Hypocrisy is the contrivance of a false appearance of virtue or goodness, while concealing real character traits or inclinations with respect to religious and moral beliefs. Hypocrisy is the practice of engaging in the same behavior or activity for which one criticizes another. In moral psychology, it is the failure to follow one's own expressed moral principles. According to British political philosopher David Runciman, "Other kinds of hypocritical deception include claims to knowledge that one lacks, claims to a consistency that one cannot sustain, claims to a loyalty that one does not possess, claims to an identity that one does not hold". American political journalist Michael Gerson says that political hypocrisy is "the conscious use of a mask to fool the public and gain political benefit". Hypocrisy has been a subject of folk wisdom and wisdom literature from the beginnings of human history. Since the 1980s, it has become central to studies in behavioral economics, cognitive science, cultural psychology, decision making, evolutionary psychology, moral psychology, political sociology, positive psychology, social psychology, sociological social psychology.
The word hypocrisy comes from the Greek ὑπόκρισις, which means "jealous", "play-acting", "acting out", "coward" or "dissembling". The word hypocrite is from the Greek word ὑποκριτής, the agentive noun associated with ὑποκρίνομαι because the performance of a dramatic text by an actor was to involve a degree of interpretation, or assessment. Alternatively, the word is an amalgam of the Greek prefix hypo-, meaning "under", the verb krinein, meaning "to sift or decide", thus the original meaning implied a deficiency in the ability to decide. This deficiency, as it pertains to one's own beliefs and feelings, informs the word's contemporary meaning. Whereas hypokrisis applied to any sort of public performance, hypokrites was a technical term for a stage actor and was not considered an appropriate role for a public figure. In Athens during the 4th century BC, for example, the great orator Demosthenes ridiculed his rival Aeschines, a successful actor before taking up politics, as a hypocrites whose skill at impersonating characters on stage made him an untrustworthy politician.
This negative view of the hypokrites combined with the Roman disdain for actors shaded into the neutral hypokrisis. It is this sense of hypokrisis as "play-acting", i.e. the assumption of a counterfeit persona, that gives the modern word hypocrisy its negative connotation. American historian Martin Jay in The Virtues of Mendacity: On Lying in Politics explores how writers over the centuries have treated hypocrisy, flattery and cheating, false pretenses, living on borrowed glory, conventions of concealment, playacting before others and the arts of dissimulation, he assumes that politics is worthwhile, but since it is unavoidably linked to lying and hypocrisy, Jay concludes that lying must not be all that bad. Hypocrisy became a major topic in English political history in the early 18th century; the Toleration Act of 1689 allowed for certain rights, but it left Protestant nonconformists deprived of important rights, including that of office-holding. Nonconformists who wanted office ostentatiously took the Anglican sacrament once a year in order to avoid the restrictions.
High Church Anglicans were outraged and outlawed what they called "occasional conformity" in 1711 with the Occasional Conformity Act 1711. In the political controversies using sermons and pamphlet wars, both high churchmen and Nonconformists attacked their opponents as insincere and hypocritical, as well as dangerously zealous, in contrast to their own moderation; this campaign of moderation versus zealotry, peaked in 1709 during the impeachment trial of high church preacher Henry Sacheverell. Historian Mark Knights, argues that by its ferocity, the debate may have led to more temperate and less hypercharged political discourse. Occasional conformity was restored by the Whigs when they returned to power in 1719. In his famous book Fable of the Bees, English author Bernard Mandeville explored the nature of hypocrisy in contemporary European society. On the one hand, Mandeville was a ‘moralist’ heir to the French Augustinianism of the previous century, viewing sociability as a mere mask for vanity and pride.
On the other, he was a ` materialist'. He tried to demonstrate the universality of human appetites for corporeal pleasures, he argued that the efforts of self-seeking entrepreneurs are the basis of emerging commercial and industrial society, a line of thought that influenced Adam Smith and 19th century utilitarianism. The tension between these two approaches modes ambivalences and contradictions—concerning the relative power of norms and interests, the relationship between motives and behaviours, the historical variability of human cultures. In the Enlightenment of the 18th century, discussions of hypocrisy were common in the works of Voltaire and Montaigne. In the 1750 to 1850 era, Whig aristocrats in England boasted of their special benevolence for the common people, they claimed to be guiding and counseling reform initiatives to prevent the outbreaks of popular discontent that caused instability and revolution across Europe. However Tory and radical critics accused the Whigs of hypocrisy—alleging they were deliberately using the slogans of reform and democracy to boost themselves into powe
In mathematics in the field of numerical analysis, Kummer's transformation of series is a method used to accelerate the convergence of an infinite series. The method was first suggested by Ernst Kummer in 1837. Let A = ∑ n = 1 ∞ a n be an infinite sum whose value we wish to compute, let B = ∑ n = 1 ∞ b n be an infinite sum with comparable terms whose value is known. If lim n → ∞ a n b n = γ ≠ 0 A is more computed as A = γ B + ∑ n = 1 ∞ a n. We apply the method to accelerate the Leibniz formula for π: 1 − 1 3 + 1 5 − 1 7 + 1 9 − ⋯ = π 4. First group terms in pairs as 1 − − + ⋯ = 1 − 2 = 1 − 2 A where A = ∑ n = 1 ∞ 1 16 n 2 − 1 Let B = ∑ n = 1 ∞ 1 4 n 2 − 1 = 1 3 + 1 15 + ⋯ = 1 2 − 1 6 + 1 6 − 1 10 + ⋯, a telescoping series with sum 1⁄2. In this case γ = lim n → ∞ 1 16 n 2 − 1 1 4 n 2 − 1 = 4 n 2 − 1 16 n 2 − 1 = 1 4 and Kummer's transformation gives A = 1 4 ⋅ 1 2 + ∑ n = 1 ∞ 1 16 n 2 − 1; this simplifies to A = 1 8 − 3 4 ∑ n = 1 ∞ 1. Euler transform Senatov, V. V. "Kummer transformation", in Hazewinkel, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business Media B.
V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 Knopp, Konrad. Theory and Application of Infinite Series. Courier Corporation. P. 247. Keith Conrad. "Accelerating Convergence of Series". Kummer
Donald Taylor "Don" Ritchie, OAM was an Australian who intervened in many suicide attempts. He rescued 160 people or more from intending suicide by jumping off a Sydney cliff called The Gap. Ritchie enlisted into the Royal Australian Navy in 1939 as a Seaman during World War II aboard HMAS Hobart and witnessed the unconditional surrender of the Japanese Imperial Forces in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945 ending World War II in the Pacific. After the war he was a life insurance salesman, he rescued 160 people from suicide as of 2009 over a 45-year period, although his family claims the number is closer to 500. Ritchie resided next to The Gap, a cliff in Sydney, known for multiple suicide attempts. Upon seeing someone on the cliff in distress, Ritchie would cross the road from his property and engage them in conversation beginning with the words, "Can I help you in some way?" Afterwards Ritchie would invite them back to his home for a cup of a chat. Some of the people he helped would return years to thank him for his efforts in talking them out of their decision.
Ritchie explained his intervention in suicide attempts saying, "You can't just sit there and watch them." In 2006, he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for his rescues, the official citation being for "service to the community through programs to prevent suicide." Ritchie and his wife Moya were named "Citizens of the Year" for 2010 by Woollahra Council, the local government authority responsible for The Gap. He received Local Hero Award for Australia in 2011, the National Australia Day Council saying: "His kind words and invitations into his home in times of trouble have made an enormous difference... With such simple actions, Don has saved an extraordinary number of lives." Ritchie died on 13 May 2012, age 86. He was survived by their three daughters. Suicide prevention Chen Si Kevin Briggs Yukio Shige
The 2013 Australian Football League season was the 117th season of the elite Australian rules football competition and the 24th under the name'Australian Football League', having switched from'Victorian Football League' after 1989. The season opened on 22 March, with Adelaide hosting Essendon, concluded on 28 September with Hawthorn defeating Fremantle in the AFL Grand Final, it was Hawthorn's eleventh VFL/AFL premiership, Fremantle's first grand final appearance. The season was marred by a series of off-field controversies, with three clubs penalised in 2013 for separate infractions which had taken place over previous years: Essendon, following an investigation into irregularities in the club's supplements program; the biennial All Star game played in the Northern Territory, featuring an AFL team and the Indigenous All Stars team, made up of some of the best Indigenous players in the game, returned for the 2013 pre-season. Richmond were selected as the AFL team to partake in the game, played at Traeger Park in Alice Springs.
The 2013 NAB Cup was won by the Brisbane Lions, their first win preseason competition win, when they defeated Carlton by 40 points. The full fixture was released on Wednesday 31 October 2012. For the second consecutive year, the AFL's opening round was spread across two weekends. Due to concern over one-sided matches, each of the top four teams from 2012 played each of the bottom four teams only once each – except that Sydney played local rival Greater Western Sydney twice, that the Western Bulldogs played Adelaide twice. None of the bottom five teams from 2012 featured in a Friday night match during the home-and-away season; this is due to the AFL's policy of awarding Friday night matches only to teams that perform throughout the season. This season was the last in which AFL football was played at AAMI Stadium, with both Adelaide and Port Adelaide moving to a redeveloped Adelaide Oval from the 2014 season. Match starting times are local. Bold – Home gameX – ByeOpponent for round listed above margin The Norm Smith Medal was awarded to Brian Lake of Hawthorn.
The Brownlow Medal was awarded to Jr. of Gold Coast, who received 28 votes. The AFL Rising Star was awarded to Jaeger O'Meara of Gold Coast; the Coleman Medal was awarded to Jarryd Roughead of Hawthorn, who kicked 68 goals during the home and away season. The McClelland Trophy was awarded to Hawthorn for the second year in a row; the Wooden Spoon was "awarded" to Greater Western Sydney for the second year in a row. The AFL Players Association awards The Leigh Matthews Trophy was awarded to Gary Ablett, Jr. of Gold Coast for a record fifth time. The Robert Rose Award was awarded to Joel Selwood of Geelong for the second year in a row and third time overall; the Best Captain was awarded to Joel Selwood of Geelong. The Best First-Year Player was awarded to Jaeger O'Meara of Gold Coast; the AFL Coaches Association Awards were as follows:The Player of the Year Award was given to Scott Pendlebury of Collingwood, who received 96 votes. The Allan Jeans Senior Coach of the Year Award was awarded to Ken Hinkley of Port Adelaide The Assistant Coach of the Year Award was awarded to Robert Harvey of Collingwood.
The Development Coach of the Year Award was awarded to Chris Maple of Western Bulldogs. The Support Staff Leadership Award was awarded to Stephen Wells of Geelong; the Lifetime Achievement Award was awarded to George Stone. The Best Young Player Award was awarded to Jeremy Cameron of Greater Western Sydney; the Jim Stynes Community Leadership Award was awarded to Zac Smith of Gold Coast. Numbers highlighted in blue indicates. Underlined numbers indicates; the International Rules Series was played between Australia and Ireland for the first time since 2011. For the first time, the Australian team was represented by the Indigenous All Stars; as in previous years, two test matches were played, the series was decided on aggregate. The series was held in Ireland, was won by Ireland 2-0 and on an aggregate margin of 173-72 points. During the trade period leading up to the 2013 season, Adelaide Crows forward Kurt Tippett sought to be traded. During trade negotiations, information was uncovered which brought into question the legality under AFL rules of Tippett's 2009 contract extension with Adelaide.
The AFL investigated Tippett's contract during October and November, charged Tippett and Adelaide with a total of eleven charges relating to draft tampering and breaching the total player payments, including: Arranging a secret deal in which Tippett would be traded to a club of his choice at the end of 2012 Direct payments of $100,000 outside the salary cap in each of 2011 and 2012 Illegally arranging third-party deals in 2011 and 2012, resulting in Tippett receiving further money outside the salary cap in those years. Adelaide was considered to incur a loss of draft picks, among other penalties, if found guilty, but the AFL Commission was yet to complete its hearing into the matter when the National Draft was held on 22 November 2012, so the club was permitted to participate in the draft as normal. However, on the day before the draft, the club voluntarily relinquished its highest two remaining selections as a "gesture of goodwill" ahead of the hearing; the final hearing took place on 30 November, Ade
Shooting Stars Sports Club is a Nigerian football club based in Ibadan. The club was one of the founders of the Nigerian Premier League in 1972, when they were called WNDC Ibadan, were called IICC Shooting Stars of Ibadan; the nickname "Shooting Stars" was added with the suggestion of team foundation members the late Jide Johnson and Niyi Omowon the "Aare Odan Liberty" who believed that the players were "stars" in their own right. Shooting Stars is one of the most followed football clubs in Nigeria and play their home matches at the Lekan Salami Stadium; the stadium was named after one of the prominent supporters of the club, now deceased. Before, "Sooting" as it is called by its supporters used to play at the famous Liberty Stadium, one of the venues for the world youth soccer championship in 1999. Shooting stars is the first club to win the FA cup on club basis in Nigeria in 1971, players like Aderoju Omowon, Niyi Akande, Jossy Lad, Amusa Adisa were prominent in the squad. Shooting Stars is one of the most decorated clubsides in Nigeria alongside Enugu Rangers and the defunct Stationery Stores of Lagos.
In fact, Shooting Stars and Enugu Rangers are known as the traditional football clubs in the country, both dominating the football scene in the country during 1970s and 1980s. Shooting Stars have won many matches against top club sides in Africa. 3SC won the first edition of CAF Cup, defeating the Nakivubo Villa of Uganda 3–0 in the finals at the Lekan Salami stadium after the first leg ended goalless. They won the African Cup Winners' Cup in 1976, becoming the first Nigerian clubside to win an international trophy. Many well-known international stars have played for Shooting Stars in the past, including former African footballer of the year Rashidi Yekini, "the mathematical" Segun Odegbami and so on. Notable players Rashidi Yekini, Segun Odegbami, Felix Owolabi, Niyi Akande, Taiwo Ogunjobi, Duke Udi, Olumide Harris, Golden Ajeboh, Ajibade Babalade, Ademola Johnson, Jude Axelsson, they ended their 2004–05 season in fifth place in the Premier League. After the introduction of a strange double-league format by the Nigerian Football Association, Shooting Stars got relegated to the lower division in 2006, but won promotion in 2009 after finishing second in the Division 1B.
They were relegated back on the last day of the 2017 NPFL season. Head Coach Edith Agoye and the rest of the 3SC Management board resigned in July 2019 after they lost a promotion playoff to Akwa Starlets. Nigerian Premier League: 51976, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1998Nigerian FA Cup: 41971 1977, 1979, 1995African Cup of Champions Clubs Runners-up: 21984, 1996CAF Cup: 11992African Cup Winners' Cup: 11976West African Club Championship: 11998 CAF Champions League: 1 appearance1999 – Group stageAfrican Cup of Champions Clubs: 4 appearances1972 – Second Round 1981 – Second Round 1984 – Runners-up 1996 – Runners-upCAF Cup: 3 appearances1992 – Champion 1993 – First Round 1995 – Second RoundCAF Cup Winners' Cup: 4 appearances1976 – Champion 1977 – Semi-finals 1978 – First Round 1980 – Quarter-finals Alan Hawkes Franklin Howard Akintola Idowu Yusuf Lati Festus Onigbinde Tayo Oloniyo Siegfried Bahner Jossy Ladipo Fatai Amoo Official website Old website
The 2009 NCAA Division I Women's Volleyball Tournament began on December 3, 2009 with 64 teams and ended on December 19, when Penn State defeated Texas, 3-2, in the NCAA National Championship match. With the win, Penn State won its fourth overall title, became the first team in the history of women's intercollegiate volleyball to win three straight national titles. Penn State became the first team in NCAA history to have two straight undefeated seasons, as the 2009 squad went 38-0 for the second straight year, extending the ongoing NCAA record of consecutive matches won. Penn State became only the third team in NCAA history to win the national championship after trailing 0-2 in sets; the last team to accomplish the feat was UCLA in 1991. Penn State's senior class, led by Megan Hodge and Alisha Glass, had an overall record of 142-5, the best winning percentage in NCAA Division I history for classes that have won national titles. Penn State hit.381 for the season, the second-best Division I team hitting percentage mark in the rally scoring era.
It only trails the mark of.390 set by the 2008 Penn State squad. Texas's Destinee Hooker, the Most Outstanding Player of the 2009 Final Four, broke the record of kills in a NCAA championship match, as she had a career high 34 kills in the final. Gainesville all-tournament team Megan Hodge Penn State Kelly Murphy Florida Callie Rivers Florida Blair Brown Penn State Darcy Dorton Penn State Alisha Glass Penn State Arielle Wilson Penn State Stanford region all-tournament team Kanani Danielson Hawaii Amber Kaufman Hawaii Stephanie Ferrell Hawaii Alex Hunt Michigan Lexi Zimmerman Michigan Alix Klineman Stanford Cassidy Lichtman Stanford Minneapolis region all-tournament team Hailey Cowles Minnesota Mira Djuric Florida State Rachael Morgan Florida State Stephanie Neville Florida State Taylor Carico Minnesota Lauren Gibbemeyer Minnesota Christine Tan Minnesota Omaha region all-tournament team Destinee Hooker Texas Rachael Hockaday Iowa State Kayla Banwarth Nebraska Lindsey Licht Nebraska Ashley Engle Texas Julianne Faucette Texas Heather Kisner Texas NCAA Women's Volleyball Championship AVCA 2009 Championship information Women's Volleyball at ncaa.com