Corps de logis
Corps de logis is an architectural term referring to the principal block of a large, usually classical, mansion or palace. It contains the rooms, state apartments and an entry. The grandest and finest rooms are often on the first floor above the ground level, the corps de logis is usually flanked by lower secondary wings. When the secondary wings form a three sided courtyard, the courtyard is known as the Cour dHonneur, examples of a corps de logis can be found in many of the most notable Classical Era buildings of Europe including the Palace of Versailles, Blenheim Palace and the Palazzo Pitti. In France, the block of medieval castles and manor houses is often referred to as the corps de logis
Whitehall (Annapolis, Maryland)
Whitehall is a plantation house that was built beginning in 1764 near Annapolis in Anne Arundel County in the Province of Maryland by Provincial Governor Horatio Sharpe. When Whitehall was built, Maryland was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain, the house is located about 7.5 miles to the east of Annapolis on a peninsula between Whitehall Creek and Meredith Creek, opposite Sharpes Point on a branch of Chesapeake Bay. The site originally comprised about 1,000 acres, the house is a five-part Georgian mansion of great length, only one room deep in the main section. It features elaborate interior woodwork, attributed to William Buckland. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960, the original pavilion, gardens and entrance court of this 1, 000-acre estate were designed and built under Sharpes supervision. The house was built by Horatio Sharpe for his intended bride, unfortunately for Sharpe, the daughter of Samuel Ogle shattered his plans and married his secretary and close friend, John Ridout.
The central portion of the house is believed to have completed in 1765 as a pavilion for entertaining guests brought by boat from Annapolis. Work continued to add wings on either side until 1769, when it became Sharpes residence following his removal from office, Sharpe left Maryland for England in 1773 and did not return. He died in London in 1790, the American Revolution prevented Sharpes return and so he instructed his friend John Ridout to sell Whitehall. Benjamin Ogle purchased the house from Ridout and two days resold the house to Ridout for the same sum, Whitehall remained in the Ridout family for one-hundred-and-sixteen years. In 1895, the widow of General William G. Story acquired Whitehall, upon her death in 1912, the house passed to her son, John P. Story. He sold Whitehall to St. Johns College of Annapolis, from St. Johns, ownership of the house passed to the Henderson family and to the Scarlett family. The home is privately owned. Whitehall was restored by Charles Scarlett, Jr. in the early 20th century down to its 1787 appearance and has remained preserved in that manor to this day.
Whitehall is an unusually long one-story five-part Flemish bond brick building and it was designed by Joseph Horatio Anderson, who designed the third Maryland State House. The “full temple portico” on the portion of the house. The main house comprises a main pavilion of three rooms, flanked by narrow relatively long hyphens that connect to the east and west end pavilions, giving a five-part elevation facing south. On the north side the ground away, revealing a full basement story beneath the main house
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio. That which is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladios original concepts, Palladios work was strongly based on the symmetry and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the 17th century Palladios interpretation of classical architecture was adapted as the style known as Palladianism. It continued to develop until the end of the 18th century, Palladianism became popular briefly in Britain during the mid-17th century, but its flowering was cut short by the onset of the Civil War and the imposition of austerity which followed. In the early 18th century it returned to fashion, not only in England but also, the style continued to be popular in Europe throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, where it was frequently employed in the design of public and municipal buildings.
However, as a style it has continued to be popular and to evolve, its pediments, symmetry. Buildings entirely designed by Palladio are all in Venice and the Veneto, with an especially rich grouping of palazzi in Vicenza and they include villas, and churches such as Redentore in Venice. Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting, if on a hill, such as Villa Capra, facades were frequently designed to be of equal value so that occupants could have fine views in all directions. Also, in cases, porticos were built on all sides so that occupants could fully appreciate the countryside while being protected from the sun. Palladio sometimes used a loggia as an alternative to the portico and this can most simply be described as a recessed portico, or an internal single storey room, with pierced walls that are open to the elements. Occasionally a loggia would be placed at floor level over the top of a loggia below. Loggias were sometimes given significance in a facade by being surmounted by a pediment, Villa Godi has as its focal point a loggia rather than a portico, plus loggias terminating each end of the main building.
Palladio would often model his villa elevations on Roman temple facades, the temple influence, often in a cruciform design, became a trademark of his work. Palladian villas are built with three floors, a rusticated basement or ground floor, containing the service and minor rooms. The proportions of each room within the villa were calculated on simple mathematical ratios like 3,4 and 4,5, earlier architects had used these formulas for balancing a single symmetrical facade, Palladios designs related to the whole, usually square, villa. Palladio deeply considered the purpose of his villas as both farmhouses and palatial weekend retreats for wealthy merchant owners. These symmetrical temple-like houses often have symmetrical, but low, wings sweeping away from them to accommodate horses, farm animals. The wings, sometimes detached and connected to the villa by colonnades, were designed not only to be functional but to complement, the Palladian, Serlian, or Venetian window features largely in Palladios work and is almost a trademark of his early career
In architecture a pavilion has several meanings. In architectural terminology it refers to a building that is either positioned separately or as an attachment to a main building. Often its function makes it an object of pleasure, such configurations provide an emphatic visual termination to the composition of a large building, akin to bookends. Pavilions may be small outbuildings, similar to a summer house or a kiosk, small rooms on the roof of a large house. These were particularly popular up to the 18th century and can be equated to the Italian casina and these often resembled small classical temples and follies. Especially if there is space for food preparation, they may be called a banqueting house. A pavilion built to take advantage of a view may be referred to as a gazebo, bandstands in a park are a class of pavilion. A pool house by a swimming pool may have sufficient character, a sports pavilion is usually a building adjacent to a sports ground used for changing clothes and often partaking of refreshments.
Often it has a verandah to provide protection from the sun for spectators, in cricket grounds, as at Lords, a cricket pavilion tends to be used for the building the players emerge from and return to, even when this is actually a large building including a grandstand. Externally, pavilions may be emphasised by any combination of a change in height, colour, internally they may be part of a rectangular block, or only connected to the main block by a thin section of building. The two 18th-century English country houses of Houghton Hall and Holkham Hall, illustrate these different approaches in turn, in the Place des Vosges, twin pavilions mark the centers of the north and south sides of the square. They are named the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon de la Reine though no royal personage ever lived in the square, with their triple archways, they function like gatehouses that give access to the privileged space of the square. French gatehouses had been built in the form of such pavilions in the preceding century, in some areas, a pavilion is a term for a hunting lodge.
The Pavillon de Galon in Luberon, France is a typical 18th century aristocratic hunting pavilion, the pavilion, located on the site of an old Roman villa, includes a garden à la française, which was used by the guests for receptions. Notes Media related to Pavilions at Wikimedia Commons