Hypoglycemia known as low blood sugar, is a fall in blood sugar to levels below normal. This may result in a variety of symptoms including clumsiness, trouble talking, loss of consciousness, seizures or death. A feeling of hunger, sweating and weakness may be present. Symptoms come on quickly; the most common cause of hypoglycemia is medications used to treat diabetes mellitus such as insulin and sulfonylureas. Risk is greater in diabetics who have eaten less than usual, exercised more than usual or drunk alcohol. Other causes of hypoglycemia include kidney failure, certain tumors, liver disease, starvation, inborn error of metabolism, severe infections, reactive hypoglycemia and a number of drugs including alcohol. Low blood sugar may occur in otherwise healthy babies; the glucose level that defines hypoglycemia is variable. In people with diabetes, levels below 3.9 mmol/L are diagnostic. In adults without diabetes, symptoms related to low blood sugar, low blood sugar at the time of symptoms and improvement when blood sugar is restored to normal confirm the diagnosis.
Otherwise, a level below 2.8 mmol/L after not eating or following exercise may be used. In newborns, a level below 2.2 mmol/L, or less than 3.3 mmol/L if symptoms are present, indicates hypoglycemia. Other tests that may be useful in determining the cause include insulin and C peptide levels in the blood. Among people with diabetes, prevention is by matching the foods eaten with the amount of exercise and the medications used; when people feel their blood sugar is low, testing with a glucose monitor is recommended. Some people have few initial symptoms of low blood sugar, frequent routine testing in this group is recommended. Treatment of hypoglycemia is by taking dextrose. If a person is not able to take food by mouth, glucagon by injection or in the nose may help; the treatment of hypoglycemia unrelated to diabetes includes treating the underlying problem as well and a healthy diet. The term "hypoglycemia" is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to idiopathic postprandial syndrome, a controversial condition with similar symptoms that occur following eating but with normal blood sugar levels.
Hypoglycemic symptoms and manifestations can be divided into those produced by the counterregulatory hormones triggered by the falling glucose, the neuroglycopenic effects produced by the reduced brain sugar. Shakiness, nervousness Palpitations, tachycardia Sweating, feeling of warmth Pallor, clamminess Dilated pupils Hunger, borborygmus Nausea, abdominal discomfort Headache Abnormal thinking, impaired judgment Nonspecific dysphoria, depression, exaggerated concerns Feeling of numbness and needles Negativism, belligerence, rage Personality change, emotional lability Fatigue, apathy, daydreaming, sleep Confusion, memory loss, lightheadedness or dizziness, delirium Staring, glassy look, blurred vision, double vision Flashes of light in the field of vision Automatic behavior known as automatism Difficulty speaking, slurred speech Ataxia, sometimes mistaken for drunkenness Focal or general motor deficit, hemiparesis Headache Stupor, abnormal breathing Generalized or focal seizuresNot all of the above manifestations occur in every case of hypoglycemia.
There is no consistent order to the appearance of the symptoms, if symptoms occur. Specific manifestations may vary by age, by severity of the hypoglycemia and the speed of the decline. In young children, vomiting can sometimes accompany morning hypoglycemia with ketosis. In older children and adults, moderately severe hypoglycemia can resemble mania, mental illness, drug intoxication, or drunkenness. In the elderly, hypoglycemia can produce a hard-to-define malaise; the symptoms of a single person may be similar from episode to episode, but are not so and may be influenced by the speed at which glucose levels are dropping, as well as previous incidents. In newborns, hypoglycemia can produce irritability, myoclonic jerks, respiratory distress, apneic episodes, hypothermia, hypotonia, refusal to feed, seizures or "spells." Hypoglycemia can resemble asphyxia, sepsis, or heart failure. In both young and old people with hypoglycemia, the brain may habituate to low glucose levels, with a reduction of noticeable symptoms despite neuroglycopenic impairment.
In insulin-dependent diabetic people this phenomenon is termed hypoglycemia unawareness and is a significant clinical problem when improved glycemic control is attempted. Another aspect of this phenomenon occurs in type I glycogenosis, when chronic hypoglycemia before diagnosis may be better tolerated than acute hypoglycemia after treatment is underway. Hypoglycemic symptoms can occur when one is sleeping. Examples of symptoms during sleep can include damp bed clothes from perspiration. Having nightmares or the act of crying out can be a sign of hypoglycemia. Once the individual is awake they may feel tired, irritable, or confused and these may be signs of hypoglycemia as well. In nearly all cases, hypoglycemia, severe enough to cause seizures or unconsciousness can be reversed without obvious harm to the brain. Cases of death or permanent neurological damage occurring with a single episode have involved prolonged, untreated unconsciousness, interference with breathing, severe concurrent disease, or some other type of vulnerability.
Brain damage or
Ruth Frow was a peace activist and historian of the labour movement. She co-founded the Working Class Movement Library in Salford, a collection of material associated with labour and working class history. Ruth Engel was born on 28 July 1922 in St John's Wood in London, her father, Leon Alfred Mayer Engel, was a concert pianist and a traveling sales representative in embroideries. Her mother, Ethel Maud Engel, was Irish catholic but converted to Judaism, her husband's faith, on their marriage. Ruth attended a Jewish synagogue, but had a secular upbringing, she attended a local private girls’ school; the family moved to an estate built by Engel Park in Mill Hill, when Frow was five. Her father died. Upon leaving school, she enrolled in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force in April 1940, though underage, working in the RAF Fighter Command control room and on radar, her altered date of birth is recorded in her discharge papers, along with a commendation of her service. She spent four and a half years in the WAAF.
Here she met her first husband, Denis Edmund Haines, an electrical engineer, the pair married on 25 July 1944. She left the WAAF when she became pregnant, towards the end of 1944. In 1945 she joined the Communist Party in Sandwich, Kent, on the recommendation from local miners to join over the Labour Party, she found the Communist Party an ideologically- and socially-attractive space as an activist and a women not wishing to return to a purely domestic role post-war. Following the Second World War, Frow enrolled in the Emergency Teacher Training Scheme, became a teacher in 1949, she was a member of the National Union of Teachers. She was Secretary of Teachers for Peace and Manchester branch of the Peace Committee, was elected Vice-Chair of the Manchester Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. In the 1950s she lived for a time with Communist party members Bill Molly Wainwright, she met her second husband, Edmund'Eddie' Frow, in 1953 at a day school on labour history in Sussex, they married in 1961. The pair were enthusiastic collectors of books and ephemera to do with labour history and the labour movement.
The couple were both awarded honorary degrees from the University of Salford in 1989. Along with her husband Edmund, Frow was the founder of the Working Class Movement Library in Manchester; the library was the personal book collection of the couple, to which scholars or students of labour history could access for free. In 1972 the Frows established the library as a Charitable Trust, allowing it to be accessible as an education resource, their collection of books and ephemera grew so extensive, in 1987 it was re-housed by Salford Council in a converted nursing home, in which it still retained. The offer from the council was accepted over similar offers from universities, in order to avoided limited access for workers to their own history. In 1989 Ruth and Edmund Frow were awarded the Commendation of Merit by the Library Association for their service to the library profession; the Library is regarded as one of Britain's most important collections on working class history, with more than 30,000 rare books, pamphlets and other materials.
Frow along with her husband Edmund, published extensively on historical and political issues. Her writings were aimed at a variety of wide audiences. Edmund and Ruth Frow, ‘Travels with a Caravan’, History Workshop Journal 2, autumn 1976. Ruth Frow, Edmund Frow, 1906–1997: the Making of an Activist, Salford, 1999. Ruth and Edmund Frow and Michael Katanka, Strikes – a Documentary History, London, 1971. Ruth and Edmund Frow and Michael Katanka, The History of British Trade Unionism, Historical Association, London, 1969. Edmund and Ruth Frow, A Survey of the Half Time System in Education, Manchester, 1970. Edmund and Ruth Frow, The Battle of Bexley Hill: Salford Unemployed Workers Demonstration in 1931, Salford, 1994. Edmund and Ruth Frow, Engineering Struggles: Episodes in the Story of the Shop Stewards Movement, Manchester, 1982. Edmund and Ruth Frow and Ernie Roberts MP, Democracy in the Engineering Union, Institute for Workers Control, Nottingham, 1986. Ruth and Edmund Frow, The Communist Party in Manchester 1920–1926, North West History Group CPGB with the Working Class Movement Library, Manchester, 1979.
Political Women 1800–1850, ed. Ruth and Edmund Frow, London, 1989; the Politics of Hope: the Origins of Socialism in Britain 1880–1914, ed. Edmund and Ruth Frow, London, 1989. Edmund and Ruth Frow, Essays on the Irish in Manchester, Salford, 1991. Edmund and Ruth Frow, Essays in Insurrection, Salford, 1996. Ruth and Edmund Frow, Karl Marx in Manchester, Manchester, 1985 Edmund and Ruth Frow, The New Moral World: Robert Owen and Owenism in Manchester and Salford, Manchester, 1986 Edmund and Ruth Frow, Frederick Engels in Manchester and ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844’, Salford, 1995 Edmund and Ruth Frow, William Morris in Manchester and Salford, Salford, 1996. Edmund and Ruth Frow, Frederick Engels in Manchester: Two Tours with Maps, Manchester, n.d. Edmund and Ruth Frow, A History of the Manchester and Salford Trades Council, vol. I: To Make That Future – Now!, Manchester, 1976 Ruth and Edmund Frow and Jim Arnison, Manchester Trades Council History, vol. 2: the New Paths Are Begun, Manchester, 1993.
Frow was a former Middlesex county junior tennis player. Ruth and Edmund Frow spent many years travelling Britain in a caravan, described in their book Travels with a Caravan. Before moving to a home in Salford, they lived in a flat within the library. Frow died January 11, 2008. A a celebration of her life was held on 5 April 2008 at the Peel Hall at the University of Salford; the papers of Ruth and Edmund Frow are held in the Working
Tyson Summers is the defensive coordinator at the University of Colorado. He served as the head coach of the Georgia Southern Eagles football team from 2016 to 2017, he held the position of quality control coordinator at the University of Georgia. A four-year letterwinner at Presbyterian Blue Hose, Summers earned All-South Atlantic Conference honors as a linebacker in 1999 and was selected as team captain as a senior, he received his bachelor's degree in political science from Presbyterian in 2002. 2016 Head Coach for Georgia Southern. 2017 Loses to FCS - New Hampshire University. First time since 1994. In 2015, The Georgia Southern Eagles led the nation in Rushing; as for 2017, they opened up the season being last for yards-per-play. On October 22, midway through the 2017 season, he was fired from his position as Head Coach after an 0-6 start to the season, with the college stating "the results on the field weren't where we needed them to be as we continue our growth as an FBS program." 2015 Defensive Coordinator under head Coach Mike Bobo.
2012–2014 Linebackers, Defensive Coordinator In his first full season at the DC level in 2014, Summers guided the top defense in the American Athletic Conference. UCF went 9–4 on the year with a spot in the Bitcoin St. Petersburg Bowl and back-to-back conference titles. Opponents averaged less than 300 yards per game, including six which posted less than 100 rushing yards and nine schools had less than 200 passing yards. 2011 Safeties/Co-Special Teams Coordinator 2007–10 Linebackers Summers had been on UAB's staff since December 2006 as the Blazers' linebackers coach and was their safeties coach and co-special teams coordinator in the final season of his tenure. In his first year working with the UAB safeties in 2011, Summers helped mentor Jamie Bender in his senior season as he led the Blazers with 119 tackles. Bender posted 7.5 tackles for loss, two interceptions, six break-ups and four forced fumbles. He was voted on to the All-C-USA Second Team for that performance. On special teams, UAB ranked 17th in the nation by allowing just 4.71 yards per punt return, while freshman kicker Ty Long was named a 2011 Freshman All-American by Phil Steele's College Football Preview.
Summers took over UAB's linebackers in 2007, where Joe Henderson was named to the All-C-USA Second Team. In 2008, Henderson climbed up to the first team thanks to a team-high 87 tackles as well as 12.5 tackles for loss, went on to play for the BC Lions of the CFL from 2010–11. With a new wave of linebackers under Summers' control in 2010, Marvin Burdette paced the Blazers with 114 tackles en route to All-C-USA Honorable Mention accolades. While Summers was with UAB, kicker Swayze Waters was an All-C-USA First Team pick in 2007 and 2008, has appeared in NFL preseason games highlighted by a stint with the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2011. 2006 Safeties Summers coached the safeties at Georgia Southern in 2006. 2005 Graduate Assistant/Defensive Backs Summers served as a graduate assistant for Georgia in 2005. That season the Bulldogs earned a berth in the Sugar Bowl. Summers worked with the secondary and witnessed three UGA defensive backs get selected in the NFL Draft: Tim Jennings, DeMario Minter and Greg Blue.
2004 Graduate Assistant/Wide Receivers During the 2004 season Summers was a graduate assistant at Troy, which reached the postseason and the Silicon Valley Classic. 2003 Defensive Backs In Summers 2003 helped guide the defensive backs at Presbyterian. 2002 Assistant Coach/Defensive Backs Summers earned his first coaching position at Tift County High School in Georgia where he was taking care of the defensive backs in 2002