In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th
Hypholoma brunneum is a species of mushroom in the family Strophariaceae. It was described in 1899 by George Edward Massee as Flammula brunnea. Derek Reid transferred it to the genus Hypholoma in 1954. Hypholoma brunneum in Index Fungorum
The Strophariaceae are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales. Under an older classification, the family covered 18 genera and 1316 species; the species of Strophariaceae have red-brown to dark brown spore prints, while the spores themselves are smooth and have an apical germ pore. These agarics are characterized by having a cutis-type pileipellis. Ecologically, all species in this group are saprotrophs, growing on various kinds of decaying organic matter; the family was circumscribed in 1946 by Alexander H. Smith; the genus Stropharia consists of medium to large agarics with a distinct membranous annulus. Spore-print color is medium to dark purple-brown, except for a few species with rusty-brown spores. There is a great deal of variation, since this group, as presently delimited, is polyphyletic. Members of the core clade of Stropharia are characterized by crystalline acanthocytes among the hyphae that make up the rhizoids at the base of the mushroom; the genus Hypholoma is a saprobe on wood and grows in caespitose clusters.
Spore print varies from medium brown to purple brown. These species all share a subcutaneous layer of inflated cells; the genus Pholiota is characterized by a dull brown to cinnamon brown spore print. A well-known edible species is the Japanese nameko mushroom. A secotioid form of Pholiota was recognized as a distinct genus, Nivatogastrium; the genus Psilocybe is well known for its psychedelic mushrooms and used to be classified in the Strophariaceae, but is now separated from the nonhallucinogenic species that remain in the family under the name Deconica. Psilocybe is now phylogenetically classified in the Hymenogastraceae; the genus Deconica consists of species of agarics classified as nonhallucinogenic Psilocybe and of species called Melanotus. List of Agaricales families MushroomExpert.com - Taxonomy in Transition: The Strophariaceae MushroomExpert.com - Stropharia and Psilocybe MushroomExpert.com - The Genus Hypholoma
Mycelial cords are linear aggregations of parallel-oriented hyphae. The mature cords are composed of empty vessel hyphae surrounded by narrower sheathing hyphae. Cords may look similar to plant roots, frequently have similar functions. Mycelial cords are capable of conducting nutrients over long distances. For instance, they can transfer nutrients to a developing fruiting body, or enable wood-rotting fungi to grow through soil from an established food base in search of new food sources. For parasitic fungi, they can help spread infection by growing from established clusters to uninfected parts; the cords of some wood-rotting fungi may be capable of penetrating masonry. The mechanism of the cord formation is not yet understood. Mathematical models suggest that some fields or gradients of signalling chemicals, parallel to the cord axis, may be involved. Rhizomorphs can grow up to 5 mm in diameter. Rhizomorphs are a special morphological adaptation; these root-like structures are composed of parallel-oriented hyphae that can be found in several species of wood-decay and ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete as well as ascomycete fungi.
Rhizomorphs can facilitate the colonization of some dry-rot fungi such as Serpula lacrymans and Meruliporia incrassata and cause damage to homes in Europe and North America by decaying wood. Another genus, well studied for their abundance of rhizomorphs production is Armillaria, with some species being pathogens and others saprotrophs of trees and shrubs. Known for their role in facilitating the spread and colonization of fungi in the environment, rhizomorphs are the most complex organs produced by fungi, they are made up of specialized hyphae that are different in size and function. Fungi that possess these structures can grow in harsh conditions. Rhizomorphs are sometimes called mycelial cords. While rhizomorphs are more complex organs that have apically dominant growth tips. Water-resistant can transport oxygen. Rhizomorphs and mycelial cords both function in nutrient transport, water absorption and colonization of substrates; the development of rhizomorphs begins with a submerged thallus that produces mycelium that when deprived of nutrients and exposed to increasing oxygen, morphogenesis occurs giving rise to pseudo or microsclerotia, which precede rhizomorph development.
Concentrations of oxygen play an important role in the production of rhizomorphs. When there is a high concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere, soil moisture, temperature and pH, rhizomorph production increases. Rhizomorphs contain four differentiated types of tissues 1) The outer layers are a compact growing point that make up the mucilage 2) The melanized wall that serves as protection against colonization by another microorganisms 3)The medulla that serves for conduction of water and dissolves nutrients 4) The central line used as an air conducting channel. Rhizomorphs can be of a cylindrical or flat type, melanized or unmelanized, respectively; the flat unmelanized type is more common under the bark of trees and the cylindrical melanized rhizomorph can be found in the root systems of trees. For example, species of Armillaria form melanized rhizomorphs in nature with the exception of Desarmillaria tabescens which produces unmelanized rhizomorphs in culture. Rhizomorphs act as a system of underground absorption and growth structures that invade and decay roots and wood.
They can access places where food resources are not available, giving certain advantages to the fungi that produce them in terms of competition. They act as an extension of the fungal body and allow the fungus to infect and survive for long periods of time. Rhizomorphs are composed of a medulla and central line which are responsible for water and gas transportation; the transportation of oxygen occurs from the base of rhizomorphs to the terminal growing part. Rhizomorphs that live under free oxygen conditions are able to transport nutrients; the genus Armillaria is a well-studied and distributed mushroom-forming genus with rhizomorph production abundant in most species. One of the more common morphological characteristics for the genus is the presence of an annulus, a ring-like structure in the stem of the fruiting body with exception of the species Desarmillaria tabescens This species is known to produce unmelanized rhizomorphs in-vitro, but it does not produce them in nature. In a controlled environment study with high levels of oxygen and saturated soil moisture content, Desarmillaria species produces melanized rhizomorphs However, these two conditions are difficult to find in the climate of today and could explain the lack of melanized rhizomorphs in nature and could be a carryover from previous evolutionary periods.
Rhizomorph traits can be found in all species of the Armillaria as well as other fungi but it appears that the most diverged species are adapted to form melanized rhizomorphs. Melanin in rhizomorphs are known for the absorption of metal ions from the soil and can be found in different structures such as spores and cell walls of fungi among others. Functions of melanin include protecting against UV radiation and moisture stress, thus melanin production aids in longevity and survival of rhizomorphs in the soil
Hypholoma capnoides is an edible mushroom in the family Strophariaceae. Like its poisonous or suspect relatives H. fasciculare and H. sublateritium grows on decaying wood, for example in tufts on old tree stumps. Anyone thinking to eat this mushroom needs to be able to distinguish it from sulphur tuft, more common in many areas. H. capnoides has greyish gills due to the dark color of its spores, whereas sulphur tuft has greenish gills. It could perhaps be confused with the deadly Galerina marginata or the good edible Kuehneromyces mutabilis. Cap: Up to 6 cm in diameter with yellow-to-orange-brownish or matt yellow colour. Gills: Initially pale orangish-yellow, pale grey when mature darker purple/brown. Spore powder: Dark burgundy/brown. Stipe: Yellowish, somewhat rust-brown below. Taste: Mild. Taken from the German page
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya within the kingdom Fungi. More Basidiomycota includes these groups: mushrooms, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, jelly fungi, chanterelles, earth stars, bunts, mirror yeasts, the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus. Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that bear external meiospores; these specialized spores are called basidiospores. However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in exclusively. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually can be recognized as members of this division by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature, cell wall components, definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data; the most recent classification adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla and two other class level taxa outside of these, among the Basidiomycota.
As now classified, the subphyla join and cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups commonly used to describe Basidiomycota. According to a 2008 estimate, Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla 16 classes, 52 orders, 177 families, 1,589 genera, 31,515 species. Traditionally, the Basidiomycota were divided into two classes, now obsolete: Homobasidiomycetes, including true mushrooms Heterobasidiomycetes, including the jelly and smut fungiPreviously the entire Basidiomycota were called Basidiomycetes, an invalid class level name coined in 1959 as a counterpart to the Ascomycetes, when neither of these taxa were recognized as divisions; the terms basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are used loosely to refer to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. They are abbreviated to "basidios" and "ascos" as mycological slang; the Agaricomycotina include what had been called the Hymenomycetes, the Gasteromycetes, as well as most of the jelly fungi. The three classes in the Agaricomycotina are the Agaricomycetes, the Dacrymycetes, the Tremellomycetes.
The class Wallemiomycetes is not yet placed in a subdivision, but recent genomic evidence suggests that it is a sister group of Agaricomycotina. The Pucciniomycotina include the rust fungi, the insect parasitic/symbiotic genus Septobasidium, a former group of smut fungi, a mixture of odd, infrequently seen, or recognized fungi parasitic on plants; the eight classes in the Pucciniomycotina are Agaricostilbomycetes, Atractiellomycetes, Classiculomycetes, Cryptomycocolacomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes and Pucciniomycetes. The Ustilaginomycotina are most of the Exobasidiales; the classes of the Ustilaginomycotina are the Exobasidiomycetes, the Entorrhizomycetes, the Ustilaginomycetes. Unlike animals and plants which have recognizable male and female counterparts, Basidiomycota tend to have mutually indistinguishable, compatible haploids which are mycelia being composed of filamentous hyphae. Haploid Basidiomycota mycelia fuse via plasmogamy and the compatible nuclei migrate into each other's mycelia and pair up with the resident nuclei.
Karyogamy is delayed, called a dikaryon. The hyphae are said to be dikaryotic. Conversely, the haploid mycelia are called monokaryons; the dikaryotic mycelium is more vigorous than the individual monokaryotic mycelia, proceeds to take over the substrate in which they are growing. The dikaryons can be decades, or centuries; the monokaryons are neither female. They have either a tetrapolar mating system; this results in the fact that following meiosis, the resulting haploid basidiospores and resultant monokaryons, have nuclei that are compatible with 50% or 25% of their sister basidiospores because the mating genes must differ for them to be compatible. However, there are sometimes more than two possible alleles for a given locus, in such species, depending on the specifics, over 90% of monokaryons could be compatible with each other; the maintenance of the dikaryotic status in dikaryons in many Basidiomycota is facilitated by the formation of clamp connections that physically appear to help coordinate and re-establish pairs of compatible nuclei following synchronous mitotic nuclear divisions.
Variations are multiple. In a typical Basidiomycota lifecycle the long lasting dikaryons periodically produce basidia, the specialized club-shaped end cells, in which a pair of compatible nuclei fuse to form a diploid cell. Meiosis follows shortly with the production of 4 haploid nuclei that migrate into 4 external apical basidiospores. Variations occur, however; the basidiospores are ballistic, hence they are sometimes called ballistospores. In most species, the basidiospores disperse and each
Elias Magnus Fries
Elias Magnus Fries FRS FRSE FLS RAS was a Swedish mycologist and botanist. Fries was born at the son of the pastor there, he attended school in Wexiö. He acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants from his father. In 1811 Fries entered Lund University where he obtained a doctorate in 1814. In the same year he was appointed an associate professorship in botany, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in 1824, became a full professor. In 1834 he became Borgström professor in applied economics at Uppsala University; the position was changed to "professor of botany and applied economics" in 1851. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849; that year he was appointed director of the Uppsala University Botanical Garden. In 1853, he became rector of the University. Fries most important works were the three-volume Systema mycologicum, Elenchus fungorum, the two-volume Monographia hymenomycetum Sueciae and Hymenomycetes Europaei.
Fries is considered to be, after Christian Hendrik Persoon, a founding father of the modern taxonomy of mushrooms. His taxonomy of mushrooms was influenced by the German romantics, he utilized spore arrangement of the hymenophore as major taxonomic characteristics. He died in Uppsala on 8 February 1878; when he died, The Times commented: "His numerous works on fungi and lichens, give him a position as regards those groups of plants only comparable to that of Linnaeus". Fries was succeeded in the Borgström professorship by John Erhard Areschoug, after whom Theodor Magnus Fries, the son of Elias, held the chair. Monographia Pyrenomycetum Sueciae Systema Mycologicum Systema Orbis Vegetabilis Elenchus Fungorem Lichenographia Europaea Reformata Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici: seu synopsis hymenomycetum His son was Theodor Magnus Fries. "Elias Magnus Fries", Authors of fungal names, the Journal of Wild Mushrooming. Web site of the Descendants of Elias Fries Association "Fries, Elias Magnus". New International Encyclopedia.