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Hypochlorous acid

Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid that forms when chlorine dissolves in water, itself dissociates, forming hypochlorite, ClO−. HClO and ClO− are oxidizers, the primary disinfection agents of chlorine solutions. HClO cannot be isolated from these solutions due to rapid equilibration with its precursor. Sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite, are bleaches and disinfectants. Hypochlorous acid was discovered in 1834 by the French chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard by adding, to a flask of chlorine gas, a dilute suspension of mercury oxide in water, he named the acid and its compounds. In organic synthesis, HClO converts alkenes to chlorohydrins. In biology, hypochlorous acid is generated in activated neutrophils by myeloperoxidase-mediated peroxidation of chloride ions, contributes to the destruction of bacteria. In the cosmetics industry it is used on the skin, it is used in baby products. In food service and water distribution, specialized equipment to generate weak solutions of HClO from water and salt is sometimes used to generate adequate quantities of safe disinfectant to treat food preparation surfaces and water supplies.

In water treatment, hypochlorous acid is the active sanitizer in hypochlorite-based products. In ships and yachts, marine sanitation devices use electricity to convert seawater into hypochlorous acid to disinfect macerated faecal waste before discharge into the sea. Addition of chlorine to water gives both hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid: Cl2 + H2O ⇌ HClO + HCl Cl2 + 4 OH− ⇌ 2 ClO− + 2 H2O + 2 e− Cl2 + 2 e− ⇌ 2 Cl−When acids are added to aqueous salts of hypochlorous acid, the resultant reaction is driven to the left, chlorine gas is formed. Thus, the formation of stable hypochlorite bleaches is facilitated by dissolving chlorine gas into basic water solutions, such as sodium hydroxide; the acid can be prepared by dissolving dichlorine monoxide in water. One of the best-known hypochlorites is the active ingredient in bleach. HOCl is a stronger oxidant than chlorine under standard conditions. 2 HClO + 2 H+ + 2 e− ⇌ Cl2 + 2 H2O E = +1.63 VHClO reacts with HCl to form chlorine gas: HOCl + HCl → H2O + Cl2HOCl reacts with ammonia to form monochloramine: NH3 + HOCl → NH2Cl + H2OHOCl can react with organic amines, forming N-chloroamines.

Hypochlorous acid reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, fatty acid groups and proteins. Knox et al. First noted that HClO is a sulfhydryl inhibitor that, in sufficient quantity, could inactivate proteins containing sulfhydryl groups; this is because HClO oxidises sulfhydryl groups, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds that can result in crosslinking of proteins. The HClO mechanism of sulfhydryl oxidation is similar to that of monochloramine, may only be bacteriostatic, because once the residual chlorine is dissipated, some sulfhydryl function can be restored. One sulfhydryl-containing amino acid can scavenge up to four molecules of HOCl. Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group; the first reaction yields sulfenic acid sulfinic acid and R–SO3H. Sulfenic acids form disulfides with another protein sulfhydryl group, causing cross-linking and aggregation of proteins.

Sulfinic acid and R–SO3H derivatives are produced only at high molar excesses of HClO, disulfides are formed at bacteriocidal levels. Disulfide bonds can be oxidized by HClO to sulfinic acid; because the oxidation of sulfhydryls and disulfides evolves hydrochloric acid, this process results in the depletion HClO. Hypochlorous acid reacts with amino acids that have amino group side-chains, with the chlorine from HClO displacing a hydrogen, resulting in an organic chloramine. Chlorinated amino acids decompose, but protein chloramines are longer-lived and retain some oxidative capacity. Thomas et al. concluded from their results that most organic chloramines decayed by internal rearrangement and that fewer available NH2 groups promoted attack on the peptide bond, resulting in cleavage of the protein. McKenna and Davies found that greater HClO is necessary to fragment proteins in vivo. Consistent with these results, it was proposed that the chloramine undergoes a molecular rearrangement, releasing HCl and ammonia to form an aldehyde.

The aldehyde group can further react with another amino group to form a Schiff base, causing cross-linking and aggregation of proteins. Hypochlorous acid reacts with DNA and RNA as well as all nucleotides in vitro. GMP is the most reactive because HClO reacts with both the heterocyclic NH group and the amino group. In similar manner, TMP with only a heterocyclic NH group, reactive with HClO is the second-most reactive. AMP and CMP, which have only a reactive amino group, are less reactive with HClO. UMP has been reported to be reactive only at a slow rate; the heterocyclic NH groups are more reactive than amino group

Marone family

The Marone Family is a family in the CBS Daytime soap opera The Bold and the Beautiful. They are and have been involved in running the fashion house Forrester Creations but the core of their business interests is the ownership and management of the international shipping company Marone Industries. Massimo Marone IV Patriarch of the Marone family. Founder and former Chairman and CEO of Marone Industries, an international shipping company. Father of Ridge Forrester, Dominick Marone and Diana Carter. Ridge Forrester Son of Massimo and Stephanie Forrester but raised by his mother's husband Eric Forrester. Father to Thomas, Phoebe and Ridge Forrester Jr.. Former Vice Chairman of Marone Industries, he is co-owner and co-CEO of Forrester Creations. Dominick "Nick" Marone Son of Massimo Marone and Jackie Marone, he is the father of Jack Marone. Former sea captain and partner in Jackie M Designs, former owner and CEO of Forrester Creations, former CEO of Marone Industries. Diana Carter Daughter of Massimo Marone and Sheila Carter.

Thomas Forrester Son of Ridge and Taylor Hamilton. Brother to Steffy Forrester and Phoebe Forrester, half-brother to Ridge Forrester Jr. CEO of Forrester Creations and working at Forrester International. Father of Douglas Forrester. Steffy Forrester Daughter of Ridge and Taylor Hamilton. Twin sister of Phoebe Forrester. Sister to Thomas Forrester and half-sister to Ridge Forrester Jr.. Mother of Kelly Spencer, she is a co-CEO of Forrester Creations. Phoebe Forrester Daughter of Ridge and Taylor Hamilton. Twin sister of Steffy Forrester, she was stalked by Shane McGrath and pursued a relationship with Rick Forrester. She died in December 2008 in a terrible car wreck driven by Rick. Ridge "RJ" Forrester Jr. Son of Ridge and Brooke Logan. Thought to be Nick's son, which set off a war between brothers Ridge and Nick. Jack Marone Son of Nick and Brooke Logan. Carried by Taylor Hamilton via in vitro fertilization. Nicole MaroneDaughter of Nick and Bridget Forrester, stillborn in 2006. Douglas Forrester Son of Thomas and Caroline Spencer.

Caroline was married to Ridge. They kept up the pretense. Caroline didn't want to reveal Douglas' paternity, but Ridge gave Douglas to Thomas, letting them be a family. Kelly Spencer Daughter of Steffy and Liam Spencer, born June 4, 2018. Jacqueline Payne Marone - Massimo's wife. Caroline Spencer Sr. - Ridge's wife. Taylor Hayes - Ridge's wife. Brooke Logan - Ridge's wife. Bridget Forrester - Nick's wife. Gabriela Moreno - Thomas' wife. Liam Spencer - Steffy's husband. Caroline Spencer - Ridge's wife. Wyatt Spencer - Steffy's husband. Hope Logan - Thomas's wife. Marone Industries is an international shipping company, founded by Massimo Marone who ran it with an iron fist for decades and Marone Industries became known as a conservative company; when it was revealed that Ridge Forrester was Massimo's son Ridge became Vice Chairman of the Marone Industries and added fashion house Spectra Fashions as a subsidiary but Massimo sold it back to Sally Spectra. Ridge returned to Forrester Creations but remained on the Marone board until Massimo's other son Dominick Marone became more involved with the company.

Nick double crossed his father and forced the Marone board to remove Massimo as CEO and make him the new CEO. Nick used Marone Industries to buy Forrester Creations but after it was revealed that Nick's mother and Massimo's ex-wife Jacqueline Payne Marone was a prostitute the Marone board fired Nick as CEO but did sell him Forrester Creations. Nick sold his stock in Marone Industries to board member George Septolino, who took over as CEO. Marone Industries has interests in industries other than shipping, it was revealed that this includes banking and real estate when Massimo was able to check the bank account records of Mark Maclaine to prove that Stephanie bribed him to help her fake a heart attack in order to break up Ridge's marriage to Brooke. Mark Maclaine revealed. Massimo is still a major shareholder in Marone Industries, it is not known to what extent Ridge has in the company but as Massimo's eldest son, chosen heir in Massimo's will, former Vice Chairman Ridge is thought to have some association with Marone Industries.

Massimo Marone George Septolino Ridge Forrester Nick Marone


KaʼKabish is an archaeological site in the Orange Walk District of Belize, Central America, located near the Maya sites of Lamanai, El Pozito, Blue Creek. It was once a moderate sized city, built as part of the Maya civilization, has been determined to have been autonomous throughout its history; the modern communities of Indian Church and San Filipe are in close proximity to KaʼKabish, the Mennonite community of Blue Creek is further afield. A road connecting Indian Church to San Filipe separates the site into two areas, the North Complex and the South Complex. Alfredo Barrera Vasquez's Diccionario Maya defines the name as. KaʼKabish is believed to have been occupied during the Maya Late Pre-Classic Period with one temple securely dated to this time and a second tentatively dated to this period. Material recovered from the tops of some of the buildings suggest that the city was in use at least until end of the Classic Period, while evidence from the residential zone surrounding the city indicates a thriving occupation as late as the end of the Early Post-Classic Period.

The site has only become the focus of intensive investigation. A mid-1990s study of the site core revealed a total of 27 monumental structures arranged around two plazas, a subsequent study increased the number of structures to 55. Within several of these structures the looted remains of tombs belonging to high status royal individuals, were discovered. One of these tombs was found to have possessed painted glyphs; the style is part of a tradition of painted tombs first noted at Rio Azul in Northern Guatemala. KaʼKabish was first visited by David M. Pendergast of the Royal Ontario Museum while he was working at the nearby site of Lamanai, although the lack of a reliable road made work at the site unfeasible at that time. What was noted at the time was the evidence of wholesale illicit excavations, in which every structure had been looted; the site was identified for potential study in 1990 by members of the Maya Research Program. Due to dangerous conditions in the area, a team did not return to KaʼKabish until 1995, when formative mapping and surveying of the site was conducted.

Dr. Helen R. Haines began establishing the groundwork for the KaʼKabish Archaeological Research Project in 2005, with the permission of Belize's Institute of Archeology, a branch of the National Institute of Culture and History. KARP's first field season was 2007, with a focus on clearing vegetation from, remapping, the site's South Complex; the North Complex of the site was remapped in 2009. Since its inception, the KaʼKabish Archaeological Research Project has expended efforts on mapping the site to gain an understanding of the extent of the site and the types of buildings present. Knowledge of the architectural arrangements provides significant clues as to the importance of the site and the role it might have played in the larger Maya political landscape. Under a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, first excavations at KaʼKabish began in 2010 and have continued in the intervening years, with excavation seasons in 2011, 2013, 2015; as of 2013, survey and excavations have located 90 structures, located in 8 groups.

Architectural features include two major temples, a ball court with circular ball court marker, several large platforms that served as royal or high status elite residences and/or administrative structures. Research has been conducted on the numerous chultuns located at KaʼKabish; the site sustained damage during the construction of the Indian Church to San Filipe Road, two buildings were removed and their limestone material used for road fill for the road. Looting has been a problem, several structures have been destabilized through looter's trenches; until 2015, the land on which the site is located was administered by the San Filipe Land Committee, was owned by three different landowners. Though the owners were supportive of archaeological research, KaʼKabish was in danger due to encroaching agricultural expansion; this prompted an attempt to purchase the land and, under the auspices of NICH, establish KaʼKabish as a National Park. A fundraising campaign raised $20,030 CND of a needed $70,000 CND, providing enough money to make a down payment on the site in July 2015.

The funds for the campaign were managed by Trent University, the land was removed from the Agricultural Land Registry. In 2013, field school credit for college archaeological students began being offered via Trent University. Students participating in the field school stay in the village of Indian Church during their time with the project. KaʼKabish Archaeological Research Project KaʼKabish Project Twitter Account KaʼKabish Indiegogo Campaign


AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power is an international, grassroots political group working to end the AIDS pandemic. The group works to improve the lives of people with AIDS through direct action, medical research and advocacy, working to change legislation and public policies. ACT UP was formed in Gay Community Services Center in New York City. Larry Kramer was asked to speak as part of a rotating speaker series, his well-attended speech focused on action to fight AIDS. Kramer spoke out against the current state of the Gay Men's Health Crisis, which he perceived as politically impotent. Kramer had co-founded the GMHC but had resigned from its board of directors in 1983. According to Douglas Crimp, Kramer posed a question to the audience: "Do we want to start a new organization devoted to political action?" The answer was "a resounding yes". 300 people met two days to form ACT UP. At the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, in October 1987, ACT UP New York made their debut on the national stage, as an active and visible presence in both the march, the main rally, at the civil disobedience at the United States Supreme Court Building the following day.

Inspired by this new approach to radical, direct action, other participants in these events returned home to multiple cities and formed local ACT UP chapters in Boston, Los Angeles, Rhode Island, San Francisco, Washington, D. C. and other locations, first around the United States, internationally. The following chronological accounts of New York ACT UP actions are drawn from Douglas Crimp's history of ACT UP, the ACT UP Oral History Project, the online Capsule History of ACT UP, New York. On March 24, 1987, 250 ACT UP members demonstrated at Wall Street and Broadway to demand greater access to experimental AIDS drugs and for a coordinated national policy to fight the disease. An Op/Ed article by Larry Kramer published in The New York Times the previous day described some of the issues ACT UP was concerned with. Seventeen ACT UP members were arrested during this civil disobedience. On March 24, 1988, ACT UP returned to Wall Street for a larger demonstration in which over 100 people were arrested.

On September 14, 1989, seven ACT UP members infiltrated the New York Stock Exchange and chained themselves to the VIP balcony to protest the high price of the only approved AIDS drug, AZT. The group displayed a banner that read, "SELL WELLCOME" referring to the pharmaceutical sponsor of AZT, Burroughs Wellcome, which had set a price of $10,000 per patient per year for the drug, well out of reach of nearly all HIV positive persons. Several days following this demonstration, Burroughs Wellcome lowered the price of AZT to $6,400 per patient per year. ACT UP held their next action at the New York City General Post Office on the night of April 15, 1987, to an audience of people filing last minute tax returns; this event marked the beginning of the conflation of ACT UP with the Silence=Death Project, which created a poster consisting of a right side up pink triangle on a black background with the text "SILENCE = DEATH". Douglas Crimp said this demonstration showed the "media savvy" of ACT UP because the television media "routinely do stories about down-to-the-wire tax return filers".

As such, ACT UP was guaranteed media coverage. In January 1988, Cosmopolitan magazine published an article by Robert E. Gould, a psychiatrist, entitled "Reassuring News About AIDS: A Doctor Tells Why You May Not Be At Risk." The main contention of the article was that in unprotected vaginal sex between a man and a woman who both had "healthy genitals" the risk of HIV transmission was negligible if the male partner was infected. Women from ACT UP, having informal "dyke dinners" met with Dr. Gould in person, questioning him about several misleading facts and questionable journalistic methods, demanded a retraction and apology; when he refused, in the words of Maria Maggenti, they decided that they "had to shut down Cosmo." According to those who were involved in organizing the action, it was significant in that it was the first time the women in ACT UP organized separately from the main body of the group. Additionally, filming the action itself, the preparation and the aftermath were all consciously planned and resulted in a video short directed by Jean Carlomusto and Maria Maggenti, titled, "Doctor and Women: AIDS Activists Say No To Cosmo."

The action consisted of 150 activists protesting in front of the Hearst building chanting "Say no to Cosmo!" and holding signs with slogans such as "Yes, the Cosmo Girl CAN get AIDS!" Although the action did not result in any arrests, it brought significant television media attention to the controversy surrounding the article. Phil Donahue, a local talk show called "People Are Talking" all hosted discussions of the article. On the latter, two women, Chris Norwood and Denise Ribble took the stage after the host, Richard Bey, cut Norwood off during an exchange about whether heterosexual women are at risk from AIDS. Footage from all of these media appearances was edited into "Doctors and Women." Cosmopolitan issued a partial retraction of the contents of the article. Following their participation in the Cosmopolitan protest, ACT UP's Women's Caucus targeted the Center for Disease Control for its narrow definition of what constituted HIV/AIDS. While causes of HIV transmission, like unprotected va

German submarine U-3519

German submarine U-3519 was a Type XXI U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The Elektroboote submarine was laid down on 19 September 1944 at the Schichau-Werke yard at Danzig, launched on 23 November 1944, commissioned on 6 January 1945 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Richard von Harpe. U-3519 was a brand new, high technology electric boat which could run submerged rather than having to surface to recharge her batteries every day the way submarines until that point had had to do. However, these advanced vessels were introduced to the Kriegsmarine only late in 1944, much too late to influence the Battle of the Atlantic, too late for many of them to serve in an offensive capacity at all. With the end of the war near, training on U-boats had dropped to a minimum due to lack of fuel, falling morale and the effectiveness of allied attacks on U-boat construction and preparation; the exception to this were the new Type XXI boats. To prevent this, the Royal Air Force dropped thousands of sea mines into German territorial waters, in the hope that submarines entering or leaving harbour or training in shallow waters would be lost on them.

This is what destroyed U-3519 on 2 March 1945, when she ran afoul of an air-dropped mine near Warnemünde, in position 54°11′N 12°05′E and sank to the bottom taking all 65 of her crew with her. Like all Type XXI U-boats, U-3519 had a displacement of 1,621 tonnes when at the surface and 1,819 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 76.70 m, a beam length of 8 m, a draught length of 6.32 m. The submarine was powered by two MAN SE supercharged six-cylinder M6V40/46KBB diesel engines each providing 4,000 metric horsepower, two Siemens-Schuckert GU365/30 double-acting electric motors each providing 5,000 PS, two Siemens-Schuckert silent running GV232/28 electric motors each providing 226 PS; the submarine had a submerged speed of 17.2 knots. When running on silent motors the boat could operate at a speed of 6.1 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate at 5 knots for 340 nautical miles. U-3519 was fitted with six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes in four 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. She could carry seventeen torpedoes and twelve mines.

The complement was fifty-two men. Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type XXI boat U-3519". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 6 December 2014

Gael Linn Cup 1962

The 1962 Gael Linn Cup, the most important representative competition for elite level participants in the women's team field sport of camogie, was won by Leinster, who defeated Ulster in the final, played at Casement Park Belfast. Ulster defeated Connacht 2–9 to 3–4 at Carrickmacross. Leinster defeated Munster 7–3 to 5–5 in one of the best matches of the year. Referee Kathleen Griffin played 20 minutes in the second half of the final at Casement Park instead of the regulation 25 minutes, with the score standing at Leinster 7–2, Ulster 5–3. A hastily convened meeting of the Central Council members who were present allowed the result to stand and a subsequent Ulster appeal was rejected. Agnes Hourigan wrote in the Irish Press: Miss Griffin stated that she had played, by here reckoning, the full 25 minutes of the second half, the Central Council members present confirmed Leinster as champions. |} Camogie Association