click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia known as overheating, is a condition where an individual's body temperature is elevated beyond normal due to failed thermoregulation. The person's body absorbs more heat than it dissipates; when extreme temperature elevation occurs, it becomes a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment to prevent disability or death. Half a million deaths are recorded every year from hyperthermia. Ten times more than those record from hypothermia; the most common causes include heat stroke and adverse reactions to drugs. Heat stroke is an acute temperature elevation caused by exposure to excessive heat, or combination of heat and humidity, that overwhelms the heat-regulating mechanisms of the body; the latter is a rare side effect of many drugs those that affect the central nervous system. Malignant hyperthermia is a rare complication of some types of general anesthesia. Hyperthermia differs from fever; the opposite is hypothermia, which occurs when the temperature drops below that required to maintain normal metabolism.

The term is from Greek ὑπέρ, meaning "above" or "over", θέρμος, meaning "hot". In humans, hyperthermia is defined as a temperature greater than 37.5–38.3 °C, depending on the reference used, that occurs without a change in the body's temperature set point. The normal human body temperature can be as high as 37.7 °C in the late afternoon. Hyperthermia requires an elevation from the temperature; such elevations range from mild to extreme. An early stage of hyperthermia can be "heat exhaustion", whose symptoms can include heavy sweating, rapid breathing and a fast, weak pulse. If the condition progresses to heat stroke hot, dry skin is typical as blood vessels dilate in an attempt to increase heat loss. An inability to cool the body through perspiration may cause the skin to feel dry. Hyperthermia from neurological disease may include little or no sweating, lack of heart rate change, confusion or delirium. Other signs and symptoms vary. Accompanying dehydration can produce nausea, vomiting and low blood pressure and the latter can lead to fainting or dizziness if the standing position is assumed quickly.

In severe heat stroke, they may be confused, hostile, or intoxicated behavior. Heart rate and respiration rate will increase as blood pressure drops and the heart attempts to maintain adequate circulation; the decrease in blood pressure can cause blood vessels to contract reflexively, resulting in a pale or bluish skin color in advanced cases. Young children, in particular, may have seizures. Organ failure and death will result. Heat stroke occurs when thermoregulation is overwhelmed by a combination of excessive metabolic production of heat, excessive environmental heat, insufficient or impaired heat loss, resulting in an abnormally high body temperature. In severe cases, temperatures can exceed 40 °C. Heat stroke may be exertional. Significant physical exertion in hot conditions can generate heat beyond the ability to cool, because, in addition to the heat, humidity of the environment may reduce the efficiency of the body's normal cooling mechanisms. Human heat-loss mechanisms are limited to sweating and vasodilation of skin vessels.

Other factors, such as insufficient water intake, consuming alcohol, or lack of air conditioning, can worsen the problem. The increase in body temperature that results from a breakdown in thermoregulation affects the body biochemically. Enzymes involved in metabolic pathways within the body such as cellular respiration fail to work at higher temperatures, further increases can lead them to denature, reducing their ability to catalyse essential chemical reactions; this loss of enzymatic control affects the functioning of major organs with high energy demands such as the heart and brain. Situational heat stroke occurs in the absence of exertion, it affects the young and elderly. In the elderly in particular, it can be precipitated by medications that reduce vasodilation and sweating, such as anticholinergic drugs and diuretics. In this situation, the body's tolerance for high environmental temperature may be insufficient at rest. Heat waves are followed by a rise in the death rate, these'classical hyperthermia' deaths involve the elderly and infirm.

This is because thermoregulation involves cardiovascular and renal systems which may be inadequate for the additional stress because of the existing burden of aging and disease, further compromised by medications. During the July 1995 heat wave in Chicago, there were at least 700 heat-related deaths; the strongest risk factors were being confined to bed, living alone, while the risk was reduced for those with working air conditioners and those with access to transportation. Reported deaths may be underestimates as diagnosis can be misclassified as stroke or heart attack; some drugs cause excessive internal heat production. The rate of drug-induced hyperthermia is higher. Many psychotropic medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, can cause hyperthermia. Ser

AB Doradus

AB Doradus is a pre-main-sequence quadruple star system in the constellation Dorado. The primary is a flare star; the primary star in this system spins at a rate 50 times that of the Sun, has a strong magnetic field. It has a greater number of star spots than the Sun; these can cause the luminosity of the star to appear to vary over each orbital cycle. Measurements of the spin rate of this star at its equator have shown that it varies over time due to the effect of this magnetic field; the system has four components consisting of a pair of binary star systems separated by an angle of about 9″. The binary star AB Doradus Ba/Bb orbits the primary AB Doradus A at an average distance of 135 astronomical units. AB Doradus C, is a close-in companion that orbits the primary at a distance of 2.3 AU, has an orbital period of 11.75 years. The latter star is among the lowest-mass stars found. At an estimated mass 93 times Jupiter's, it is near the limit of 75–83 Jupiter masses below which it would be classified as a brown dwarf.

This system is a member of the eponymous AB Doradus Moving Group, a loose stellar association of about 30 stars that are all the same age and moving in the same general direction. It is that all of these stars formed in the same giant molecular cloud. Http://jumk.de/astronomie/special-stars/ab-doradus.shtml "Detecting Extra-solar Planets"

Sara Ware Bassett

Sara Ware Bassett was an American author of fiction and nonfiction. Her novels deal with New England characters, most of them are set in two fictional Cape Cod villages she created and Wilton, her first novel, Mrs. Christy's Bridge Party, was published in 1907, she subsequently wrote more than 40 additional novels, continuing to write and publish into the late 1950s. Many of her novels focus on humorously eccentric characters. A number of her works are available as free e-books. Two of her novels, The Taming of Zenas Henry and The Harbor Road, were adapted as the motion pictures Captain Hurricane and Danger Ahead. For much of her life, Bassett divided her time between homes in Cape Cod and Princeton, Massachusetts, she taught kindergarten in the public schools of Newton, Massachusetts. Her educational books include: The Story of Lumber The Story of Wool The Story of Leather The Story of Glass The Story of Sugar The Story of Porcelain Paul and the Printing Press Steve and the Steam Engine Ted and the Telephone Walter and the Wireless Carl and the Cotton Gin Her novels include: The Taming of Zenas Henry The Harbor Road The Wayfarers at the Angels The Wall Between Flood Tide Twin Lights Granite and Clay The Green Dolphin Inn White Sail South Cove Summer Works by Sara Ware Bassett at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sara Ware Bassett at Internet Archive Works by Sara Ware Bassett at LibriVox Works by Sara Ware Bassett listed at The Online Books Page Full text digitized works by Sara Ware Bassett from the Ball State University Digital Media Repository Sara Ware Bassett on IMDb

War finance

War finance is a branch of defense economics. The power of a military depends on its economic base and without this financial support, soldiers will not be paid and equipment cannot be manufactured and food cannot be bought. Hence, victory in war involves not only success on the battlefield but the economic power and economic stability of a state. War finance covers a wide variety of financial measures including fiscal and monetary initiatives used in order to fund the costly expenditure of a war; such measures can be broadly classified into three main categories: levy of taxes - Taxation raising of debts - Borrowing creation of fresh money supply - InflationThus these measures may include levy of specific taxation and enlarging the scope of existing taxation, raising of compulsory and voluntary loans from the public, arranging loans from foreign sovereign states or financial institutions, the creation of money by the government or the central banking authority. Throughout the history of human civilization, from ancient times until the modern era and wars have always involved the raising of resources and war finance has since remained, in some form or the other, a major part of any defense economy plan.

For example, economics played a key role in the Roman Empire. The brutal wars between the Roman empire and the Carthage proved to be costly so much that Rome ran out of money altogether at one stage; the Roman economy during this period were a pre-industrial economy which meant the majority of workers up to 80% of them were involved in the area of agriculture. All the taxes that would be collected by the government were spent on the military operations which turned out to be about 80% of the entire budget in c. 150. Due to the huge financial burden that the maintenance of the military operations would have on the economy, techniques were thought up to help solve the burden. One such technique was the process of debasing the coinage; this was used in many countries that used coins from precious metals and they would debase the coins. This however didn't last long as inflation started to increase. Various governments in charge attempted to curb the high cost of inflation through new reforms but some of their attempts just got worse with the increasing bureaucracy that the government had to maintain as well as the huge amounts spent on welfare payments to the growing population worse.

Loot and plunder - or at least the prospect of such - may play a role in war economies. This involves the taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory and was used as a significant source of a revenue for the victorious state. During the first World War when the Germans occupied the Belgians, the Belgian factories were forced to produce goods for the German effort or dismantled their machinery and took it back to Germany – along with thousands and thousands of Belgian slave factory workers. Except from the productivity point of view, the different finance methods have various effects. For the taxation method of financing, we can focus on the political point of view; as people know that increasing the taxation would make them poorer, enables them to consume and invest less, they won't be willing to pay such taxes. As a consequence, if the population is tax averse, increase its level might increase the anti-war sentiment of people. Moreover, it confiscates the capital of the population.

During World War 1, The United States and Great Britain, one quarter of the costs were covered by taxation while in Austria, the contribution of taxation towards the expenditure was zero. As a consequence, if the population is tax averse, increase its level might increase the anti-war sentiment of people. Moreover, it confiscates the capital of the population; the British government felt that they were an exception to this general rule and they saw their wealth and financial stability as one of their strongest warfighting assets. The income tax was therefore increased from 5.8% in 1913 to just over 30% in 5 years in 1918. The threshold was reduced in order for millions more people to be liable to pay the income tax. For the government another possible solution to finance war was for the government to increase its debt, it could thus transfer the war costs to future generations. The government can issued bonds that are bought by creditors the Central Banks; the sacrifices are as a result differed, the government would need in the future to pay it back with some interests.

There are many examples in war history, referred to as War bond. The economic consequences of this method of finance is less direct for the population, but important; the interests paid can be seen as pure wealth redistribution. Moreover, an accumulation of debt, too important, can affect the economy of a country, through its ability of refunding its debt, it can alter the confidence of people in the country's economy. For the government another solution to finance war is for the government to increase its debt; when the Great War began, the majority of countries assumed that the war would be short in the eyes of the most powerful ally countries United States, Great Britain and France. They saw no need to raise taxes, it turned out however that it came at an extraordinary financial expense and as such thought it was best to pay for it by borrowing money and could thus transfer the war costs to future generations. The government can issue bonds that are bought by creditors the Central Banks; the sacrifices are as a result differed, the government would need in the future to pay it back with some interests.

There are many examples in war history, referred to as War bond. The economic consequences of this metho

Distillery District

The Distillery District is a commercial and residential district in Toronto, Canada. Located east of downtown, it contains numerous cafés, shops housed within heritage buildings of the former Gooderham and Worts Distillery; the 13 acres district comprises more than forty heritage buildings and ten streets, is the largest collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America. The district was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1988; the Gooderham and Worts Distillery was founded in 1832. Once providing over 2 million US gallons of whisky for export on the world market, the company was bought out in years by rival Hiram Walker Co. another large Canadian distiller. Its location on the side of the Canadian National Railway mainline and its proximity to the mouth of the original route of the Don River outlet into Lake Ontario created a hard edge which separated the district from neighbouring communities; these did, allow for a facilitated transport connection to the rest of Canada and the world and acted as Toronto's domination as an industrial centre or transshipping hub.

With the deindustrialization of the surrounding area in the late 20th century, the winding-down of the distillery operations, the district was left derelict. Surrounding industrial and commercial buildings and structures were demolished, leaving the former distillery surrounded by empty lots. Nonetheless, the closing of the remaining distillery operations in 1990 created redevelopment and investment opportunities for a district that contained the largest and best preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America; the Distillery District was designated as a National Historic Site, has been protected under the Ontario Heritage Act since 1976. It was listed by National Geographic magazine as a "top pick" in Canada for travellers; the economic recession of the early 1990s, the resulting crash in residential condominium prices and office lease rates in downtown Toronto, delayed efforts to revitalize the district. Nonetheless, two residential condominium buildings were constructed on the periphery of the district during the late 1990s.

While the site awaited redevelopment and reinvestment, the district's ambiance began to attract numerous film shoots. Since 1990, the site has served as a location for over 800 television productions. In 2001, the site was purchased by Cityscape Holdings Inc. which transformed the district into a pedestrian-orientated area. Work was completed and the district reopened to the public by 2003; the new owners refused to lease any of the retail and restaurant space to chains or franchises, accordingly, the majority of the buildings are occupied with boutiques, art galleries, jewellery stores, cafés, coffeehouses, including a well-known microbrewery, the Mill Street Brewery. The upper floors of a number of buildings have been leased to artists as studio spaces and to office tenants with a "creative focus". A new theatre, the Young Centre for the Performing Arts, has opened on the site and serves as the home of the Soulpepper Theatre Company and the George Brown Theatre School. There are plans to develop residential condominiums and more retail space on the vacant lands that surround the district.

New condominium developments will be located at the south-east corner of the neighbourhood, bordering on Cherry Street and Tank House Lane. The Pan American Games' Athletes' Village was built in the area in 2015, in conjunction with an extension to the streetcar network constructed along Cherry Street. After the games, the athletes village was converted to townhouses, affordable housing, retail space; the Toronto Christmas Market is an annual outdoor tradition run within the Distillery District, for last year it was open from November 15 - December 23, 2018. It is turned into a magical'town-like' area covered with twinkly lights, in the center of the market is a 54 ft Christmas tree; the market includes "Santa's house", an Indigo pop-up shop, pet photos with Santa, a Ferris wheel and themed entertainment each day. There are multiple food vendors and dining locations that are popular tourist attractions such as French Canadian Poutine, the Gingerbread House, Maple Leaf Fudge, Mill Street Brewery, more.

In 2017, Canadian singer Shawn Mendes and American model Hailey Baldwin attended the Toronto Christmas Market. The Distillery District's traditional brick-paved streets and lanes are restricted to pedestrians and cyclists, with general motor vehicle traffic restricted to streets and parking areas outside of the district's historic centre. Several large sculptures installed along the lanes enliven its streetscapes, three being on Distillery Lane and the final one at the parking area at the end of Trinity Street. Another primary landmark is the chimney stack atop the Boiler House complex. There are informal public spaces on the pedestrianized streets with chairs and tables for general use, as well as formal patios for some of its coffee houses and restaurants. Trinity Street is the widest street in the district and functions as a public square for events such as market days; the main thoroughfares within the district are Distillery Lane from Parliament Street running southeast to Trinity Street, Trinity Street from Mill Street at its north end to the motor vehicle parking area at its south end, Tank House Lane from Trinity Street east to Cherry Street.

The four borders of the Distillery District are Parliament Street to the west, Mill Street to the north, Cherry Street to the east, the parking area to the south with the condominiums along Distillery Lane forming hard edges to pedestrians. The Distillery District can be

Ben Gardane Airfield

Ben Gardane Airfield is an abandoned World War II military airfield in Tunisia, located near Bin Qirdan. It was a temporary airfield built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, used by the United States Army Air Force Ninth Air Force during the Tunisian Campaign, it was used by the 57th Fighter Group, which flew P-40 Warhawks from the airfield between 9–21 March 1943 during the British Eighth Army's advance into Tunisia from Libya, to which the 57th was attached. It was used to land spitfires from the 601st squadron RAF; when the Americans moved out at the end of April 1943, the airfield was abandoned. Today the airfield's precise location is undetermined, as agricultural fields have obliterated its existence; this article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1983. ISBN 0-89201-092-4. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II.

Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556