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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body. Although hypoxia is a pathological condition, variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during hypoventilation training or strenuous physical exercise. Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia and anoxemia in that hypoxia refers to a state in which oxygen supply is insufficient, whereas hypoxemia and anoxemia refer to states that have low or zero arterial oxygen supply. Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia. Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema and high altitude cerebral edema. Hypoxia occurs in healthy individuals when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen content, e.g. while diving underwater when using closed-circuit rebreather systems that control the amount of oxygen in the supplied air.

Mild, non-damaging intermittent hypoxia is used intentionally during altitude training to develop an athletic performance adaptation at both the systemic and cellular level. Hypoxia is a common complication of preterm birth in newborn infants; because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature infants possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung function, doctors place infants at risk of hypoxia inside incubators that provide warmth and oxygen. More serious cases are treated with continuous positive airway pressure; the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to William G. Kaelin Jr. Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, Gregg L. Semenza in recognition of their discovery of cellular mechanisms to sense and adapt to different oxygen concentrations, establishing a basis for how oxygen levels affect physiological function; the symptoms of generalized hypoxia depend on its acceleration of onset. In the case of altitude sickness, where hypoxia develops the symptoms include fatigue, numbness / tingling of extremities and cerebral anoxia.

These symptoms are difficult to identify, but early detection of symptoms can be critical. In severe hypoxia, or hypoxia of rapid onset, confusion / disorientation / hallucinations / behavioral change, severe headaches / reduced level of consciousness, breathlessness, pallor and pulmonary hypertension leading to the late signs cyanosis, slow heart rate / cor pulmonale, low blood pressure followed by heart failure leading to shock and death; because hemoglobin is a darker red when it is not bound to oxygen, as opposed to the rich red color that it has when bound to oxygen, when seen through the skin it has an increased tendency to reflect blue light back to the eye. In cases where the oxygen is displaced by another molecule, such as carbon monoxide, the skin may appear'cherry red' instead of cyanotic. Hypoxia can cause premature birth, injure the liver, among other deleterious effects. If tissue is not being perfused properly, it may appear pale. If hypoxia is severe, a tissue may become gangrenous.

Extreme pain may be felt at or around the site. Tissue hypoxia from low oxygen delivery may be due to low haemoglobin concentration, low cardiac output or low haemoglobin saturation; the consequence of oxygen deprivation in tissues is a switch to anaerobic metabolism at the cellular level. As such, reduced systemic blood flow may result in increased serum lactate. Serum lactate levels have been correlated with illness severity and mortality in critically ill adults and in ventilated neonates with respiratory distress. Oxygen passively diffuses in the lung alveoli according to a pressure gradient. Oxygen diffuses from the breathed air, mixed with water vapour, to arterial blood, where its partial pressure is around 100 mmHg. In the blood, oxygen is bound to a protein in red blood cells; the binding capacity of hemoglobin is influenced by the partial pressure of oxygen in the environment, as described in the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve. A smaller amount of oxygen is transported in solution in the blood.

In peripheral tissues, oxygen again diffuses down a pressure gradient into cells and their mitochondria, where it is used to produce energy in conjunction with the breakdown of glucose and some amino acids. Hypoxia can result from a failure at any stage in the delivery of oxygen to cells; this can include decreased partial pressures of oxygen, problems with diffusion of oxygen in the lungs, insufficient available hemoglobin, problems with blood flow to the end tissue, problems with breathing rhythm. Experimentally, oxygen diffusion becomes rate limiting when arterial oxygen partial pressure falls to 60 mmHg or below. All the oxygen in the blood is bound to hemoglobin, so interfering with this carrier molecule limits oxygen delivery to the periphery. Hemoglobin increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood by about 40-fold, with the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen influenced by the partial pressure of oxygen in the environment, a relationship described in the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve.

When the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen is interfered with, a hypoxic state can result. Ischemia, meaning insufficient blood flow to a tissue, can result in hypoxia; this is called'ischemic hy

List of Romanian-built warships of World War II

During and up to the Second World War, the naval industry of the Kingdom of Romania produced numerous medium and small size warships, of varying types, as well as auxiliaries. Warships were produced for the Romanian Navy, but Romanian naval facilities and products benefited the Kriegsmarine, among others; the most important Romanian shipyard was at Galați, followed by the one at Constanța and the ones at Severin and Brăila. Galați benefited of the country's only dry dock, built in 1937, it had two floating docks which could lift 200 and 300 tons respectively. The entire facility employed 500–800 people. Constanța, although lacking a dry dock, had by far the largest floating dock in the country, able to lift up to 8,000 tons. Brăila had a floating dock for small craft, which could lift up to 100 tons. Severin had no dry or floating dock, but for much of the interwar it was the only other port in the country besides Galați able to produce anything larger than barges and small river craft. Maximum annual building capacity amounted to 1,500 tons as of 1933.

This facility employed 100 people. In 1907, despite lacking a dry dock, the Romanian shipyard at Galați was able to co-build a class of four 700-ton river monitors for the Romanian Danube Flotilla: the Mihail Kogălniceanu class; the four vessels of this class were built in sections at STT in Austria-Hungary, transported to Romania assembled and launched at Galați. Each monitor had an overall armour thickness of 70–75 mm. During World War II, all four monitors were fitted for service at sea as anti-submarine escorts, each being armed with three 120 mm naval guns in single armored turrets, one 76 mm naval/AA gun, two 47 mm naval guns and two depth charge throwers; the four warships were in service throughout both world wars. Mihail Kogălniceanu engaged in battle and damaged two Soviet river monitors during the first month of Operation Barbarossa, she shot down one Soviet aircraft on 29 June 1941. Amiral Murgescu was a multi-purpose warships, serving as both escort ship. With a standard displacement of 812 tons and a full load displacement exceeding 1,000 tons, she was the largest Romanian-built warship of World War II and the first sea-going warship built in Romania.

Amiral Murgescu was laid down on 1 August 1938 and launched on 14 June 1939. Her commissioning took place on 2 March 1941 She measured 76.9 meters in length, with a beam of 9.1 meters and a draught of 2.5 meters. She was armed with two 105 mm SK C/32 dual-purpose naval/AA guns, two Rheinmetall 37 mm guns and four Oerlikon 20 mm guns, she could carry up to 135 mines. She was fitted with two depth charge throwers. With 12 Soviet aircraft shot down and numerous Soviet warships sunk or damaged by her mines, Amiral Murgescu was the most effective Romanian Navy warship of the Second World War. Marsuinul was designed by NV Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw in the Hague, her design being an improvement of the earlier Vetehinen-class of the Finnish Navy, she was laid down at the Galați shipyard in 1938 and launched on 4 May 1941. She had a standard displacement of 620 tons, a length of 58 meters, a beam of 5.6 meters and a draught of 3.6 meters. Her power plant consisted of two MAN diesel engines and two electric motors powering two shafts, giving her a top speed of 16 knots on surface and 9 knots in immersion.

She was armed with one 105 mm deck gun, one 37 mm anti-aircraft gun and six 533 mm torpedo tubes, her crew amounting to 45. Rechinul was a minelaying submarine designed by Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw and built at the Galați shipyard in Romania, she was laid down in 1938 and launched on 22 May 1941. She had the same power plant as her sister, with a faster surface top speed of 17 knots, due to her standard displacement of 585 tons, her submerged top speed was however 9 knots. She was armed with four 533 mm torpedo tubes, one 88 mm deck gun, one 20 mm anti-aircraft gun and could carry up to 40 mines in 10 vertical tubes, her crew amounted to 40. Four vessels of the German M1940 type were acquired by the Romanian Navy in 1943, they were built locally from German materials. These Romanian warships had a standard displacement of 543 tons and a full load displacement of 775 tons, they measured 62 meters with a beam of 8.5 meters and a draught of 2.3 meters. Armament consisted of two 88 mm guns plus one twin 37 mm and three single 20 mm anti-aircraft guns, as well as two depth charge throwers.

Two-shaft triple-expansion coal engines generated an output of 2,400 hp resulting in a top speed of 17 knots and a range of just over 1,000 nautical miles at that speed. Each of the four vessels had a crew of 80. In 1951, their power plants were converted to oil, it is possible that, although launched in 1943, none of the ships was completed by the end of the war, but in 1953. The Vedenia class was a unique derivation of the British Power Boat MTB. By design, the six vessels of this class represented the Dutch version of the Power boat, they were built under licence at the Galați shipyard in Romania, being laid down in 1939 and commissioned in 1943. The six boats, numbered 4 to 9, were named Vedenia, Vântul, Viforul, Vârtejul and Vulcanul. Vijelia and Viforul were named after their Vospers type predecessors, which were sunk in November 1941 by Soviet mines; each of the six boats was armed with two 457 mm torpedo tubes. The six boats were in service until at least 1954; as of 1942, the first military vessel known to have been built in Romania was still in use.

She was a 10-ton steam launch, used for bord

2007 Mazda Champ Car Grand Prix of Portland

The 2007 Mazda Champ Car Grand Prix of Portland was the fourth round of the 2007 Champ Car World Series Season. It was held on June 10 in Portland, Oregon, it featured the first standing start in Champ Car history. Sébastien Bourdais claimed the victory to make it three wins in four races this season. Rain on Saturday meant that the pole was decided during the Qualification 1 session on Friday. Robert Doornbos led the wet Saturday session to start second beside Justin Wilson. Despite worries about stalled cars and carnage, the first standing start in Champ Car history was executed as all 17 cars got away from the grid; the race was notable for its lack of caution flags. Only two cars failed to finished, with both Katherine Legge and Jan Heylen both running into problems just before the checkered flag. Pole sitter Justin Wilson lead from the start. Sébastien Bourdais was in fifth place as late as lap 25 after stretching his fuel economy. By short-filling his fuel tank during his first pit stop, Sébastien Bourdais came out on track in second place and was able to run faster than anyone else on the track passing Wilson after the second pit stop.

Once in first, he drove away to his third consecutive victory and the 100th in Newman/Haas/Lanigan team history. None

Coat of arms of the Collectivity of Saint Martin

There are various logos and emblems used by the Territorial Council of Saint Martin, one of, a logo contains the name "Saint-Martin", with "Caraïbe Française" and "French Caribbean" written in small text below. A blue ribbon depicts the stylized letter "S", while a green ribbon depicts a stylized "M". Another logo depicts various symbols of Saint Martin like the pelican and coralita flowers, the border monument, slavery walls, sea, sunrise and shells. Another logo depicts a gray outline of the island of Saint Martin with a bird flapping its wing, it appeared on the government website. There is another coat of the Collectivity of Saint Martin, used, it features palm leaves in front of a sun to symbolize the tropical climate, a pelican symbolizing the fauna of the island, a hibiscus symbolizing the flora, a ship symbolizing the tourism-related boating and the words "Collectivité de Saint Martin" on the top. The commune that existed until 22 February 2007 used similar arms but with the legend "Ville de Saint Martin".

Flag of Saint Martin

Wheeler J. North

Wheeler James North, born in San Francisco, was a marine biologist and environmental scientist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the California Institute of Technology. He is best known for his pioneering work to understand the ecology of California’s coastal kelp forests, pioneering work in biomass fuels and the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Wheeler James North was born January 2, 1922 in San Francisco to Wheeler O. and Florence North, grew up at a mining camp at La Fe in Zacatecas, Mexico, as his father was a mining engineer and his mother was an assay chemist. In 1927, the family moved to California. In 1940, North graduated from The Thacher School in Ojai and entered college at the California Institute of Technology. While still in college in December 1942, North enlisted in the U. S. Army Signal Corps, which allowed him to complete his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1944. After training in U. S. Army Officers Candidate School at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Signal Corps and assigned to the Philippines.

However, North arrived in Southeast Asia after VJ Day in August 1945 but stayed in the Philippines and Japan as part of the American occupying forces until August 1946. After two years working with the U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory in San Diego, North returned to Caltech in September 1948 and completed a second bachelor's degree in biology in 1950. North earned masters and Ph. D. degrees in Biological Oceanography at the University of California Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1953 studying in the laboratory of Denis Fox. North undertook postdoctoral work with a National Science Foundation fellowship at the Plymouth Marine Laboratory and Cambridge University in England. Wheeler James North began his academic career teaching at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1953, after which North joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology in September 1962. Although North taught marine biology courses at the Caltech main campus in Pasadena, North spent much of his time undertaking research at the Caltech’s Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory in Corona del MarNorth’s principal research interest was marine ecology the kelp beds off Southern California and the population ecology of sea urchins.

North studied the effects of sewage outfalls and El Niño on kelp forests, the predation of kelp by sea urchins. North served as a consultant for California’s kelp-harvesting industry. North was one of the first marine scientists to employ SCUBA technology for marine research beginning as a student in 1949. While at Scripps, North worked with group studying the physiology of diving and was a pioneer in establishing scientific diving safety protocols. North was a consulting scientist after the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, after 1973 oil crisis, he studied the possibility of kelp farms to produce biomass as an alternative fuel. North contributed to the growth of the kelp farming industry in China. North studied the ecological effects of warm-water discharges from nuclear power plants on kelp forests, in the early 1990s North undertook studies to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide using marine biomass and clathrate hydrates. North, W. J. and C. F. A. Pantin.. Sensitivity to light in the sea-anemone Metridium senile: adaptation and action spectra.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 148:385-396. North, W. J.. The Golden Guide to Scuba Diving: Handbook of Underwater Activities. Golden Press, New York. 160pp. ISBN 978-0-307-24012-5. North, W. J. and J. S. Pearse.. Sea urchin population explosion in southern California coastal waters. Science 167:209-210. North, W. J.. Underwater California. University of California Press, Berkeley. 320pp. ISBN 978-0-520-03039-8. North, W. J.. Adverse factors affecting giant kelp and associated seaweeds. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 35:445-447. Wheeler, P. A. and W. J. North. Nitrogen supply, tissue composition and frond growth rates for Macrocystis pyrifera off the coast of southern California. Marine Biology 64:59-69. Wilson, K. C. and W. J. North. A review of kelp bed management in southern California. Journal of the World Mariculture Society 14:345-359. Wilcox, H. A. and W. J. North. Carbon dioxide reforestation. Science 247:1493-1494. North, W. J. V. R. Blackwell, J. J. Morgan.. Studies of carbon dioxide hydrate dissolution.

Environmental Science and Technology 32:676-681. Wheeler James North was married on 16 Aug 1952 in La Jolla to Nancy J. Fountain of Oklahoma, a laboratory technician at Scripps Oceanographic Institution and they had a son Wheeler O. North. On April 25, 1964, North married his second wife. In 1974, Barbara Best North was a co-author along with Grover C. Stephens of a textbook on Biology, she received further training as a physician and she entered private practice specializing in holistic health. Upon North's death on December 20, 2002 at Newport Beach, the Southern California Academy of Sciences established the Wheeler North Award for Scientific Excellence given for excellence in research emphasizing the Southern California area and a commitment to the Southern California scientific community

Anthony Cumia

Anthony Cumia is an American radio personality and broadcaster, best known as the co-host of the Opie and Anthony radio show with Gregg "Opie" Hughes that aired from 1995 to 2014, alongside comedian Jim Norton from 2001. In 2014, Cumia was fired by SiriusXM Radio after posting a series of tweets "racially-charged and hate-filled", he started his own video podcast soon after named The Anthony Cumia Show, which aired until September 2017, when he started The Artie and Anthony Show with comedian and actor Artie Lange. In May 2018, Lange was replaced by Dave Landau. Cumia was born in Queens in New York City, in 1961, into an Italian American family, he has an elder brother, a younger sister, Dawn. The family lived in various locations on Long Island including East Islip. Cumia attended Timber Point Elementary School in East Islip, followed by Elwood-John H. Glenn High School in Elwood. After his parents separated, Cumia spent his early teenage years living with his father in San Juan Capistrano, California.

Before he started his radio career, Cumia installed heating and air conditioning systems. He wanted to get into radio, was influenced by popular New York City personalities Howard Stern and Don Imus. Cumia first met radio personality Gregg "Opie" Hughes when the latter held an O. J. Simpson song parody contest on his Nighttime Attitude show on Long Island radio station WBAB, he and Joe decided to enter the contest, recorded an entry as Rotgut titled "Gonna Electric Shock OJ" to the tune of " The Dock of the Bay" by Otis Redding. The song was a hit with Hughes, who played it several times on his show and, in September 1994, invited the Cumias to the studio to perform the song live. Cumia began to contribute and produce comedy bits for Hughes and the station's morning show soon after, while working his installation job. By early 1995, Hughes and Cumia decided to become the hosts of their own radio show, Hughes produced an air check and sent it to several stations. Hughes and Cumia accepted an offer to host afternoons at WAAF in Boston and launched Opie and Anthony in March 1995.

Cumia thought that by getting into radio he would make good money, but said his salary at WAAF was higher than doing manual labour. The pair were fired in April 1998 for an April Fool's Day prank that had listeners believe Boston Mayor Thomas Menino was killed in a car accident while transporting a young female Haitian prostitute. Cumia referred to their days on WAAF as the most cringe-inducing moments of his career. In June 1998, Opie and Anthony began at WNEW in New York City in afternoons, becoming a top 10 afternoon drive show in two years. Around 2000, Hughes considered leaving the show but Cumia convinced him to stay as Infinity Broadcasting promised them a more lucrative contract and have the show nationally syndicated; the show developed further when comedian Jim Norton joined the show as their co-host in 2001, as a go between for their off air troubles. By mid-2002, Opie and Anthony was syndicated on 17 stations nationwide. On August 22, 2002, Opie and Anthony was cancelled over their "Sex for Sam 3" segment five days earlier that involved a Virginia couple having simulated sex in St. Patrick's Cathedral.

Infinity kept Hughes and Cumia from being hired for the duration of their contract which expired in mid-2004. On October 4, 2004, the show returned to the air on XM Satellite Radio, a subscription-based satellite radio service. From April 2006 to March 2009, part of the show was simulcast on nine terrestrial radio stations owned by CBS Radio, compliant to the broadcast regulations imposed by the Federal Communications Commission. During this time, XM suspended the show for thirty days on May 15, 2007 after a homeless man dubbed "Homeless Charlie" expressed his wish to rape Condoleezza Rice and Laura Bush. On July 3, 2014, Cumia was fired by SiriusXM for a series of tweets against a black woman who assaulted him which were described by the company as "racially-charged and hate-filled", his firing came after Cumia stated that he was punched by a black woman as he was taking pictures in Times Square. In the following week, Cumia refused to apologize for the incident, he deleted the tweets after being fired.

During his time at SiriusXM, Cumia built a studio in his home to broadcast. In 2012, he launched Live from the Compound via Ustream that he started as a hobby and involved discussions on a variety of matters and "drunk karaoke". Cumia retired the program in 2014. In the week after his firing from SiriusXM in July 2014, Cumia announced the launch of The Anthony Cumia Show, a "live, uncensored HD video podcast" broadcast from his home studio, he was "petrified" about the show's success and lacked the confidence to turn the project into a full-time job, but hired people to help get the show running in one month. The show launched on August 4, 2014 through his subscription-based network, Compound Media, known as The Anthony Cumia Network, from Monday through Thursday from 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm. In June 2015, Cumia expanded. In August 2015, Cumia relocated his show to a studio in New York City to better suit guests and the new hosts. On August 21, 2017, Cumia announced the addition of comedian and actor Artie Lange as the co-host of his new show, The Artie and Anthony Show.

The show continued on the same schedule as The Anthony Cumia Show. The show lasted eight months and ended with Lange's departure on May 14, 2018. One week prior to Lange's departure, the show had added comedian Dave Landau as a permanent third mic. With Lange leaving the show, Landau took ov