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Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. They are referred to as an over-reaction of the immune system and these reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized state of the host; the Gell and Coombs classification of hypersensitivity is the most used, distinguishes four types of immune response which result in bystander tissue damage. This is an additional type, sometimes used as a distinction from Type 2. Instead of binding to cell surfaces, the antibodies recognise and bind to the cell surface receptors, which either prevents the intended ligand binding with the receptor or mimics the effects of the ligand, thus impairing cell signaling; some clinical examples are: Graves' disease Myasthenia gravisThe use of Type 5 is rare. These conditions are more classified as Type 2, though sometimes they are segregated into their own subcategory of Type 2

Satan's Blade

Satan's Blade is a 1985 American slasher film directed by L. Scott Castillo, Jr, it follows two groups of people lodging at a mountain resort who are stalked by a mysterious killer linked to a supernatural entity in the mountains. Shot in 1980 in Big Bear, Satan's Blade was released on VHS in 1985, received Blu-ray releases by Olive Films in the United States in 2015, by Arrow Films in the United Kingdom in 2016. A pair of female bank robbers make off with $50,000, they lay low at a snowy mountain cabin resort while waiting to rendezvous with their partner, George. As they wait, one of the robbers shoots the other, she plans to do the same to George when he arrives, but she doesn't get the chance, as she's stabbed in the back by an unseen assailant while dragging her ex-partner's body. Ben, the local sheriff, another officer arrive at the cabin after gunfire is reported, discover the bodies; the next day, two married couples arrive at the resort to celebrate one of the men's graduation from law school and passing of the bar examination.

A group of college girls arrive with a friend whose father has died. Despite being told of the murders and a local legend about a murderous mountain man who comes from the bottom of a nearby lake, the college girls decide to take the cabin, right next door to where the married couples are staying. During the night, one of the young women has a nightmare of a man murdering her and everyone else; the following day, one of the college women, meets Tony on the lake, the two talk. Stephanie ends up spending the afternoon with Tony; that night, an unseen killer enters the girls' cabin and systematically stabs each of them to death. Stephanie returns to the cabin in the evening and discovers all of her friends have been murdered, she retreats to Tony and his friends' cabin, which the killer breaches, murdering everyone inside except for Stephanie, who hides under a bed. The following morning, she emerges from the cabin and meets Sheriff Ben, who embraces her before stabbing her in the stomach; when she asks him why, he admits that he wanted the money stowed in the cabin, that he didn't want to hurt anyone.

Stephanie flees back into the cabin, but Ben follows, chasing her up the staircase, where he tackles her to the floor and stabs her to death. Afterwards, Ben throws the knife in the lake. A hand emerges from the lake and throws the knife back out, the blade sticking in the side of a tree. A man hiking through the woods dislodges it from the tree bark. Satan's Blade took director Jr. years to finish and get released. The film was shot in California in the spring of 1980 over a period of 33 days. Satan's Blade was released on VHS in the United States by Prism Entertainment in October 1985. Diabolique Magazine stated that following the film's release, it "mostly existed as a forgotten relic of the VHS era."Olive Films released Satan's Blade on Blu-ray in the United States on May 12, 2015. This release of the film runs 82 minutes in length. In the United Kingdom, the film was submitted for approval by the British Board of Film Classification in 2016; this version approved by the BBFC was cut at 79 minutes.

There, it subsequently received a Blu-ray and DVD combination release from Arrow Films, which runs 83 minutes. In his book The Gorehound's Guide to Splatter Films of the 1980s, Scott Aaron Stine stated that "despite cut-rate acting, stilted dialogue, sometimes-tedious direction, Satan's Blade is engaging." His review concluded that the film was "pretty typical B-grade slasher fare though it's more representative of'70s horror than'80s fare." In Legacy of Blood: A Comprehensive Guide to Slasher Movies, Jim Harper notes: "Despite the promise of legendary creatures and supernatural goings-on, this is standard stalk'n'slash stuff, with plenty of point-of-view shots to obscure the killer's identity."Joe Yanick of Diabolique Magazine wrote: "Satan's Blade is entrenched in a genre of so-bad-their-good films and it's hard to see how many would flock to this movie without a heavy veneer of irony. This is where the film is the most charming, because the film's many failures work in the viewer's favors."

On a scale of 1 to 10, awarded the film a rating of 6/10. The reviewer noted the film's poor acting, audio and film quality. Otherwise, it is a good example of the genre and the time period."Hysteria Lives! Rated the film a negative 1.5 out of 5 stars, stating that although the film had its moments, it was a zero budget copy of the first two Friday the 13th films. Satan's Blade at AllMovie Satan's Blade on IMDb Satan's Blade at Rotten Tomatoes

Kerry Hickey

Kerry Arthur Hickey, a former Australian politician, was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly representing the electorate of Cessnock between 1999 and 2011 for the Labor Party. Prior to entering politics, Hickey was a metal fabricator prior to 1982 and subsequently he was a milk vendor. In 1981 he was elected as a Councillor of the City of Cessnock, he was Minister for Mineral Resources from April 2003 to August 2005, was Minister for Local Government between 2005 and 2007. On 7 November 2006, he admitted to having been fined four times in recent years for speeding: $590 in October 2006 for being more than 30 kilometres per hour over the limit $225 in August 2005 for being more than 15 kilometres per hour over the limit $127 in 2003 $118 in 2002The Premier, Morris Iemma resisted calls to sack him as result, he was quoted as saying: I'm disappointed that it happened. Like any other motorist, no one is above the law, whether you are a minister, a member of Parliament or a member of the general public.

He has apologised, I've accepted that. Is it a sackable offence? No, but I am disappointed that it has happened. He's suffering public humiliation as a result. In an interview with the Newcastle Herald, published on 10 July 2010, Hickey claimed that he was not the father of a child born in February 2009 to an unnamed parliamentary staff member. A month on further questioning by the media, Hickey admitted that he had lied about his relationship with the parliamentary staff member and admitted that the 18-month-old child was his. In a dramatic day of lying about his relationship, Hickey decided to resign, but after speaking with the Premier Kristina Keneally, he issued a statement stating that he would be seeking re-election. Hickey's initial claims were made in order to protect his family. Under mounting political and personal pressure, on 6 September 2010 Hickey announced his decision to not seek re-election at the 2011 state election, citing personal reasons. Speeches in Hansard by Kerry Hickey


A varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of veins drains blood from the testicles back to the heart; the vessels originate in the abdomen and course down through the inguinal canal as part of the spermatic cord on their way to the testis. Varicoceles occur in around 15% to 20% of all men; the incidence of varicocele increase with age. Varicocele might be noticed as soft lumps above the testicle and on the left side of the scrotum. Right-sided and bilateral varicocele does occur. Men with varicocele can feel symptoms of pain or heaviness in their scrotum. Large varicoceles present as plexus of veins and may be described as "bag of worms". Varicocele is sometimes discovered. There are three main theories as to the anatomical cause; the greatest concern with respect to varicocele is its effect on male fertility. The relationship between varicocele and infertility is unclear; some men with the condition are fertile, some have sperm that are normal in shape and move but are compromised in function, some have sperm with abnormal shapes or that do not move well.

Theories as to how varicocele affects sperm function include damage via excess heat caused by the blood pooling and oxidative stress on sperm. Tobacco smoking and mutations in the gene expressing glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 both put men at risk for infertility. Following discovery of the sign of swelling comprising a mass, varicocele can be confirmed with scrotal ultrasound, which will show dilation of the vessels of the pampiniform plexus to be greater than 2 mm; the two most common surgical approaches are infrainguinal/subinguinal and inguinal. Possible complications of this procedure include hematoma, infection, or injury to the scrotal tissue or structures. In addition, injury to the artery that supplies the testicle may occur, resulting in a loss of a testicle. Whether having varicocele surgery or embolization improves male fertility is controversial, as good clinical data are lacking. There is tentative evidence that varicocelectomy may improve fertility in those with obvious findings and abnormal sperm.

There are studies showing that the regular surgery has no significant effect on infertility. A 2012 Cochrane review found tentative but unclear evidence of improved fertility among males treated for varicocele. Evidence for sclerotherapy is unclear as of 2015. Around 15% to 20% of all adult males, up to 35% to 40% of men who are evaluated for male infertility, around 80% of men who are infertile due to some other cause, have varicocele

1997–98 South Pacific cyclone season

The 1997–98 South Pacific cyclone season was the most active South Pacific tropical cyclone season on record, with 16 tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season started earlier than normal with 3 systems developing before the official start of the season on November 1, 1997, while the final system of the season dissipated on May 3, 1998, after the season had ended on April 30. During the season 50 people died as a result of tropical cyclones, with the deadliest being Cyclone Martin with 27 known deaths; the strongest tropical cyclones during the season were Cyclone Ron and Cyclone Susan as both were estimated to have minimum pressures of 900 hPa, were the most intense tropical cyclones on record in the South Pacific Ocean until Cyclone Zoe in 2002–03. After the season ended, 11 names had their names either removed or retired from the lists of names, after they caused significant impacts to South Pacific islands. During the season, tropical cyclones were monitored by the Fiji Meteorological Service, New Zealand Met Service and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

The United States Armed Forces through the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center monitored the basin and issued warnings for American interests. During the season the FMS issued warnings and assigned names to any tropical cyclones that developed between the Equator and 25°S while MetService issued warnings for any that were located to the south of 25°S; the JTWC issued warnings for American interests on any significant tropical cyclone, located between 160°E and the 180° while the NPMOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between 180° and the American coast. The FMS and MetService estimated sustained wind speeds over a 10-minute and used the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, while the JTWC and the NPMOC estimated sustained wind speeds over a 1-minute period which are compared to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Ahead of the season starting on November 1, the Governor of American Samoa reported that traditionalists were forecasting a hurricane to affect American Samoa, during the season after the big breadfruit and mango harvest that the island nation had experienced.

The Cook Islands Meteorological Service and National Disasters Committee warned islanders that they could expect the "worst cyclone season in years." On November 27, New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, issued a press release, which predicted that because of the strong El Niño phenomenon, there would be more tropical cyclones than average. In particular they predicted that due to the strong El Niño, countries within the western part of the basin were to see fewer tropical cyclones during the season than countries within the eastern part of the basin; the Southern Cook Islands, Tonga and French Polynesia, were predicted to have an increased risk, while Fiji was forecast to have an average risk of being affected by a tropical cyclone. NIWA reported that Cyclone Martin's impact on the Northern Cook Islands was an early sign of what could be expected during the season, because the system had occurred further east than normal. In mid December the Cook Islands Meteorological Service director commented to the media that from now on, by the time cyclones reached Raro-Tonga would have lost their intensity, while a spokesperson for NIWA commented that holidaymakers heading for the Pacific had a little chance of running into a cyclone as the damaging core of the cyclone was expected to be over the ocean while some cyclones were expected to be weak.

It was noted that collectively the Pacific Islands Meteorological Services were bracing for up to 15 tropical cyclones during the season, compared to 12 during an average season. The 1997–98 season was one of the most active and longest South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons on record, with 16 tropical cyclones occurring within the South Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W; the season was characterised by a strong El Niño Event, which caused the South Pacific Convergence Zone, to move from its usual position near the Solomon Islands to the Northern Cook Islands. As a result, ten tropical cyclones formed to the east of the International Dateline, with seven of these tropical cyclones going on to affect French Polynesia. After the 1996-97 season had one of the latest ends to a season on record, the 1997-98 season started early with three tropical systems observed before the start of the season on November 1, 1997. Two other tropical systems, including the precursor tropical disturbance to Severe Tropical Cyclone Martin developed, before the official start of the season on November 1, 1997.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Martin impacted the Cook Islands and French Polynesia, where it caused significant damage and 28 deaths during the opening days of the season. Tropical Cyclone Nute was named on November 18, before it moved out of the basin as a Category 2 tropical cyclone during November 19. During the rest of November, several tropical disturbances developed along the South Pacific Convergence Zone, including the precursor system to Severe Tropical Cyclone Osea and Tropical Cyclone Pam. Osea was named Severe Tropical Cyclones Ron and Susan were both the strongest tropical cyclones of the season and were thought to be the strongest tropical cyclones in the region since Severe Tropical Cyclone Hina of the 1984-85 season. After the final warnings on Cyclone Tui were issued a weak circulation remained in the vicinity of Samoa for several days, before a westerly surge from the monsoon resulted in a tropical cyclone developing during February 1. However, due to uncertainties in the continuation of Tui after several other weak low-pressure areas had formed, the FMS dec

Gábor Kis

Gábor Kis is a Hungarian water polo player who plays for Szolnoki Vízilabda SC. He was a member of the Gold medal winning Hungary men's national water polo team at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Bp. Spartacus BVSC-Brendon Brendon-UPC-ZF-Eger TEVA-VasasPlaket ZF-Eger 2x Szolnoki Dózsa-KÖZGÉP Olympic Games: Gold medal - 2008 World Championships: Silver medal - 2007 European Championship: Silver medal - 2006. Junior World Championships: Youth European Championship: Champions League Winners: Hungarian Championship: 6x Hungarian Cup: 4x Szalay Iván-díj MVP in Hungarian SuperCup: Best Eger Player of the Year - UPC Award: Officer's Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary