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Hyrcanus II

John Hyrcanus II, a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish High Priest in the 1st century BCE. He was briefly King of Judea 67–66 BCE and the ethnarch of Judea over the period 47–40 BCE. Hyrcanus was the eldest son of Alexander Jannaeus and High Priest, Alexandra Salome. After the death of Alexander in 76 BCE, his widow succeeded to the rule of Judea and installed her elder son Hyrcanus as High Priest. Alexander had numerous conflicts with the Pharisees; however Hyrcanus was supported by the Pharisees later in his tenure. When Salome died in 67 BCE, she named Hyrcanus as her successor as ruler of Judea as well, but soon he and his younger brother, Aristobulus II, dissented over the right to the throne. Hyrcanus had scarcely reigned three months. Hyrcanus advanced against him at the head of his followers; the brothers met in a battle near Jericho with many of Hyrcanus' soldiers going over to Aristobulus II, thereby gave the latter the victory. Hyrcanus took refuge in the citadel of Jerusalem.

A peace was concluded in which Hyrcanus was to renounce the throne and the office of high priest, but was to enjoy the revenues of the latter office. This agreement did not last. Hyrcanus feared; such fears were furthered by Antipater the Idumean. According to Josephus, Antipater sought to control Judea by putting the weak Hyrcanus back onto the throne. Hyrcanus took refuge with Aretas III, King of the Nabataeans, bribed by Antipater into supporting Hyrcanus' cause through the promise of returning Arabian towns taken by the Hasmoneans; the Nabataeans advanced toward Jerusalem with an army of 50,000, took the city and besieged the Temple where Aristobulus had taken refuge for several months. During the siege, Josephus states that the adherents of Hyrcanus stoned the pious Onias, who had refused to pray for the demise of their opponents, further angered the priests who were fighting along with Aristobulus by selling them cattle for the paschal sacrifice for the enormous price of one thousand drachmae and refused to deliver the promised animals for the sacrifice.

During the Roman civil war, the Roman general Pompey defeated armies of the kingdoms of Pontus and the Seleucids. He sent his deputy Marcus Aemilius Scaurus to take possession of Seleucid Syria; as the Hasmoneans were allies of the Romans, both brothers appealed to Scaurus, each endeavouring through gifts and promises to win him over to his side. Scaurus, moved by a gift of 400 talents, decided in favour of Aristobulus and ordered Aretas to withdraw his army. During his retreat, the Nabateans suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Aristobulus. Scaurus returned to Damascus; when Pompey arrived in Syria in 63 BCE, both brothers and a third party that desired the removal of the entire dynasty, sent their delegates to Pompey, who delayed making a decision. He favoured Hyrcanus over Aristobulus, deeming the elder, weaker brother a more reliable ally of the Roman Empire. Aristobulus, suspicious of Pompey's intentions, entrenched himself in the fortress of Alexandrium, but when the Roman army approached Judea, he surrendered and undertook to deliver Jerusalem over to them.

However, since many of his followers were unwilling to open the gates, the Romans besieged and captured the city by force, badly damaging city and the temple. Aristobulus was taken to Hyrcanus restored as high priest in Jerusalem. By around 63 BCE, Hyrcanus had been restored to his position as High Priest but not to the Kingship. Political authority rested with the Romans whose interests were represented by Antipater, who promoted the interests of his own house. In 47 BCE, Julius Caesar restored some political authority to Hyrcanus by appointing him ethnarch; this however had little practical effect. In 40 BCE, Aristobulus' son Antigonus Mattathias allied himself with the Parthians and was proclaimed King and High Priest. Hyrcanus was seized and his ears mutilated to make him permanently ineligible for the priesthood. Hyrcanus was taken by the Parthians into captivity in Babylonia, where he lived for four years amid the Babylonian Jews, who paid him every mark of respect. In 36 BCE, Herod I, who had vanquished Antigonus with Roman help and feared that Hyrcanus might persuade the Parthians to help him regain the throne, invited the former High Priest to return to Jerusalem.

Hyrcanus accepted and Herod received him with every mark of respect, assigning to him the first place at his table and the presidency of the state council. However, in 30 BCE Herod put him to death. Josephus states. Biblical scholar Gregory Doudna proposed in 2013 that Hyrcanus II was the figure known as the Teacher of Righteousness in the Qumran Scrolls. According to Doudna, Hyrcanus II’s sectarian orientation is now understood to have been Sadducee. Hasmonean coinage Hyrcania This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore. "Hyrcanus II". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Hammond, Martin; the Jewish War, by Josephus. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0191057595. Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the

Omar Basaad

Omar Basaad is a Saudi Arabian, music producer Record producer and record label owner and A DJ. Basaad was born in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia He spent his teenage years producing music in Saudi Arabia and England with his first official remix released in 2008 with Tarkan, he is the first Arab to release the world's first Arabic Dubstep track on beatport. Omar Basaad is founder of his own record label, Coexist Records, he was chosen as the best Saudi DJ and Electronic Dance Music Producer by Saudi Gazette. He became the first official Saudi EDM producer to represent Saudi Arabia internationally. 2009 – Nehayitna 2009 – Beirut 2009 – Sweet pain 2010 – Knt ahlami 2010 – Violinchello 2010 – Dayman Gambi 2011 – To The Beat 2011 – AR 2011 - Theme Of Life 2012 – La Chants 2012 - Nehyitna Eh 2012 - Let It Go 2013 - Power 88 2013 - Power 88 2013 - Gamma 2014 - Hojan 2014 - Sweet Pain 2014 - Exist 2014 - 2 Love 2015 - Revenge 2015 - Be You 2015 - Someone Else 2015 - Why Do We Run 2016 - Never Surrender 2016 - Trash Love 2016 - Mov/es 2017 - Remain 2018 - Ride The Wave 2018 - Braap 2018 - Violet 2018 - S O B 2018 - Ludo 2019 - Buzz Light 2019 - Mona Lisa Track Listing 1- Omar Basaad - iGen 2- Omar Basaad - The Need 3- Omar Basaad - Darlin 4- Omar Basaad - Mona Lisa 5- Omar Basaad - Heart For Sale 6- Omar Basaad - Fall Track Listing 1- Omar Basaad - 6612 2- Omar Basaad - Can't Let Go 3- Omar Basaad - Good Vibes Only 4- Omar Basaad - Sol 5- Omar Basaad - Emblem Track listing 1- Omar Basaad Feat.

Thallie Ann Seenyen - Castles On Fire 2- Omar Basaad - 3 Minutes To Rave 3- Omar Basaad - Zone 1 4- Omar Basaad - Vega 5- Omar Basaad Feat. Thallie Ann Seenyen - Castles On Fire 6- Omar Basaad Feat. Thallie Ann Seenyen - Castles On Fire 2008 – Tarkan – Vay Anam Vay 2010 – Abdil Fatah Al Gereni – Eba Eftekerni 2010 – Christian Aguilera – Not My Self Tonight 2010 – Abdil Fatah Al Gereni – Bahib Ashoufak 2011 – Mohammed Al Zaylai – Wein Ayamak 2011 – Abdil Fatah Al Gereni – Ahla Mafi Al Donya 2011 – Rashed Al Majed – Gal Al Weda3 2012 – Abbas Ibrahem – Kil Sa3a 2013 - 3LAU & Paris & Simo Feat. Bright Lights - Escape 2015 - Jean Marie Riachi - Sahara Al Arab 2017 - French Montana - Unforgettable

Taiwan Prefecture

Taiwan Prefecture or Taiwanfu was a prefecture of Taiwan during the Qing dynasty. The prefecture was established by the Qing dynasty government in 1684, after the island "became an integral part of the Chinese Empire" in 1683; the Taiwan Prefecture Gazetteer documented it as part of Fujian Province. The Taiwan Prefecture Gazetteer was completed by Gao Gonggan in 1695, the 34th year of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor; when the Qing wrested the island from the control of the Kingdom of Tungning in 1683, Taiwan was made a prefecture under the administration of Fujian Province. The new prefecture consisted of three counties: Zhuluo County, the central western plains and the north Taiwan County, around the prefectural seat at Taiwan Fengshan County, which took up much of present-day Kaohsiung and Pingtung CountyThe aboriginal lands on the east coast—known to the Qing as the "Land Behind the Mountains" —were not controlled at all, although they were vaguely claimed as part of the empire; the seat of government known as "Taiwan" or "Taiwanfu", was located in modern-day Tainan, "which city had been in turn the capital of the Dutch and the Chinese".

During this period, Taiwan was administered as two subprefectures. The counties were, from south to north: Fongshan County: one town, 8 Chinese villages, 73 uncivilized native villages, 8 civilized native villages Kagi County: one town, 4 Chinese villages, 22 uncivilized native villages, 8 civilized native villages Changhwa County: one town, 16 villagesThe subprefectures were: Pescadores Subprefecture Tamsui Subprefecture: one town, 132 farms, 70 native villages An administrative change occurred in 1875, when Imperial Commissioner Shen Pao-chen demanded that another prefecture be added in Taiwan to revamp the administrative organization of the northern area of the island; as a result, Taipeh Prefecture was created from part of Taiwan Prefecture. Fokien-Taiwan Province was established in 1887, consisting of four prefectures: Taipeh, Taiwan and Taitung. Tainan Prefecture was created from part of Taiwan Prefecture, thus Taiwan Prefecture was reduced to the area of central Taiwan only, composed of the modern-day Miaoli County, Taichung City, Nantou County, Changhua County, Yunlin County.

The new prefecture was divided into four counties and one subprefecture: Taiwan County, Changhua County, Yunlin County, Miaoli County, Puli Subprefecture. The new prefecture seat was located at the central city of Toatun, designated as the site of the new provincial capital, taking its name as Taiwanfu or Taiwan. However, during construction of the new capital, the provincial capital was temporarily relocated to the city of Taipeh. One of the administrators of Taiwan Prefecture was a native priest of Taiwan. Four years after development of Toatun began, the seat of Taipeh was declared the provincial capital. In 1895, with the Treaty of Shimonoseki and the successful Japanese invasion of Taiwan, Taiwan Prefecture was abolished. Under Japanese rule, the province was abolished in favor of Japanese-style divisions. Zhou Taiwan under Qing rule Tainan and Taichung Taichū Prefecture

Beijing Antique Market

Beijing Antique Market known as The Dirt Market, is Beijing’s biggest and best-known arts and antiques market, the Chinese name is "Panjiayuan". "Panjiayuan". Another English name is "Beijing Curio Market", it is located in south east Beijing, near the Panjiayuan Bridge, East 3rd Ring Road South, Chaoyang District. It covers an area of 48,500 square meters. There are with nearly 10,000 dealers; the market is divided into five parts: Buddhism Statues Area. In the western part of the market, it is an open-air area where large stone sculptures are sold out of trucks. Antique Furniture Area. Next to the Buddhism Statues Area, two-storied building that houses traditional furniture and Cultural Revolution articles. "High-rank" Antique Store Area. Books and Scrolls Area. A narrow lane in the south where secondhand books and ancient scrolls are sold. Middle Area. A semi-covered area that forms the main part of the market; this is open only at the weekends. Middle Area has four zones: Zone One. Chinese paintings, calligraphic works as well as beads and jade.

Zone Two. Beads, bronze vessels, ceramic vases and small wooden furniture. Zone Three. Chinese ethnic minority arts and crafts, trinkets and apparel. Many of these traders are from Tibet. Zone Four. Chinese ceramicsOn weekends the number of customers reaches 60,000~70,000 a day, including over 10,000 foreigners. Dozens of important foreign politicians, such as Hillary Clinton, Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives Dennis Hastert, Greek Prime Minister Costas Simitis, Romanian Prime Minister Nastase, Sri Lankan President Chandrika Kumaratunga, Thai Princess Sirindhorn have visited the market. Products sold at the market include: snuff bottles made in Hengshui, Yangliuqing New Year paintings, embroidery made in Jiangsu, wood carvings from Dongyang, stone carvings from Quyang, shadow play paraphernalia from Shandong and crystal ornaments from Jiangxi, boccaro wares from Yixing, bronze wares from Shaanxi, costumes from Yunnan, Tibetan Buddhist articles, white jade from Xinjiang, Jiaozhi pottery from Taiwan.

These folk handicrafts are gathered in the market before being distributed all over the world. Not all the antiques are genuine, so if one needs certainty it is best to shop elsewhere; this spontaneous market came into being in 1992 as a roadside market. As trade in folk antiques and handiwork grew, it had become a large antique and handiwork market spreading folk culture in 2002. Many Chinese antique collectors believe. In 2004, at the prize-awarding ceremony of the first Annual Top Ten Lists of Collection in China, the market was elected one of the top ten antique markets in China. 8:30 - 18:30 from Monday to Friday 4:30 - 18:30 Saturday and Sunday Chinese art Silk Street Liu, Dan. Beijing's Panjiayuan Market--an Oriental Goldmine. Beijing: Foreign Language Press. ISBN 978-7-119-04126-1. Wang, Jinchang. History Picking up from Panjiayuan Market. Beijing: China Social Science Press. ISBN 978-7-5004-6701-4. Yang, Qun. Investigation on Miao ethnic group in Panjiayuan Market. Beijing: China Writer Press.

ISBN 7-5063-3516-6. Ron Gluckman, Beijing's Dirt Market Ron Gluckman, Re-Made in China

Coronations in Oceania

Note: this article is one of a set, describing coronations around the world. For general information related to all coronations, please see the umbrella article Coronation. Coronations in Oceania are, or were, held in the following countries: Bau island chief Seru Epenisa Cakobau used Western cannons and muskets to subdue most of Fiji, he was crowned as Fiji's sovereign by European traders and residents, who desired a stable government in Fiji in order to safeguard their investments. Cakobau was crowned in May 1867 as King of Bau, recognized as King of Fiji in 1871. Sovereign authority over Fiji passed to the British crown, until Fiji regained its independence in 1970. Fiji is now a republic; the Kingdom of Hawaii held a coronation ritual for King Kalākaua and Queen Kapiʻolani on February 12, 1883, nine years after his accession. Kalākaua's accession in 1874 saw no ceremony due to the political unrest at the time and his unpopularity with the Emmaites, supporters of Queen Emma, he was speedily sworn in as monarch at Kīnaʻu Hale, the chamberlain's quarter next to the Iolani Palace.

Prior to this, the three previous monarchs were inaugurated at Kawaiahaʻo Church, where the feather cloak of Kamehameha was placed upon their shoulder. Two golden crowns were manufactured in England for Kalākaua's subsequent crowning ceremony, a large pavilion was erected in front of the newly completed ʻIolani Palace, into which the royals proceeded accompanied by bearers carrying the kahili, the ancient symbols of Hawaiian royalty. Given the diadem by a Reverend McIntosh, Kalākaua crowned himself, since no one was deemed sacred enough to crown an aliʻi, he crowned his queen. When the crown was unable to sit on Kapiʻolan's elaborate hair, it was forced on, bringing the queen to tears. Kalākaua's sister Liliʻuokalani reported that at the moment of his crowning, the sun was obscured by a cloud which gave way to reveal a single bright star. Since this incident occurred during daylight, it caused a sensation among the assembled witnesses. Liliʻuokalani, who succeeded Kalākaua in 1891, did not have a coronation prior to her overthrow in 1893 and the abolition of the Hawaiian monarchy.

Unlike the other islands of Polynesia, Niue had no nationally organized government or single ruling chief until the beginning of the 18th century. Before chiefs and heads of families exercised authority over different segments of the population. Around 1700 the concept of kingship appear to have been introduced through contact with Samoa or Tonga, from a succession of patu-iki ruled the island, the first of whom was Puni-mata who bathed in Papatea, near Hakupu; the island was ceded to the British Crown by the eighth Patu-iki, Togia-Pulu-toaki in 1900. Niue's kingship system was non-hereditary, leaders being elected by the population from among the heads of influential families. Following their election they were ceremonially anointed using traditional rituals, rather than European-style coronations; the new king was required to bathe or ceremonially cleanse himself by washing his body with scented oils. A senior chief would anoint the new ruler by dipping a lau-mamālu leave in a cup of coconut oil striking the king's head three times.

Songs were sung at the feast held to honor the king after his anointment. Each village would send representatives to attend the ceremony. Two stones are in the village of Alofi where Fata-a-iki were anointed, they are rough flat coral rocks, two feet wide. One other pillar-like stone lies at Tuapa. Seventy or eighty yards away were stone seats reserved for the council of chiefs. Only the last three Niuean monarchs' anointment were recorded by Westerners: Tui-toga, the first Christian king, was anointed on March 2, 1875, Fata-a-iki was anointed on November 21, 1888, Togia-Pulu-toaki, the last king, was anointed on June 30, 1898; the Kingdom of Rarotonga in reality had many kings ruling at once. The Ariki of Rarotonga was ceremonially anointed upon pillar stones similar to the Niuean kings, although their traditions were much older. In Arai Te Tonga, a marae, the spiritual center of the island, the pillar called Tau-Makeva was the location of many anointments in the island's history. Chiefs of Samoa were anointed in traditional ceremonies.

Malietoa Talavou Tonumaipe’a was anointed at Mulinu'u, the royal seat, on May 24, 1879. Malietoa Laupepa was anointed on March 19, 1880, according to the Samoan custom, installed at Mulinu'u. Malietoa Mataafa was anointed on September 1888, at Faleula, Upolu; the Malietoas were recognized as Kings of Samoa by the Europeans during the 19th centuries though they were not the only chiefs of the island. Tahiti was ruled by native kings of the Pōmare dynasty from 1788 to 1880, when the last monarch, Pōmare V, ceded his country to France. Details from the coronation ritual of Pōmare II, second King of Tahiti, have been preserved; the rite centered upon the maro ura, a sacred girdle symbolizing Pōmare's status and power, composed of yellow and red feathers, five yards long by fifteen inches wide. Black feathers bordered the garment's bottom; this robe contained the auburn hair of Richard Skinner, one of the mutineers from the H. M. S. Bounty who had elected to stay in Tahiti when Fletcher Christian set out for Pitcairn Island.

As the ship's barber, Skinner commanded special prestige among Tahitians, who val

Davie Park

Davie Park was a Scottish professional golfer who played during the mid-to-late 19th century. Park had five top-10 finishes in The Open Championship, his best performance came in 1866 Open Championship. David Park was born in Scotland circa 1840. In addition to his on-the-course skills as a player, Park was an excellent club maker, he had as an apprentice Peter Paxton who would go on to be a fine player as well as a club and ball maker. Park's best chance to win a major championship came when he played in the 1866 Open Championship held on 13 September at Prestwick Golf Club. Park finished two shots back, losing to his brother Willie Park, Sr. who won the Championship for the third time. There were 16 competitors in the tournament. Playing in a strong wind, Willie Park was in the first group out and was the pacesetter with a score of 54. Defending champion Andrew Strath and Davie Park were four behind, scoring 58. Willie Park extended his lead to five stokes after the second round. Despite a final round of 59, Willie Park set a useful target of 169.

Davie Park's final round of 56 gave him a total of second place. Robert Andrew was third, a further five strokes behind. Park's date of death is unknown. Note: Park played only in The Open Championship. NT = No tournament DNP = Did not play "T" indicates a tie for a place Yellow background for top-10