SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is an application protocol for distributed, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web, where hypertext documents include hyperlinks to other resources that the user can access, for example by a mouse click or by tapping the screen in a web browser. Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989. Development of early HTTP Requests for Comments was a coordinated effort by the Internet Engineering Task Force and the World Wide Web Consortium, with work moving to the IETF. HTTP/1.1 was first documented in RFC 2068 in 1997. That specification was obsoleted by RFC 2616 in 1999, replaced by the RFC 7230 family of RFCs in 2014. HTTP/2 is a more efficient expression of HTTP's semantics "on the wire", was published in 2015. HTTP/3 is the proposed successor to HTTP/2, in use on the web, using UDP instead of TCP for the underlying transport protocol. Like HTTP/2, it does not obsolete previous major versions of the protocol.

Support for HTTP/3 was added to Cloudflare and Google Chrome in September 2019, can be enabled in the stable versions of Chrome and Firefox. HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client–server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server; the client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client; the response contains completion status information about the request and may contain requested content in its message body. A web browser is an example of a user agent. Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers, voice browsers, mobile apps, other software that accesses, consumes, or displays web content. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers.

High-traffic websites benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of upstream servers to improve response time. Web browsers cache accessed web resources and reuse them, when possible, to reduce network traffic. HTTP proxy servers at private network boundaries can facilitate communication for clients without a globally routable address, by relaying messages with external servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet protocol suite, its definition presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol, Transmission Control Protocol is used. However, HTTP can be adapted to use unreliable protocols such as the User Datagram Protocol, for example in HTTPU and Simple Service Discovery Protocol. HTTP resources are identified and located on the network by Uniform Resource Locators, using the Uniform Resource Identifiers schemes http and https. For example, including all optional components: userinfo host port ┌───────┴───────┐ ┌────┴────────┐ ┌┴┐ http://john.doe:password@www.example.com:123/forum/questions/?tag=networking&order=newest#top └─┬─┘ └───────────┬────────────────────────┘└─┬─────────────┘└────────┬──────────────────┘└┬─┘ scheme authority path query fragment As defined in RFC 3986, URIs are encoded as hyperlinks in HTML documents, so as to form interlinked hypertext documents.

HTTP/1.1 is a revision of the original HTTP. In HTTP/1.0 a separate connection to the same server is made for every resource request. HTTP/1.1 can reuse a connection multiple times to download images, stylesheets, etc after the page has been delivered. HTTP/1.1 communications therefore experience less latency as the establishment of TCP connections presents considerable overhead. The term hypertext was coined by Ted Nelson in 1965 in the Xanadu Project, in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's 1930s vision of the microfilm-based information retrieval and management "memex" system described in his 1945 essay "As We May Think". Tim Berners-Lee and his team at CERN are credited with inventing the original HTTP, along with HTML and the associated technology for a web server and a text-based web browser. Berners-Lee first proposed the "WorldWideWeb" project in 1989—now known as the World Wide Web; the first version of the protocol had only one method, namely GET, which would request a page from a server.

The response from the server was always an HTML page. The first documented version of HTTP was HTTP V0.9. Dave Raggett led the HTTP Working Group in 1995 and wanted to expand the protocol with extended operations, extended negotiation, richer meta-information, tied with a security protocol which became more efficient by adding additional methods and header fields. RFC 1945 introduced and recognized HTTP V1.0 in 1996. The HTTP WG planned to publish new standards in December 1995 and the support for pre-standard HTTP/1.1 based on the developing RFC 2068 was adopted by the major browser developers in early 1996. End-user adoption of the new browsers was rapid. In March 1996, one web hosting company reported that over 40% of browsers in use on the Internet were HTTP 1.1 compliant. That same web hosting company reported that by June 1996, 65% of all browsers accessing their servers were HTTP/1.1 compliant. The H

José Inácio Candido de Loyola

José Inácio Candido de Loyola, popularly known as Fanchu Loyola, was, in the words of Charles Borges,'Goa’s foremost nationalist'. He is noted for his journalism and political activism in support of human rights and democracy, anti-colonialism, Goan independence. Born in the home of his maternal grandparents, he was the son of Avertano Loyola and Maria Angelica Conceicão Gomes, who were prominent in the Partido Indiano, a political party associated with the Chardó caste, his uncle José Inácio de Loyola was a lawyer, owner of A Índia Portuguesa, a fierce critic of Portuguese colonialism in India. At the time of Fanchu Loyola's birth both his father and uncle were in exile in British India, not returning to Goa until September 1891. In 1917 Fanchu Loyola married Amy Amelia D'Souza, daughter of Thomas D'Souza and herself educated. Fanchu Loyola edited and founded various newspapers, among them the Jornal da India, though these tended to be suppressed by the government; when the Jornal da India, for example, was suspended in 1913 by Governor-General of Portuguese India, Francisco Manuel Couceiro da Costa, Loyola published an open letter to the Governor-General criticising the inhibition of his freedom of speech entitled Cara Politíca and proceeded to found the new Rebate.

In 1926, Loyola was the strategist behind the election of Prazeres da Costa to the Superior Council of Colonies. Among his writings and speeches, he became noted for his speech'Basta', a pro-democracy and anti-colonial speech given on 25 November 1932. In the 1930s, Loyola moved to Bombay. While inspector of village communities, in 1927, he undertook agricultural experiments in Carambolim, wrote extensively on the possibilities for Goa's economic development. On 11 October 1946 was arrested, sentenced to four years' imprisonment and the removal of his political rights for fifteen years, deported to Fort Peniche until his early and conditional release on 12 January 1947, he remained in Portugal until 1958, but after Goa's conquest by India returned to Portugal:'Disillusioned and too old to take up the fight, he returned to Lisbon to live in isolation and mourn the loss of his beloved Goa'. He died in Portugal in 1973. Many of Loyala's writings are available in English translation: Goa’s Foremost Nationalist José Inácio Candido de Loyola: The Man and his Writings, ed. by Charles Borges, trans. by Lino Leitão José Inácio Candido de Loyola and Unrestrained, trans. by Alexandre Moniz Barbosa

Yellow-billed tit-tyrant

The yellow-billed tit-tyrant is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland. The yellow-billed tit-tyrant's genus, Anairetes, is believed to be most related to the genera Mecocerculus and Serpophaga. Members of the genus Anairetes are known as tit-tyrants because their active foraging behavior and crests are reminiscent of the true tits in the family Paridae. Del Hoyo, Josep. Handbook of the Birds of the World. 9. Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Barcelona: Lynx Editions