FoxPro was a text-based procedurally oriented programming language and database management system, it is an object-oriented programming language published by Fox Software and by Microsoft, for MS-DOS, Macintosh, UNIX. The final published release of FoxPro was 2.6. Development continued under the Visual FoxPro label, which in turn was discontinued in 2007. FoxPro was derived from FoxBase, in turn derived from dBase III and dBase II. DBase II was the first commercial version of a database program written by Wayne Ratliff, called Vulcan, running on CP/M. FoxPro is both a DBMS and a relational database management system, since it extensively supports multiple relationships between multiple DBF files; however it lacks transactional processing. After they acquired Fox Software in its entirety in 1992, FoxPro was sold and supported by Microsoft. At that time there was an active worldwide community of FoxPro programmers. FoxPro 2.6 for UNIX has been installed on Linux and FreeBSD using the Intel Binary Compatibility Standard support library.
FoxPro 2 included the "Rushmore" optimizing engine, which used indices to accelerate data retrieval and updating. Rushmore technology looked for filter expressions. If one was used, it looked for an index matching the same expression. FoxPro 2 was built on Watcom C/C++, which used the DOS/4GW memory extender to access expanded and extended memory, it could use all available RAM if no HIMEM. SYS was loaded. History of FoxPro - Timeline A site devoted to the history of FoxPro A DOS VM for running FoxPro for DOS on Windows 64-bit machines
It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
The WYSIWYG view is achieved by embedding a layout engine. This may be custom-written or based upon one used in a web browser; the goal is that, at all times during editing, the rendered result should represent what will be seen in a typical web browser. WYSIWYM is an alternative paradigm to WYSIWYG editors. Instead of focusing on the format or presentation of the document, it preserves the intended meaning of each element. For example, page headers, paragraphs, etc. are labeled as such in the editing program, displayed appropriately in the browser. A given HTML document will have an inconsistent appearance on various platforms and computers for several reasons: Different browsers and applications will render the same markup differently; the same page may display differently in Internet Explorer and Firefox on a high-resolution screen, but it will look different in the valid text-only Lynx browser. It needs to be rendered differently again on a PDA, an internet-enabled television and on a mobile phone.
Usability in a speech or braille browser, or via a screen-reader working with a conventional browser, will place demands on different aspects of the underlying HTML. All an author can do. Web browsers, like all computer software, have bugs, it is hopeless to try to design Web pages around all of the common browsers' current bugs: each time a new version of each browser comes out, a significant proportion of the World Wide Web would need re-coding to suit the new bugs and the new fixes. It is considered much wiser to design to standards, staying away from'bleeding edge' features until they settle down, wait for the browser developers to catch up to your pages, rather than the other way round. For instance, no one can argue that CSS is still'cutting edge' as there is now widespread support available in common browsers for all the major features if many WYSIWYG and other editors have not yet caught up. A single visual style can represent multiple semantic meanings Semantic meaning, derived from the underlying structure of the HTML document, is important for search engines and for various accessibility tools.
On paper we can tell from context and experience whether bold text represents a title, or emphasis, or something else. But it is difficult to convey this distinction in a WYSIWYG editor. Making a piece of text bold in a WYSIWYG editor is not sufficient to tell the reader *why* the text is bold - what the boldness represents semantically. Modern web sites are constructed in a way that makes WYSIWYG useful Modern web sites use a Content Management System or some other template processor-based means of constructing pages on the fly using content stored in a database. Individual pages are never stored in a filesystem as they may be designed and edited in a WYSIWYG editor, thus some form of abstracted template-based layout is inevitable, invalidating one of the main benefits of using a WYSIWYG editor. HTML is a structured markup language. There are certain rules on how HTML must be written if it is to conform to W3C standards for the World Wide Web. Following these rules means that web sites are accessible on all types and makes of computer, to able-bodied and people with disabilities, and
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can access. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are activated by a mouse click, keypress set or by touching the screen. Apart from text, the term "hypertext" is sometimes used to describe tables and other presentational content formats with integrated hyperlinks. Hypertext is one of the key underlying concepts of the World Wide Web, where Web pages are written in the Hypertext Markup Language; as implemented on the Web, hypertext enables the easy-to-use publication of information over the Internet.'Hypertext' is a recent coinage.'Hyper-' is used in the mathematical sense of extension and generality rather than the medical sense of'excessive'. There is no implication about size— a hypertext could contain only 500 words or so.'Hyper-' refers to structure and not size. The English prefix "hyper-" comes from the Greek prefix "ὑπερ-" and means "over" or "beyond".
It signifies the overcoming of the previous linear constraints of written text. The term "hypertext" is used where the term "hypermedia" might seem appropriate. In 1992, author Ted Nelson – who coined both terms in 1963 – wrote: By now the word "hypertext" has become accepted for branching and responding text, but the corresponding word "hypermedia", meaning complexes of branching and responding graphics and sound – as well as text – is much less used. Instead they use the strange term "interactive multimedia": this is four syllables longer, does not express the idea of extending hypertext. Hypertext documents can either be dynamic. Static hypertext can be used to cross-reference collections of data in documents, software applications, or books on CDs. A well-constructed system can incorporate other user-interface conventions, such as menus and command lines. Links used in a hypertext document replace the current piece of hypertext with the destination document. A lesser known feature is StretchText, which expands or contracts the content in place, thereby giving more control to the reader in determining the level of detail of the displayed document.
Some implementations support transclusion, where text or other content is included by reference and automatically rendered in place. Hypertext can be used to support complex and dynamic systems of linking and cross-referencing; the most famous implementation of hypertext is the World Wide Web, written in the final months of 1990 and released on the Internet in 1991. In 1941, Jorge Luis Borges published "The Garden of Forking Paths", a short story, considered an inspiration for the concept of hypertext. In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex. A Memex would hypothetically store - and record - content on reels of microfilm, using electric photocells to read coded symbols recorded next to individual microfilm frames while the reels spun at high speed, stopping on command; the coded symbols would enable the Memex to index and link content to create and follow associative trails. Because the Memex was never implemented and could only link content in a crude fashion — by creating chains of entire microfilm frames — the Memex is now regarded not only as a proto-hypertext device, but it is fundamental to the history of hypertext because it directly inspired the invention of hypertext by Ted Nelson and Douglas Engelbart.
In 1963, Ted Nelson coined the terms'hypertext' and'hypermedia' as part of a model he developed for creating and using linked content. He worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System in 1967 at Brown University. By 1976, its successor FRESS was used in a poetry class in which students could browse a hyperlinked set of poems and discussion by experts and other students, in what was arguably the world’s first online scholarly community which van Dam says "foreshadowed wikis and communal documents of all kinds". Ted Nelson said in the 1960s that he began implementation of a hypertext system he theorized, named Project Xanadu, but his first and incomplete public release was finished much in 1998. Douglas Engelbart independently began working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968. In December of that year, Engelbart demonstrated a'hypertext' interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos".
The first hypermedia application is considered to be the Aspen Movie Map, implemented in 1978. The Movie Map allowed users to arbitrarily choose which way they wished to drive in a virtual cityscape, in two seasons as well as 3-D polygons. In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system somewhat like a wiki but without hypertext punctuation, not invented until 1987; the early 1980s saw a number of experimental "hyperediting" functions in word processors and hypermedia programs, many of whose features and terminology were analogous to the World Wide Web. Guide, the first significant hypertext system for personal computers, was developed by Peter J. Brown at UKC in 1982. In 1980 Roberto Busa, an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the pioneers in the usage of
In computing, a hyperlink, or a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking or tapping. A hyperlink points to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks; the text, linked from is called anchor text. A software system, used for viewing and creating hypertext is a hypertext system, to create a hyperlink is to hyperlink. A user following hyperlinks is said to browse the hypertext; the document containing a hyperlink is known as its source document. For example, in an online reference work such as Wikipedia, or Google, many words and terms in the text are hyperlinked to definitions of those terms. Hyperlinks are used to implement reference mechanisms such as tables of contents, bibliographies, indexes and glossaries. In some hypertext hyperlinks can be bidirectional: they can be followed in two directions, so both ends act as anchors and as targets. More complex arrangements exist, such as many-to-many links; the effect of following a hyperlink may vary with the hypertext system and may sometimes depend on the link itself.
Another possibility is transclusion, for which the link target is a document fragment that replaces the link anchor within the source document. Not only persons browsing the document follow hyperlinks; these hyperlinks may be followed automatically by programs. A program that traverses the hypertext, following each hyperlink and gathering all the retrieved documents is known as a Web spider or crawler. An inline link displays remote content without the need for embedding the content; the remote content may be accessed without the user selecting the link. An inline link may display a modified version of the content; the full content is usually available on demand, as is the case with print publishing software – e.g. with an external link. This allows for smaller file sizes and quicker response to changes when the full linked content is not needed, as is the case when rearranging a page layout. An anchor hyperlink is a link bound to a portion of a document—generally text, though not necessarily. For instance, it may be a hot area in an image, a designated irregular part of an image.
One way to define it is by a list of coordinates. For example, a political map of Africa may have each country hyperlinked to further information about that country. A separate invisible hot area interface allows for swapping skins or labels within the linked hot areas without repetitive embedding of links in the various skin elements. A fat link or a "multi-tailed link" is a hyperlink. Tim Berners-Lee saw the possibility of using hyperlinks to link any information to any other information over the Internet. Hyperlinks were therefore integral to the creation of the World Wide Web. Web pages are written in the hypertext mark-up language HTML; this is what a hyperlink to the home page of the W3C organization could look like in HTML code: This HTML code consists of several tags: The hyperlink starts with an anchor opening tag <a, includes a hyperlink reference href="http://www.w3.org" to the URL for the page. The URL is followed by >. The words that follow identify; these words are underlined and colored.
The anchor closing tag terminates the hyperlink code. Webgraph is a graph, formed from web pages as hyperlinks, as directed edges; the W3C Recommendation called XLink describes hyperlinks that offer a far greater degree of functionality than those offered in HTML. These extended links can be multidirectional, linking from and between XML documents, it can describe simple links, which are unidirectional and therefore offer no more functionality than hyperlinks in HTML. While wikis may use HTML-type hyperlinks, the use of wiki markup, a set of lightweight markup languages for wikis, provides simplified syntax for linking pages within wiki environments—in other words, for creating wikilinks; the syntax and appearance of wikilinks may vary. Ward Cunningham's original wiki software, the WikiWikiWeb used CamelCase for this purpose. CamelCase was used in the early version of Wikipedia and is still used in some wikis, such as TiddlyWiki, PmWiki. A common markup syntax is the use of double square brackets around the term to be wikilinked.
For example, the input "" is converted by wiki software using this markup syntax to a link to a zebras article. Hyperlinks used in wikis are classified as follows: Internal wikilinks or intrawiki links lead to pages within the same wiki website. Interwiki links are simplified markup hyperlinks that lead to pages of other wikis that are associated with the first. External links lead to other webpages. Wikilinks are visibly distinct from other text, if an internal wikilink leads to a page th
Aspen Movie Map
The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA. The Aspen Movie Map enabled the user to take a virtual tour through the city of Colorado, it is an early example of a hypermedia system. A gyroscopic stabilizer with four 16mm stop-frame film cameras was mounted on top of a car with an encoder that triggered the cameras every ten feet; the distance was measured from an optical sensor attached to the hub of a bicycle wheel dragged behind the vehicle. The cameras were mounted in order to capture front and side views as the car made its way through the city. Filming took place daily between 2 p.m. to minimize lighting discrepancies. The car was driven down the center of every street in Aspen to enable registered match cuts; the film was assembled into a collection of discontinuous scenes and transferred to laserdisc, the analog-video precursor to modern digital optical disc storage technologies such as DVDs.
A database was made that correlated the layout of the video on the disc with the two-dimensional street plan. Thus linked, the user was able to choose an arbitrary path through the city; the interaction was controlled through a dynamically-generated menu overlaid on top of the video image: speed and viewing angle were modified by the selection of the appropriate icon through a touch-screen interface, harbinger of the ubiquitous interactive-video kiosk. Commands were sent from the client process handling the user input and overlay graphics to a server that accessed the database and controlled the laserdisc players. Another interface feature was the ability to touch any building in the current field of view, and, in a manner similar to the ISMAP feature of web browsers, jump to a façade of that building. Selected building contained additional data: e.g. interior shots, historical images, menus of restaurants, video interviews of city officials, etc. allowing the user to take a virtual tour through those buildings.
In a implementation, the metadata, in large part automatically extracted from the animation database, was encoded as a digital signal in the analog video. The data encoded in each frame contained all the necessary information to enable a full-featured surrogate-travel experience. Another feature of the system was a navigation map, overlaid above the horizon in the top of the frame. Additional features of the map interface included the ability to jump back and forth between correlated aerial photographic and cartoon renderings with routes and landmarks highlighted. Aspen was filmed in early winter; the user was able to in situ change seasons on demand while moving down the street or looking at a façade. A three-dimensional polygonal model of the city was generated, using the Quick and Dirty Animation System, which featured three-dimensional texture-mapping of the facades of landmark buildings, using an algorithm designed by Paul Heckbert; these computer-graphic images stored on the laserdisc, were correlated to the video, enabling the user to view an abstract rendering of the city in real time.
MIT undergraduate Peter Clay, with help from Bob Mohl and Michael Naimark, filmed the hallways of MIT with a camera mounted on a cart. The film was transferred to a laserdisc as part of a collection of projects being done at the Architecture Machine Group; the Aspen Movie Map was filmed in the fall of 1978, in winter 1979 and again in the fall of 1979. The first version was operational in early spring of 1979. Many people were involved in the production, most notably: Nicholas Negroponte and director of the Architecture Machine Group, who found support for the project from the Cybernetics Technology Office of DARPA; the Ramtek 9000 series image display system was used for this project. Ramtek created a 32 bit interface to the Interdata for this purpose. Ramtek supplied image display systems which supplied square displays (256x
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per