions and anxiety; this is true regarding chronic stressors.
These are stressors that may not be as intense as an acute stressor like a natural disaster or a major accident, but they persist over longer periods of time. These types of stressors tend to have a more negative effect on health because they are sustained and thus require the body's physiological response to occur daily; this depletes the body's energy more and occurs over long periods of time when these microstressors cannot be avoided. See allostatic load for further discussion of the biological process by which chronic stress may affect the body. For example, studies have found that caregivers those of dementia patients, have higher levels of depression and worse physical health than non-caregivers; when humans are under chronic stress, permanent changes in their physiological and behavioral responses may occur. Chronic stress can include events such as caring for a spouse with dementia, or may result from brief focal events that have long term effects, such as experiencing a sexual assault.
Studies have shown that psychological stress may directly contribute to the disproportionately high rates of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and its etiologic risk factors. Acute and chronic stress have been shown to raise serum lipids and are associated with clinical coronary events. However, it is possible for individuals to exhibit hardiness—a term
Stephin Raymond Merritt is an American singer-lyricist, best known as the songwriter and principal singer of the bands The Magnetic Fields, The Gothic Archies, Future Bible Heroes. He is known for his untrained bass voice. Merritt created and plays principal roles in the bands The Magnetic Fields, The 6ths, The Gothic Archies and Future Bible Heroes, he used the name The Baudelaire Memorial Orchestra as an attribution for a song written for Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events, entitled "Scream and Run Away". Further music was recorded for the audiobook versions of the series and is attributed to The Gothic Archies; the Tragic Treasury was released by Nonesuch Records in October 2006 along with the 13th and final book of the series. Under his own name, he recorded and released the soundtracks to the films Eban and Charley and Pieces of April; the soundtrack to the Nickelodeon show The Adventures of Pete featured many of his songs. He and director Chen Shi-Zheng have collaborated on three pieces of musical theatre.
Selected tracks from these works have been released on Nonesuch Records under the title Showtunes. Additionally, he is one-third of the infrequent, live-only ensemble the Three Terrors, whose other principal members include 69 Love Songs's Dudley Klute and LD Beghtol. Past themes of these performances have included French pop music, movie themes and New York City. Kenny Mellman, James Jacobs, Daniel Handler, Jon DeRosa and others have performed with The Three Terrors at these sporadic gala events. Merritt wrote and sang "I'm in a Lonely Way" in a television commercial for Volvo that aired in the summer and fall of 2007, he performed "The Wheels on the Car". Merritt penned the music and lyrics for a 2009 Off-Broadway stage musical adaptation of Coraline, a novel by Neil Gaiman. In the MCC Theater production, his music will be performed by a piano "orchestra" – complete with a traditional piano, a toy piano and a prepared piano, he produced a score for the silent film 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, performed at the Castro Theatre, San Francisco on May 4, 2010 as part of the San Francisco International Film Festival.
Growing up, Merritt used different spellings of his name for different purposes. "Stephin" was one such pseudonym that he used to sort his junk mail, that became the spelling he used as a musician. Prior to 2013, Merritt had never met his biological father, folk singer Scott Fagan, who had a brief affair with Merritt's mother, Alix Merritt; the three met at a screening of the film AKA Doc Pomus in 2013. Merritt's relationship with his father is described in the song "'99 Fathers in the Clouds", on the Magnetic Fields album 50 Song Memoir. Merritt attended Massachusetts high school The Cambridge School of Weston and attended NYU before moving back to Boston, he has worked as an editor for Time Out New York. Merritt is known for having a dry personality, embracing a persona and life, different from the traditional rock star image. In September 2005, an interviewer quoted an anonymous reviewer to Bob Mould that Mould was "the most depressed man in rock." Mould's response was "He's never met Stephin Merritt, obviously."Merritt suffers from a hearing condition known as hyperacusis, which he refers to in the songs "'79: Rock n' Roll Will Ruin Your Life" and "'92: Weird Diseases" on the Magnetic Fields album 50 Song Memoir.
Any sound heard louder than normal begins to "feedback" in his left ear at louder volumes. This has influenced the reserved live setup of The Magnetic Fields, which consists of acoustic instruments and little to no percussion. Merritt wears earplugs during performances, covers his left ear when the audience applauds. Merritt is the subject of a documentary, Strange Powers: Stephin Merritt and the Magnetic Fields, which premiered in March 2010. Merritt is an atheist, wears only brown clothing, is gay and a vegan, saying, "I ain't eat an animal since 1983." Eban and Charley Pieces of April Showtunes Obscurities The House of Tomorrow – The official site of Stephin Merritt, The Magnetic Fields, Future Bible Heroes, The 6ths, The Gothic Archies Stephin Merritt biography Aging Spinsters: A Stephin Merritt Fan-Blog The Distant Plastic Treehouse - "a hangout for Stephin Merritt fans" Stephin Songs – The music and lyrics of Stephin Merritt
Otorhinolaryngology is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear and throat and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, throat, base of the skull, for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck; the term is a combination of New Latin combining forms derived from four Ancient Greek words: οὖς ous, "ear", ῥίς rhis, "nose", λάρυγξ larynx, "larynx" and -λογία logia, "study". Otorhinolaryngologists are physicians who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training; this is composed of six months of general surgical training and four and a half years in specialist surgery. In Canada and the United States, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.
Following residency training, some otolaryngologist-head & neck surgeons complete an advanced sub-specialty fellowship, where training can be one to two years in duration. In the United States and Canada, otorhinolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school. In the United Kingdom entrance to otorhinolaryngology higher surgical training is competitive and involves a rigorous national selection process; the training programme consists of 6 years of higher surgical training after which trainees undertake fellowships in a sub-speciality prior to becoming a consultant. In this type of surgery, a surgeon harvests a muscle from the back or from the abdominal region for reconstruction of the skull or the cranial vault. Latissimus is another word for back in the medical field as well as rectus abdominis, your abdominal area; the muscle is sometimes useful for sealing off the central nervous system in ones body and allowing it to heal the complex wounds.
A study was down with five patients who underwent the free muscle transfer for a smile reconstruction. Two of the five patients prior to this surgery had failed their first free muscle transfer; the next two patients had vascular anomalies and one had a previous distal ligation of the facial vessels. In three of the cases, they used a submental vein, in all the cases they used a donor submental artery. “In all 5 the gracilis vascular pedicle comprised a muscular branch of the profunda femoris together with its venae comitantes, with the artery and vein ranging in size from 1.0 to 1.5 mm and 2.0 to 2.5 mm, respectively. The submental artery provided an excellent size match in all cases, ranging in size from 1.0 to 1.5 mm”. The first patient was a 45 year old woman who developed a dense flaccid right facial paralysis at the age of 33; the second patient was an 8 year old girl who had developed dense flaccid left facial paralysis after a laser treatment at four weeks for, “bilateral infantile segmental hemangiomas in the distribution of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
“. The third case was a 19 year old male who had developed a segmental right facial paralysis after a excision of a infantile parotid hemangioma at the age of 2; the fourth case was a 20 year old woman who had developed dense flaccid right facial paralysis after a biopsy of a pontomedullary junction tumor at the age of 2. Lastly, case five was a 19 year old woman. Bone defects are the most difficult reconstructions as it requires precise alignment. Bone transfer is used for the mandibular reconstruction, but it now allows surgeons to use it for the midface and the orbito maxillary. If for some reason the fibula is not available for transfer, another option the team may go is using the back rib free flap; this allows the transfer to give the bone volume for the patients. The earliest first bone transfer was done all the way back in 2000 BCE when the Peruvian priest implanted a metallic plate to reconstruct the contour defects of the religious trephination. In 1668, a man by the name of Jobs van Meekeren reported the use of dog bone grafts to reconstruct the calvarium in the soldier.
“…the ideal of the future: the insertion of a piece of living bone which will fill the gap and will continue to live without absorption.”. The radial forearm is the most dominant use of flap to be used to coverage up damages. Today, the anterolateral thigh flap is being used on patients for the head and the neck because it has an ideal match for the site and it is easy to harvest. If a surgeon chose to remove/harvest the tissue, safe places are the following. Microvascular reconstruction repair is a common operation, done on patients who see a Otorhinolaryngologist. Microvascular reconstruction repair is a surgical procedure that involves moving a composite piece of tissue from the patient's body and moves it to the head and or neck. Microvascular head and neck reconstruction is used to treat head and neck cancers, including those of the larynx and pharynx, oral cavity, salivary glands, calvarium, sinuses and skin; the tissue, most common moved during this procedure is from the arms, legs and can come from the skin, fat, or muscle.
When doing this procedure, the decision on, moved is determined on the reconstructive needs. T