It is used to describe Russia, and has been used with other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and Iran. The United States is said to be an energy superpower because of its large shale gas reserves. Energy superpower status might be exercised, for example, by influencing the price on global markets. The status of energy superpower should not be confused with that of superpower, russias reserves of natural gas have helped give it the title of energy superpower. However, this status has been called into question by some, as Vladimir Milov, of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The energy superpower concept is an illusion with no basis in reality. Perhaps most dangerously, it doesn’t recognize the mutual dependence between Russia and energy consumers, because of political conflicts and declining production, future supply disruptions to Europe are likely. As a result, European gas companies may likely someday demand elimination of the conditions in their Russian contracts. This would threaten Gazprom’s ability to borrow, putin’s attempt to use energy to increase Russian influence could backfire in the long run.
According to Manik Talwani, a geophysicist at Rice University, there are two countries that are most likely to join Saudi Arabia in attaining the status of oil superpower and Canada. Citing their enormous potential reserves, Talwani believes that they have the reserves to become energy superpowers in the few decades as oil production declines elsewhere. However, as Talwani notes, both need US$100 billion or more to increase their production levels up to those of true energy superpowers, in 2007, al-Qaeda announced a new strategy for fighting the United States. Rather than only targeting U. S. interests directly in an attempt to cripple it, as reported after a failed 2006 attempt in Saudi Arabia, A major supply disruption would send energy prices soaring. Had the Abqaiq attack been successful – guards fired on cars driven by the bombers, a catastrophic hit could bring transportation and other parts of the U. S. and world economies to a standstill. Energy security Petroleum politics Swing producer World energy resources Category, Energy by country Category, Natural resource conflicts Category, Peak resource production
Collins English Dictionary
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English. It is published by HarperCollins in Glasgow, by the third edition, they increasingly used the Bank of English established by Hanks at COBUILD to provide typical definitions rather than examples composed by the lexicographer. The current edition is the 12th edition, which was published in October 2014, the previous edition was the 11th edition, which was published in October 2011. A special 30th Anniversary 10th edition was published in 2010, with editions published once every 3–4 years. The unabridged Collins English Dictionary was published on the web on 31 December 2011 on CollinsDictionary. com, along with the dictionaries of French, Spanish. The site includes example sentences showing word usage from the Collins Bank of English Corpus, word frequencies and trends from the Google Ngrams project and this followed an earlier launch of a discussion forum for neologisms in 2004. In May 2015, CollinsDictionary. com added 6500 new Scrabble words to their Collins Official Scrabble Wordlist, the words are based on terms related to and influenced by slang, social media, food and more.
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The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani, in many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilization. Persia influenced Roman culture considerably during the Sasanian period, the Sasanians cultural influence extended far beyond the empires territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art, much of what became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world. Conflicting accounts shroud the details of the fall of the Parthian Empire, the Sassanid Empire was established in Estakhr by Ardashir I. Papak was originally the ruler of a region called Khir, however, by the year 200, he managed to overthrow Gochihr, and appoint himself as the new ruler of the Bazrangids.
His mother, was the daughter of the governor of Pars. Papak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power all of Pars. The subsequent events are unclear, due to the nature of the sources. It is certain, that following the death of Papak, sources reveal that Shapur, leaving for a meeting with his brother, was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him. By the year 208, over the protests of his brothers who were put to death. Once Ardashir was appointed shahanshah, he moved his capital further to the south of Pars, the city, well supported by high mountains and easily defendable through narrow passes, became the center of Ardashirs efforts to gain more power. The city was surrounded by a high, circular wall, probably copied from that of Darabgird, in a second attempt to destroy Ardashir, Artabanus V himself met Ardashir in battle at Hormozgan, where Artabanus V met his death. Following the death of the Parthian ruler, Ardashir I went on to invade the provinces of the now defunct Parthian Empire.
Ardashir was aided by the geography of the province of Fars, in the next few years, local rebellions would form around the empire. Nonetheless, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Khorasan, Balkh and he added Bahrain and Mosul to Sassanids possessions. In the west, assaults against Hatra and Adiabene met with less success, in 230, he raided deep into Roman territory, and a Roman counter-offensive two years ended inconclusively, although the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, celebrated a triumph in Rome. Ardashir Is son Shapur I continued the expansion of the empire, conquering Bactria, invading Roman Mesopotamia, Shapur I captured Carrhae and Nisibis, but in 243 the Roman general Timesitheus defeated the Persians at Rhesaina and regained the lost territories
Council on Foreign Relations
The Council on Foreign Relations, founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U. S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an office in Washington. Its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, lawyers and senior media figures. The CFR meetings convene government officials, global leaders and prominent members of the intelligence. This academic band, including Wilsons closest adviser and long-time friend Colonel Edward M. House, as well as Walter Lippmann, met to assemble the strategy for the postwar world. The team produced more than 2,000 documents detailing and analyzing the political and their reports formed the basis for the Fourteen Points, which outlined Wilsons strategy for peace after wars end. These scholars traveled to the Paris Peace Conference,1919 and participated in the discussions there. ”The members were proponents of Wilsons internationalism, but were concerned about the effect that the war.
On July 29,1921 they filed a certification of incorporation and he gathered $125,000 from the wealthy members on the council, and via sending letters soliciting funds to the thousand richest Americans. In the late 1930s, the Ford Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation began contributing large amounts of money to the Council, the secrecy surrounding this group was such, that the Council members who were not involved in its deliberations were completely unaware of the study groups existence. It was divided into four functional groups and financial, security and armaments, territorial. The security and armaments group was headed by Allen Welsh Dulles who became a figure in the CIAs predecessor. The CFR ultimately produced 682 memoranda for the State Department, marked classified and circulated among the government departments. A critical study found that of 502 government officials surveyed from 1945 to 1972, during the Eisenhower administration 40% of the top U. S. foreign policy officials were CFR members, under Truman, 42% of the top posts were filled by council members.
During the Kennedy administration, this rose to 51%. In an anonymous piece called The Sources of Soviet Conduct that appeared in Foreign Affairs in 1947, the essay would prove to be highly influential in US foreign policy for seven upcoming presidential administrations. William Bundy credited the CFRs study groups with helping to lay the framework of thinking led to the Marshall Plan. Due to new interest in the group, membership grew towards 1,000, dwight D. Eisenhower chaired a CFR study group while he served as President of Columbia University. One member said, whatever General Eisenhower knows about economics, the CFR study group devised an expanded study group called Americans for Eisenhower to increase his chances for the presidency
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale. This is done through the combined-means of technological, cultural and economic strength, as well as international relations. Traditionally, superpowers are preeminent among the great powers, the term was first applied to the British Empire, the United States, and the Soviet Union. At the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, There have been many attempts by historians to apply the term superpower to a variety of past entities. However, since even the most powerful empires of old had little to no means to exert influence over very long distances, no agreed definition of what is a superpower exists, and may differ between sources. This was because the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union had proved themselves to be capable of casting great influence in global politics and military dominance.
The term in its current political meaning was coined by Dutch-American geostrategist Nicholas Spykman in a series of lectures in 1943 about the shape of a new post-war world order. A year later, in 1944, William T. R, according to him, there were three states that were superpowers, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union. According to Lyman Miller, The basic components of superpower stature may be measured along four axes of power, economic, although, many modifications may be made to this basic definition. According to Professor June Teufel Dreyer, A superpower must be able to project its power and hard, in his book, Three Choices for Americas Role in the World, Dr. There have been attempts by historians to apply the term superpower retrospectively. Recognition by historians of these states as superpowers may focus on various superlative traits exhibited by them. The two countries opposed each other ideologically, politically and economically, the Soviet Union promoted the ideology of communism, planned economy and a one-party state, whilst the United States promoted the ideologies of liberal democracy and the free market.
This was reflected in the Warsaw Pact and NATO military alliances and these alliances implied that these two nations were part of an emerging bipolar world, in contrast with a previously multipolar world. Additionally, much of the conflict between the superpowers was fought in wars, which more often than not involved issues more complex than the standard Cold War oppositions. After the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, the term began to be applied to the United States. This term, popularized by French foreign minister Hubert Védrine in the late 1990s, is controversial, one notable opponent to this theory, Samuel P. Huntington, rejects this theory in favor of a multipolar balance of power. In 1999, Samuel P. However, he rejected the claim that the world was unipolar, but that does not mean that the world is unipolar, describing it instead as a strange hybrid, a uni-multipolar system with one superpower and several major powers
The Tang dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a point in Chinese civilization. Its territory, acquired through the campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family, who seized power during the decline, the dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang conquered or subdued several regions which it controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang exerted a powerful influence over neighboring states such as those in Korea, Japan. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office.
This civil order was undermined by the rise of military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century. Chinese culture flourished and further matured during the Tang era, it is considered the greatest age for Chinese poetry. Two of Chinas most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, there was a rich variety of historical literature compiled by scholars, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works. The adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asias first simultaneous kingship, there were many notable innovations during the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became an influence in Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, Buddhism would be persecuted by the state, subsequently declining in influence, although the dynasty and central government were in decline by the 9th century and culture continued to flourish.
This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage, which includes the Tang poet Li Bai, the Tang Emperors had Xianbei maternal ancestry, from Emperor Gaozu of Tangs Xianbei mother Duchess Dugu. He had prestige and military experience, and was a first cousin of Emperor Yang of Sui, Li Yuan rose in rebellion in 617, along with his son and his equally militant daughter Princess Pingyang, who raised and commanded her own troops. In winter 617, Li Yuan occupied Changan, relegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, and acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Emperor Gong of Sui. On the news of Emperor Yangs murder by General Yuwen Huaji on June 18,618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang
The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power of its time and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets, the Spanish Empire originated during the Age of Discovery after the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Following the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded its last colonies in the Caribbean and its last African colonies were granted independence or abandoned during Decolonisation of Africa finishing in 1976. The unity did not mean uniformity, some historians assert that Portugal was part of the Spanish monarchy at the time, while others draw a clear distinction between the Portuguese and Spanish empires. During the 15th century and Portugal became territorial and commercial rivals in the western Atlantic. The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between 1478 and 1496, when the islands of Gran Canaria, La Palma, and Tenerife were subjugated. The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea, chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there.
Worthless trinkets, Moorish textiles, and above all, shells from the Canary and Cape Verde islands were exchanged for gold, slaves and Guinea pepper. The Crown officially organized this trade with Guinea, every caravel had to get a government license, the treaty delimited the spheres of influence of the two countries, establishing the principle of the Mare clausum. It was confirmed in 1481 by the Pope Sixtus IV, in the papal bull Æterni regis, the limitations imposed by the Alcáçovas treaty were overcome and a new and more balanced worlds division would be reached at Tordesillas between both emerging maritime powers. Seven months before the treaty of Alcaçovas, King John II of Aragon died and Isabella drove the last Moorish king out of Granada in 1492 after a ten-year war. The Catholic Monarchs negotiated with Christopher Columbus, a Genoese sailor attempting to reach Cipangu by sailing west, Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.
Columbus discoveries inaugurated the Spanish colonization of the Americas and these actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south, as well as the easternmost parts of Asia. The treaty of Tordesillas was confirmed by Pope Julius II in the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis on 24 January 1506, Spains expansion and colonization was driven by economic influences, a yearning to improve national prestige, and a desire to spread Catholicism into the New World. The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy, the Spanish princes married the heirs of Portugal and the House of Habsburg. Following the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Catalan-Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in 1494. As King of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king.
Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France and this war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarre