An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it. Arches may be synonymous with vaults, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof. Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture, their systematic use started with the ancient Romans, who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. An arch is a soft compression form, it can span a large area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and, in turn eliminating tensile stresses. This is sometimes referred to as arch action; as the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases. In order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments.
The most common true arch configurations are the fixed arch, the two-hinged arch, the three-hinged arch. The fixed arch is most used in reinforced concrete bridge and tunnel construction, where the spans are short; because it is subject to additional internal stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction, this type of arch is considered to be statically indeterminate. The two-hinged arch is most used to bridge long spans; this type of arch has pinned connections at the base. Unlike the fixed arch, the pinned base is able to rotate, allowing the structure to move and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature. However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is statically indeterminate, although not to the degree of the fixed arch; the three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well. The additional connection at the mid-span allows the three-hinged arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction.
This type of arch is thus not subject to additional stress caused by thermal change. The three-hinged arch is therefore said to be statically determinate, it is most used for medium-span structures, such as large building roofs. Another advantage of the three-hinged arch is that the pinned bases are more developed than fixed ones, allowing for shallow, bearing-type foundations in medium-span structures. In the three-hinged arch, "thermal expansion and contraction of the arch will cause vertical movements at the peak pin joint but will have no appreciable effect on the bases," further simplifying the foundation design. Arches have many forms, but all fall into three basic categories: circular and parabolic. Arches can be configured to produce vaults and arcades. Arches with a circular form referred to as rounded arches, were employed by the builders of ancient, heavy masonry arches. Ancient Roman builders relied on the rounded arch to span large, open areas. Several rounded arches placed. Pointed arches were most used by builders of Gothic-style architecture.
The advantage to using a pointed arch, rather than a circular one, is that the arch action produces less thrust at the base. This innovation allowed for taller and more spaced openings, typical of Gothic architecture. Vaults are "adjacent arches are assembled side by side." If vaults intersect, complex forms are produced with the intersections. The forms, along with the "strongly expressed ribs at the vault intersections, were dominant architectural features of Gothic cathedrals."The parabolic arch employs the principle that when weight is uniformly applied to an arch, the internal compression resulting from that weight will follow a parabolic profile. Of all arch types, the parabolic arch produces the most thrust at the base, but can span the largest areas, it is used in bridge design, where long spans are needed. The catenary arch has a shape different from the parabolic curve; the shape of the curve traced by a loose span of chain or rope, the catenary is the structurally ideal shape for a freestanding arch of constant thickness.
Types of arches displayed chronologically in the order in which they were developed: True arches, as opposed to corbel arches, were known by a number of civilizations in the ancient Near East and the Levant, but their use was infrequent and confined to underground structures, such as drains where the problem of lateral thrust is diminished. An example of the latter would be the Nippur Arch. Rare exceptions are an arched mudbrick home doorway in circa 2000BC Tell Taya and the Bronze Age arched Canaanite city gate of Ashkelon in modern-day Israel, dating to c. 1850 B. C. An early example of a voussoir arch appears in the Greek Rhodes Footbridge. Corbel arches were found in other parts of ancient Asia, Africa and the Americas. In 2010, a robot discovered a long arch-roofed passageway underneath the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, which stands in the ancient city of Teotihuacan north of Mexico City, dated to around 200 AD. In ancient Persia, the Achaemenid Empire built small barrel vaults known as iwan, which became massive, monumental structures during the Parthian Empire.
This architectural tradition was continued by the Sasanian Empire, which built the Taq Kasra at Ctesiphon in the 6th century, the largest free-standing vault until modern times. The ancient Romans learned the arch from the Etruscans, refined it and were the first builders in Europe to tap its full potential for above ground buildings: The Romans were
Moorish architecture is the articulated Islamic architecture of North Africa and parts of Spain and Portugal, where the Andalusians were dominant between 711 and 1492. The best surviving examples in Iberia are La Mezquita in Córdoba and the Alhambra palace in Granada, as well as the Giralda in Seville. Other notable examples in Iberia include the ruined palace city of Medina Azahara, the church San Cristo de la Luz in Toledo, the Aljafería in Saragossa and baths at for example Ronda and Alhama de Granada. Characteristic elements of Moorish architecture include muqarnas, horseshoe arches, domes, crenellated arches, lancet arches, ogee arches and decorative tile work known as zellij in Arabic or azulejo in Spanish and Portuguese; the architectural tradition is exemplified by mosques and other edifices such as the Mezquita in Córdoba. Other notable buildings include the ruined palace city of Medina Azahara, the church San Cristo de la Luz in Toledo, the Aljafería in Zaragoza and baths at for example Ronda and Alhama de Granada.
The term is sometimes used to include the products of the Islamic civilisation of Southern Italy. The Palazzo dei Normanni in Sicily was begun in the 9th century by the Emir of Palermo. There is archeological evidence of an eighth-century mosque in France. Alicante Castle of Santa Bárbara Antequera Alcazaba Almería Alcazaba Badajoz Alcazaba Bailén Baños de la Encina Castle Córdoba The great mosque Medina Azahara Baños Califales Calahorra Tower Gormaz Gormaz Castle Granada Alhambra and Generalife Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo Albayzín Jaén Saint Catalina's Castle Jerez de la Frontera Alcazar Málaga Alcazaba Gibralfaro Mérida Alcazaba Seville Alcázar Giralda Torre del Oro Toledo Mosque of Cristo de la Luz Mezquita de las Tornerías Trujillo Alcazaba Zaragoza Aljafería Caliphate of Córdoba: Medina Azahara in Córdoba Mosque of Cristo de la Luz in Toledo "Minaret of San Juan" at Córdoba, once belonging to a mosque Archaeological site of the Villarrubia palace Period of Taifas: the Mezquita de las Tornerías in Toledo the Almohad minaret known as Giralda at Sevilla, once part of the Great Mosque of Sevilla Aljaferia palace of the Banu Hud dynasty in Zaragoza.
Granada Hospital Masjid of the madrasa of Yusuf I in the so-called Palacio de la Madraza New Funduq of Granada Qaysariyya of Granada Algarve Albufeira Paderne Castle Silves Silves Castle Alentejo Mértola Mosque of Nossa Senhora da Anunciação Estremadura Sintra Castle of the Moors There is a high concentration of Moorish architecture in the Maghrebi states of Morocco and Tunisia in the cities of Marrakesh, Fez, Algiers and Testour. Spanish Mosque - built by Sir Vicar-ul-Umra at Hyderabad. Islamic architecture Arab-Norman culture Islamic influences on Christian art Moorish Revival Moroccan architecture Mudéjar Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon List of former mosques in Spain List of former mosques in Portugal Curl, James Stevens. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. P. 880 pages. ISBN 0-19-860678-8. Barrucand, Marianne. Moorish Architecture in Andalusia. Taschen. P. 240 pages. ISBN 3-8228-2116-0. Archnet.org
Tatar mosque — is the typical mosque architecture in Tatarstan and other Volga Tatar-populated areas of Russia. Found in other regions of Russia, modern Tatar religious architecture was developed in the late 18th century and gained popularity in the 19th century Idel-Ural; the earliest examples of Islamic Tatar architecture are located in Bolghar. They reflect strong similarities to Central Asian Islamic architecture from which the designs were derived. However, it is believed that design of rural mosques, opposing to Central Asian-like mosques of capital cities, evolve from their ability to withstand the harsh local climate. Many mosques, both stone and wooden were built, according to this style; the oldest of the still active modern Tatar mosques is the Märcani mosque in the Tatar capital of Kazan. Dating from the reign of Catherine the Great, the mosque's minaret is placed in the center of a gabled roof, it is believed. The Märcani mosque is an example of revival Tatar religious architecture as most mosques were destroyed due to the Christianization edict of 1742.
The edict on unification of church buildings of 1817 was expanded to the mosques in 1831, when the exemplary project was developed and circulated to governorate architectural offices of Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Simbirsk Governorates. Tatar mosques, such as Märcani and Apanay were built in baroque style. İske Taş and Pink Mosques were contributed to classicism style. Among the architects, contributed to the mosques building in the 19th century the most notable were Pyatnitsky, Schmidt, Romanov, Pavlov, Petondi, Tekhomirov, as well as non-professional architects Mansurov, Jakobson. In 1844 another exemplary mosque project was introduced, used for urban mosques; the minaret was placed under the door. However, mosques with minarets in the roof are constructed till today. Images
Umayyad architecture developed in the Umayyad Caliphate between 661 and 750 in its heartlands of Syria and Palestine. It drew extensively on the architecture of other Middle Eastern civilizations and that of the Byzantine Empire, but introduced innovations in decoration and new types of building such as mosques with mihrab's and minarets; the Umayyad caliphate was established in 661 after Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, was murdered in Kufa. Muawiyah I, governor of Syria, became the first Umayyad caliph; the Umayyads made Damascus their capital. Under the Umayyads the Arab empire continued to expand extending to Central Asia and the borders of India in the east, Yemen in the south, the Atlantic coast of what is now Morocco and the Iberian peninsula in the west; the Umayyads built new cities unfortified military camps that provided bases for further conquests. Wasit, Iraq was the most important of these, included a square Friday mosque with a hypostyle roof; the empire was secular and tolerant of existing customs in the conquered lands, creating resentment among those looking for a more theocratic state.
In 747 a revolution began in the east. By 750 the Umayyads had been overthrown by the Abbasids. A branch of the Umayyad dynasty continued to rule in Eberia until 1051. All monuments from the Umayyad period that have survived are in Syria and Palestine; the sanctuary of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem is the oldest surviving Islamic building. The Umayyads adopted the construction techniques of Byzantine architecture and Sasanian architecture, they re-used existing buildings. There was some innovation in types of building. Most buildings in Syria were of high quality ashlar masonry, using large tightly-joined blocks, sometimes with carving on the facade. Stone barrel vaults were only used to roof small spans. Wooden roofs were used with the wood in Syria brought from the forests of Lebanon; these roofs had shallow pitches and rested on wooden trusses. Wooden domes were constructed both in Jerusalem. Baked brick and mud brick were used in Mesopotamia, due to lack of stone. Where brick was used in Syria, the work was in the finer Mesopotamian style rather than the more crude Byzantine style.
The Umayyads used local architects. Some of their buildings cannot be distinguished from those of the previous regime. However, in many cases eastern and western elements were combined to give a distinctive new Islamic style. For example, the walls at Qasr Mshatta are built from cut stone in the Syrian manner, the vaults are Mesopotamian in design and Coptic and Byzantine elements appear in the decorative carving; the horseshoe arch appears for the first time in Umayyad architecture to evolve to its most advanced form in al-Andalus. Umayyad architecture is distinguished by the extent and variety of decoration, including mosaics, wall painting and carved reliefs with Islamic motifs; the Umayyads are known for some new and some adapted from earlier forts. The largest is Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi; the palaces were symbolically defended by walls and gates. In some cases the outside walls carried decorative friezes; the palaces would have a bath house, a mosque, a main castle. The entrance to the castle would be elaborate.
Towers along the walls would hold apartments with three or five rooms. These rooms were simple; the palaces had a second floor holding formal meeting rooms and official apartments. The fortress-like appearance was misleading, thus Qasr Kharana appears to have arrowslits. The fortress-like plan was derived from Roman forts built in Syria, construction followed earlier Syrian methods with some Byzantine and Mesopotamian elements; the baths derive from Roman models, but had smaller heated rooms and larger ornate rooms that would have been used for entertainment. The palaces had floor mosaics and frescoes or paintings on the walls, with designs that show both eastern and western influences. One fresco in the bath of Qasr Amra depicts six kings. Inscriptions below in Arabic and Greek identify the first four as the rulers of Byzantium, Spain and Abyssinia. Stucco sculptures were sometimes incorporated in the palace buildings. Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi is about 100 kilometres northeast of Palmyra on the main road from Aleppo to Iraq.
A large walled enclosure 7 by 4 kilometres was used to contain domestic animals. A walled madina, or city, contained an olive oil press and six large houses. Nearby there was some simpler houses. According to an inscription dated 728, the caliph provided significant funding for its development; the settlement was soon modified. The madina had four gates, one in each wall, but three were soon walled up; the basic layout was formal, but the buildings failed to comply with the plan. Most of the desert palaces were abandoned after the Umayyads fell from power, remain as ruins. Mosques were makeshift. In Iraq, they evolved from square prayer enclosures; the ruins of two large Umayyad mosques have been found in Iraq. One is 240 by the other 213 by 135 metres. Both had hypostyle designs, with roofs supported by elaborately designed columns. In Syria, the Umayyads preserved the overall concept of a court surrounded by porticos, with a deeper sanctuary, developed in Medina. Rather than make the sanctuary a hypostyle hall, as was done in Iraq, they divided it into three aisles
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard. Tetrastoon is a used archaic term for this feature; the peristyle in a Greek temple is a peristasis. In the Christian ecclesiastical architecture that developed from the Roman basilica, a courtyard peristyle and its garden came to be known as a cloister. In rural settings, a wealthy Roman could surround a villa with terraced gardens; the peristylium was an open courtyard within the house. Sometimes the lararium, a shrine for the Lares, the gods of the household, was located in this portico, or it might be found in the atrium; the courtyard might contain flowers and shrubs, benches and fish ponds. Romans devoted as large a space to the peristyle as site constraints permitted; the end of the Roman domus is one mark of the extinction of late antiquity: "the disappearance of the Roman peristyle house marks the end of the ancient world and its way of life," remarked Simon P. Ellis.
"No new peristyle houses were built after A. D. 550." Noting that as houses and villas were abandoned in the fifth century, a few palatial structures were expanded and enriched, as power and classical culture became concentrated in a narrowing class, public life withdrew to the basilica, or audience chamber, of the magnate. In the Eastern Roman empire, late antiquity lingered longer: Ellis identified the latest-known peristyle house built from scratch as the "House of the Falconer" at Argos, dating from the style of its floor mosaics about 530-550. Existing houses were subdivided in many cases, to accommodate a larger and less elite population in a warren of small spaces, columned porticoes were enclosed in small cubicles, as at the House of Hesychius at Cyrene. Although ancient Egyptian architecture predates Greek and Roman antiquity, historians use the Greek term peristyle to describe similar, earlier structures in ancient Egyptian palace architecture and in Levantine houses known as liwan houses.
Atrium Cloister – medieval ecclesiastical development of the form Hypostyle Loggia Portico Quadrangle Media related to Peristylia at Wikimedia Commons Barbara McManus, "The Peristylium": a reconstruction of a peristyle
Iranian architecture or Persian architecture is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Its history dates back to at least 5,000 BC with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Turkey and Iraq to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses and garden, pavilions to "some of the most majestic structures the world has seen". In addition to historic gates and mosques, the rapid growth of cities such as the capital, Tehran has brought about a wave of demolition and new construction. Iranian architecture displays great variety, both structural and aesthetic, from a variety of traditions and experience. Without sudden innovations, despite the repeated trauma of invasions and cultural shocks, it has achieved "an individuality distinct from that of other Muslim countries", its paramount virtues are: "a marked feeling for scale. Traditionally, the guiding formative motif of Iranian architecture has been its cosmic symbolism "by which man is brought into communication and participation with the powers of heaven".
This theme has not only given unity and continuity to the architecture of Persia, but has been a primary source of its emotional character as well. According to Persian historian and archaeologist Arthur Pope, the supreme Iranian art, in the proper meaning of the word, has always been its architecture; the supremacy of architecture applies to both pre- and post-Islamic periods. Traditional Persian architecture has maintained a continuity that, although temporarily distracted by internal political conflicts or foreign invasion, nonetheless has achieved an unmistakable style. In this architecture, "there are no trivial buildings. In expressiveness and communicativity, most Persian buildings are lucid - eloquent; the combination of intensity and simplicity of form provides immediacy, while ornament and subtle proportions reward sustained observation." Overall, the traditional architecture of the Iranian lands throughout the ages can be categorized into the six following classes or styles: Zoroastrian: The Parsian style including: Pre-Parsian style e.g. Chogha Zanbil, Median style, Achaemenid style manifesting in construction of spectacular cities used for governance and inhabitation, temples made for worship and social gatherings, mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings, The Parthian style includes designs from the following eras: Seleucid era e.g. Anahita Temple, Parthian era e.g. Hatra, the royal compounds at Nysa, Sassanid era e.g. Ghal'eh Dokhtar, the Taq-i Kisra, Darband.
Islamic: The Khorasani style, e.g. Jameh Mosque of Nain and Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, The Razi style which includes the methods and devices of the following periods: Samanid period, e.g. Samanid Mausoleum, Ziyarid period, e.g. Gonbad-e Qabus, Seljukid period, e.g. Kharraqan towers, The Azari style, e.g. Soltaniyeh, Arg-i Alishah, Jameh Mosque of Varamin, Goharshad Mosque, Bibi Khanum mosque in Samarqand, tomb of Abdas-Samad, Gur-e Amir, Jameh mosque of Yazd The Isfahani style spanning through the Safavid, Afsharid and Qajarid dynasties starting from the 16th century onward, e.g. Chehelsotoon, Ali Qapu, Agha Bozorg Mosque, Shah Mosque, Sheikh Lotf Allah Mosque in Naqsh-i Jahan Square. Available building materials dictate major forms in traditional Iranian architecture. Heavy clays available at various places throughout the plateau, have encouraged the development of the most primitive of all building techniques, molded mud, compressed as solidly as possible, allowed to dry; this technique, used in Iran from ancient times, has never been abandoned.
The abundance of heavy plastic earth, in conjunction with a tenacious lime mortar facilitated the development and use of brick. Iranian architecture makes use of abundant symbolic geometry, using pure forms such as circles and squares, plans are based on symmetrical layouts featuring rectangular courtyards and halls. Certain design elements of Persian architecture have persisted throughout the history of Iran; the most striking are a discerning use of simple and massive forms. The consistency of decorative preferences, the high-arched portal set within a recess, columns with bracket capitals, recurrent types of plan and elevation can be mentioned. Through the ages these elements have recurred in different types of buildings, constructed for various programs and under the patronage of a long succession of rulers; the columned porch, or talar, seen in the rock-cut tombs near Persepolis, reappear in Sassanid temples, in late Islamic times it was used as the portico of a palace or mosque, adapted to the architecture of roadside tea-houses.
The dome on four arches, so characteristic of Sassanid times, is a still to be found in many cemeteries and Imamzadehs across Iran today. The notion of earthly towers reaching up toward the sky to mingle with the divine towers of heaven las
Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent, it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.
It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574; the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; the present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes; the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes, its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. F