Trophonius was a Greek hero or daimon or god—it was never certain which one—with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia. The name is derived from τρέφω trepho, "to nourish". Strabo and several inscriptions refer to him as Zeus Trephonios. Several other chthonic Zeuses are known from the Greek world, including Zeus Μειλίχιος Meilikhios, Zeus Χθόνιος Chthonios, which were other names for Hades. Similar constructions are found in the Roman world. For example, a shrine at Lavinium in Lazio was dedicated to Aeneas under the title Iuppiter Indiges. Trophonius was king of Minyan Orchomenus and brother of Agamedes. According to the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, he built Apollo's temple at the oracle at Delphi with Agamedes. Once finished, the oracle told the brothers to do whatsoever they wished for six days and, on the seventh, their greatest wish would be granted, they were found dead on the seventh day. The maxim by Menander, "those whom the gods love die young", comes from this story.
Alternatively, according to Pausanias they built a treasure chamber for King Hyrieus of Boeotia. Using the secret entrance, they stole Hyrieus' fortune, he did not know who the thief was. Agamedes was trapped in it, he fled into the cavern at Lebadaea, disappeared forever. The cave of Trophonius was not discovered again until the Lebadaeans suffered a plague, consulted the Delphic Oracle; the Pythia advised them that an unnamed hero was angry at being neglected, that they should find his grave and offer him worship forthwith. Several unsuccessful searches followed, the plague continued unabated until a shepherd boy followed a trail of bees into a hole in the ground. Instead of honey, he found a daimon, Lebadaea lost its plague while gaining a popular oracle; the childless Xuthus in Euripides's Ion consults Trophonius on his way to Delphi. Apollonius of Tyana, a legendary wise man and seer of Late Antiquity, once visited the shrine and found that, when it came to philosophy, Trophonius was a proponent of sound Pythagorean doctrines.
Plutarch's De Genio Socratis relates an elaborate dream-vision concerning the cosmos and the afterlife, received at Trophonius' oracle. Pausanias, in his account of Boeotia, relates many details about the cult of Trophonius. Whoever desired to consult the oracle would live in a designated house for a period of days, bathing in the river Herkyna and living on sacrificial meat, he would sacrifice, by day, to a series of gods, including Cronus, Zeus the king, Hera the Charioteer, Demeter-Europa. At night, he would cast a ram into a pit sacred to Agamedes, drink from two rivers called Lethe and Mnemosyne, descend into a cave. Here, most consultees were frightened out of their wits, forgot the experience upon coming up. Afterward, the consultee would be seated upon a chair of Mnemosyne, where the priests of the shrine would record his ravings and compose an oracle out of them. "To descend into the cave of Trophonios" became a proverbial way of saying "to suffer a great fright". This saying is alluded to in Aristophanes' Clouds.
Several ancient philosophers, including Heraclides Ponticus, wrote commentaries on the cult of Trophonios that are now sadly lost. Trophonios has been of interest to classical scholars because the rivers of Lethe and Mnemosyne have close parallels with the Myth of Er at the end of Plato's Republic, with a series of Orphic funerary inscriptions on gold leaves, with several passages about Memory and forgetting in Hesiod's Theogony; the Hellfire Club once constructed a "Cave of Trophonius" with obscene wall-paintings in which to conduct their revels. The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche calls himself a "Trophonios" in the preface to his Daybreak, alluding to his labor in the underground of moral prejudices. Black-and-white photo essay of the Oracle of Trophonius at Lebadaea
Zeus is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter, his mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Jupiter, Perkūnas, Perun and Thor. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is said to have fathered Ares and Hephaestus. At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad states that he fathered Aphrodite. Zeus was infamous for his erotic escapades; these resulted in many divine and heroic offspring, including Athena, Artemis, Persephone, Perseus, Helen of Troy and the Muses. He was respected as an allfather, chief of the gods and assigned the others to their roles: "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, all the gods rise in his presence."
He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men". Zeus' symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty; the god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς. It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεῦ. Diogenes Laërtius quotes Pherecydes of Syros as spelling the name, Ζάς. Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky called *Dyeus ph2tēr; the god is known under this name in the Rigveda, deriving from the root *dyeu-. Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology; the earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek, di-we and, di-wo, written in the Linear B syllabic script.
Plato, in his Cratylus, gives a folk etymology of Zeus meaning "cause of life always to all things," because of puns between alternate titles of Zeus with the Greek words for life and "because of." This etymology, along with Plato's entire method of deriving etymologies, is not supported by modern scholarship. Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Hera and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overthrown by his son as he had overthrown Uranus, his own father, an oracle that Rhea heard and wished to avert; when Zeus was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete, handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed. Varying versions of the story exist: According to Hyginus ) Zeus was raised by a nymph named Amalthea. Since Saturn ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth and sky and thus, invisible to his father.
According to Pseudo-Apollodorus ) Zeus was raised by a goat named Amalthea in a cave called Dictaeon Antron. A a company of soldiers called Kouretes danced and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry. After reaching manhood, Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus cut Cronus's stomach open. Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe; as a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, hidden by Gaia. Together, his brothers and sisters and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy; the defeated Titans were cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans who fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky.
After the battle with the Titans, Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air, Poseidon the waters, Hades the world of the dead. The ancient Earth, could not be claimed. Gaia resented. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon and Echidna, he left Echidna and her children alive. When Zeus was atop Mount Olympus he was appalled by human sac
Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, 7 kilometres off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios regional unit, part of the North Aegean region; the principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios. Locals refer to Chios town as "Chora", it was the site of the Chios massacre in which tens of thousands of Greeks on the island were killed by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822. Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped, 50 km long from north to south, 29 km at its widest, covering an area of 842.289 km2. The terrain is arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island; the two largest of these mountains and Epos, are situated in the north of the island.
The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of smaller peaks, known as Provatas. Chios can be divided into five regions: Midway up the east coast lie the main population centers, the main town of Chios, the regions of Vrontados and Kambos. Chios Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the island's main harbour and medieval castle; the current castle, with a perimeter of 1,400 m, was principally constructed during the time of Venetian and Ottoman rule, although remains have been found dating settlements there back to 2000 B. C; the town was damaged by an earthquake in 1881, only retains its original character. North of Chios Town lies the large suburb of Vrontados; the suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, its connection to the poet is supported by an archaeological site known traditionally as "Teacher's Rock". In the southern region of the island are the Mastichochoria, the seven villages of Mesta, Olympi, Vessa and Elata, which together have controlled the production of mastic gum in the area since the Roman period.
The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates. Between Chios Town and the Mastichochoria lie a large number of historic villages including Armolia and Kalimassia. Along the east coast are the fishing villages to the south, Nenita. Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, after three monks, living in caves nearby, had petitioned him while he was in exile on the island of Mytilene. The monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822, it was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake. In 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni was converted to a convent; the island's climate is warm and moderate, categorised as Temperate, with modest variation due to the stabilising effect of the surrounding sea.
Average temperatures range from a summer high of 27 °C to a winter low of 11 °C in January, although temperatures of over 40 °C or below freezing can sometimes be encountered. The island experiences steady breezes throughout the year, with wind direction predominantly northerly or southwesterly; the Chios Basin is a hydrographic sub-unit of the Aegean Sea adjacent to the island of Chios. Known as "Ophioussa" and "Pityoussa" in antiquity, during the Middle Ages the island was ruled by a number of non-Greek powers and was known as Scio and Sakız; the capital during that time was "Kastron". Archaeological research on Chios has found evidence of habitation dating back at least to the Neolithic era; the primary sites of research for this period have been cave dwellings at Hagio Galas in the north and a settlement and accompanying necropolis in modern-day Emporeio at the far south of the island. Scholars lack information on this period; the size and duration of these settlements have therefore not been well-established.
The British School at Athens under the direction of Sinclair Hood excavated the Emporeio site in 1952–1955, most current information comes from these digs. The Greek Archaeological Service has been excavating periodically on Chios since 1970, though much of its work on the island remains unpublished; the noticeable uniformity in the size of houses at Emporeio leads some scholars to believe that there may have been little social distinction during the Neolithic era on the island. The inhabitants all benefited from agricultural and livestock farming, it is widely held by scholars that the island was not occupied by humans during the Middle Bronze Age, though researchers have suggested that the lack of evidence from this period may o
The Dionysiaca is an ancient Greek epic poem and the principal work of Nonnus. It is an epic in 48 books, the longest surviving poem from antiquity at 20,426 lines, composed in Homeric dialect and dactylic hexameters, the main subject of, the life of Dionysus, his expedition to India, his triumphant return to the west; the poem is thought to have been written in the late 4th and/or early 5th century. The Dionysiaca appears to be incomplete, some scholars believe that a 49th book was being planned when Nonnus stopped work on the poem, although others point out that the number of books in the Dionysiaca is the same as the 48 books of the Iliad and Odyssey combined, it has been conjectured that conversion to Christianity or death caused Nonnus to abandon the poem after some revisions. Editors have pointed out various inconsistencies and the difficulties of Book 39 which appears to be a disjointed series of descriptions, as evidence of the poem's lack of revision. Others have attributed these problems to copyists or editors, but most scholars agree on the poem's incompleteness.
The primary models for Nonnus are the Cyclic poets. The influence of Euripides' Bacchae is significant, as is the influence of the other tragedians whose Dionysiac plays do not survive, his debt to poets whose work survives only in disjointed fragments is far harder to gauge, but it is that he alludes to earlier poets' treatments of the life of Dionysus, such as the lost poems by Euphorion, Peisander of Laranda's elaborate encyclopedic mythological poem and Soteirichus. Reflections of Hesiod's poetry the Catalogue of Women, of Pindar, Callimachus can all be seen in the work of Nonnus. Theocritus' influence can be detected in Nonnus' focus on pastoral themes. Virgil and Ovid seem to have influenced Nonnus' organization of the poem. Nonnus seems to have been an important influence for the poets of Late Antiquity Musaeus, Colluthus and Dracontius. Although it is difficult to determine whether Claudian influenced Nonnus or Nonnus influenced Claudian, the two poets have some striking similarities in their treatments of Persephone.
Nonnus remained continuously important in the Byzantine world, his influence can be found in Genesius and Planudes. In the Renaissance, Poliziano popularized him to the West, Goethe admired him in the 18th century, he was admired by Thomas Love Peacock in 19th-century England. The metrics of Nonnus have been admired by scholars for the poet's careful handling of dactylic hexameter and innovation. While Homer has 32 varieties of hexameter lines, Nonnus only employs 9 variations, avoids elision, employs weak caesurae, follows a variety of euphonic and syllabic rules regarding word placement, it is remarkable that Nonnus was so exacting with meter because the quantitative meter of classical poetry was giving way in Nonnus' time to stressed meter. These metrical restraints encouraged the creation of new compounds and coined words, Nonnus' work has some of the greatest variety of coinages in any Greek poem; the poem is notably varied in its organization. Nonnus does not seem to arrange his poem in a linear chronology.
The poem states as its guiding principle poikilia, diversity in narrative and organization. The appearance of Proteus, a shapeshifting god, in the proem serves as a metaphor for Nonnus' varied style. Nonnus employs the style of the epyllion for many of his narrative sections, such as his treatment of Ampelus in 10–11, Nicaea in 15–16, Beroe in 41–43; these epyllia are inserted into the general narrative framework and are some of the highlights of the poem. Nonnus employs synkrisis, throughout his poem, most notably in the comparison of Dionysus and other heroes in Book 25; the complexity of organization and the richness of the language have caused the style of the poem to be termed Nonnian "Baroque." The size of Nonnus' poem and its late date between Imperial and Byzantine literature have caused the Dionysiaca to receive little attention from scholars. The contributor to the Encyclopædia Britannica, noting the poem's "vast and formless luxuriance, its beautiful but artificial versification, its delineation of action and passion to the entire neglect of character," remarked, "His chief merit consists in the systematic perfection to which he brought the Homeric hexameter.
But the correctness of the versification renders it monotonous. His influence on the vocabulary of his successors was very considerable," expressing the 19th-century attitude to this poem as a pretty and disorganized collection of stories; as with many other late classical poets, newer scholarship has avoided the value-laden judgments of 19th-century scholars and attempted to reassess and rehabilitate Nonnus' works. There are two main focuses of Nonnian scholarship today: structure. Nonnus' compendious accounts of Dionysiac legend and his use of variant traditions and lost sources have encouraged scholars to use him as a channel to recover lost Hellenistic poetry and mythic traditions; the edition of Nonnus in the Loeb Classical Library includes a "mythological introduction" which charts the "decline" of Dionysiac mythology in the poem and implies that the work's only value is as a repository of lost mythology. Nonnus remains an important source of mythology and information to those researching classical religion, Hellenistic poetry, Late Antiquity.
However, scholars have focused more positively on No
The Fasti or Fausti, sometimes translated as The Book of Days or On the Roman Calendar, is a six-book Latin poem written by the Roman poet Ovid and published in 8 AD. Ovid is believed to have left the Fasti incomplete when he was exiled to Tomis by the emperor Augustus in 8 AD. Written in elegiac couplets and drawing on conventions of Greek and Latin didactic poetry, the Fasti is structured as a series of eye-witness reports and interviews by the first-person vates with Roman deities, who explain the origins of Roman holidays and associated customs—often with multiple aetiologies; the poem is a significant, in some cases unique, source of fact in studies of religion in ancient Rome. G. Frazer annotated the work for the Loeb Classical Library series; each book covers one month, January through June, of the Roman calendar, was written several years after Julius Caesar replaced the old system of Roman time-keeping with what would come to be known as the Julian calendar. The popularity and reputation of the Fasti has fluctuated more than that of any of Ovid's other works.
The poem was read in the 15th–18th centuries, influenced a number of mythological paintings in the tradition of Western art. However, as scholar Carole E. Newlands has observed, throughout the 20th century "anthropologists and students of Roman religion … found it full of errors, an inadequate and unreliable source for Roman cultic practice and belief. Literary critics have regarded the Fasti as an artistic failure." In the late 1980s, the poem enjoyed a revival of scholarly interest and a subsequent reappraisal. Ovid was exiled from Rome for his subversive treatment of Augustus, yet the Fasti continues this treatment—which has led to the emergence of an argument in academia for treating the Fasti as a politically weighted work. Only the six books which concern the first six months of the year are extant, it may be that Ovid never finished it, that the remaining half is lost, or that only six books were intended. Ovid worked on the poem while he was in exile at Tomis; the Tristia, a collection of elegiac letters on the poet's exile, mentions the Fasti, that its completion had been interrupted by his banishment from Rome.
Ovid mentions that he had written the entire work, finished revising six books. However, no ancient source quotes a fragment from the six missing books; the Fasti is dedicated to a high-ranking member of the emperor Augustus's family. These circumstances have led some to speculate that the poem was written on religious and antiquarian themes in order to improve Ovid's standing with the rulers of Rome and secure his release from exile; the earliest classical calendrical poem which might have inspired Ovid is the Works and Days of Hesiod, which includes mythological lore, astronomical observations, an agricultural calendar. For the astronomical sections, Ovid was preceded by Aratus' Phaenomena as well as lost poetry on constellations and Germanicus' adaptation of Aratus; the most significant influence on Ovid were the Roman fasti, the Roman calendrical lists, which included dates, notices of festivals, ritual prohibitions and proscriptions, anniversaries of important events, sometimes aetiological material.
Ovid mentions consulting these calendars, such as his reference at 1.11 to pictos fastos and his references to the actual annotation marks of the calendar. The most important of these calendars for Ovid were the Fasti Praenestini, a contemporary calendar constructed and annotated by the grammarian Verrius Flaccus, whose fragments include much ritual material that can be found in Ovid's poem; the concept of putting these calendars into verse however, seems to be a uniquely Ovidian concept. Besides his use of calendars and astronomical poetry, Ovid's multi-generic, digressive narrative and learned poem depends on the full range of ancient poetry and prose. In this, one of the most important works for Ovid was Callimachus' Aetia; the Fourth Book of Propertius, who claimed to be the Roman Callimachus, might be a model since it deals with aetiologies of Roman customs and myths. His etymologizing implies an interest in Roman antiquarianism the works of Varro on etymology and Roman religion, he makes use of much Roman history writing, which must include lost historical poetry as well as the annal tradition (Ovid says in the prologue that one of his sources are ancient annals.
In his longer narrative sections, Ovid makes use of tragedy, epic poetry and Hellenistic mythological poems. For some episodes, the sources Ovid used are untraceable. On the Roman side, Ovid focuses on and employs Virgil's Aeneid and Eclogues, most notably in the long section on Anna in Book 3; as in the Metamorphoses, Ovid's use of Virgil is multifaceted. Ovid will deliberately pass over material covered in the Aeneid and expand a small section or a neglected episode into an elaborate narrative; the poem is an extensive treatment on fasti. Each of its separate books discusses one month of the Roman calendar, beginning with January, it contains some brief astronomical notes, but its more significant portions discuss the religious festivals of the Roman religion, the rites per
Poseidon was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth. He was god of other waters. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Thebes, his Roman equivalent is Neptune. Poseidon was protector of seafarers, of many Hellenic cities and colonies. In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War. In the Odyssey, during the sea-voyage from Troy back home to Ithaca, the Greek hero Odysseus provokes Poseidon's fury by blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, resulting in Poseidon punishing him with storms, the complete loss of his ship and companions, a ten-year delay. Poseidon is the subject of a Homeric hymn. In Plato's Timaeus and Critias, the island of Atlantis was Poseidon's domain; the earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is Po-se-da-o or Po-se-da-wo-ne, which correspond to Ποσειδάων and Ποσειδάϝονος in Mycenean Greek. The form Ποτειδάϝων appears in Corinth. A common epithet of Poseidon is Ἐνοσίχθων Enosichthon, "Earth-shaker", an epithet, identified in Linear B, as, E-ne-si-da-o-ne, This recalls his epithets Ennosidas and Ennosigaios indicating the chthonic nature of Poseidon.
The origins of the name "Poseidon" are unclear. One theory breaks it down into an element meaning "husband" or "lord" and another element meaning "earth", producing something like lord or spouse of Da, i.e. of the earth. Walter Burkert finds that "the second element da- remains hopelessly ambiguous" and finds a "husband of Earth" reading "quite impossible to prove."Another theory interprets the second element as related to the word *δᾶϝον dâwon, "water". There is the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin. Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two alternative etymologies: either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a "foot-bond", or he "knew many things". At least a few sources deem Poseidon as a "prehellenic" word, considering an Indo-European etymology "quite pointless". If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name po-se-da-wo-ne occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja. A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is found, indicating a lost consort goddess, in effect the precursor of Amphitrite.
Poseidon carries the title wa-na-ka in Linear B inscriptions, as king of the underworld. The chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos, a powerful attribute. In the cave of Amnisos Enesidaon is related with the cult of the goddess of childbirth, she was related with the annual birth of the divine child. During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, Wanax was her male companion in Mycenean cult, it is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription, however the interpretetion is still under dispute. In Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, Si-to Po-tini-ja is related with Demeter. Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for "the Two Queens and Poseidon"; the "Two Queens" may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in periods. The illuminating exception is the archaic and localised myth of the stallion Poseidon and mare Demeter at Phigalia in isolated and conservative Arcadia, noted by Pausanias as having fallen into desuetude.
The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys. In Arcadia, Demeter's mare-form was worshiped into historical times, her xoanon of Phigaleia shows. A Medusa type with a horse's head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin representing her power over air and water, it seems that the Arcadian myth is related with the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the Bronze Age.. Their religious beliefs were mixed with the beliefs of the indigenous population, it is possible that the Greeks did not bring with them other gods except Zeus and the Dioskouroi. The horse was related with the liquid element, with the underworld. Poseidon appears as a beast, the river spirit of the underworld, as it happens in northern-European folklore, not unusually in Greece. Poseidon “Wanax”, is the male companion of the goddess of nature. In the relative Minoan myth, Pasiphaë is mating with the white bull, she bears the hybrid creature Minotaur; the Bull was the old pre-Olympian Poseidon. The goddess of nature and her paredros survived in the Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered: " Mighty Potnia bore a strong son"In the sea-dependent Mycenaean culture, there is not sufficient evidence that Poseidon was connected with the sea.
We do not know. H
Corinna or Korinna was an ancient Greek lyric poet from Tanagra in Boeotia, called the most famous ancient Greek woman poet after Sappho. Although ancient testimonia portray her as a contemporary of Pindar, not all modern scholars accept the accuracy of this tradition, some claim that she is more to have lived in the Hellenistic period of 323 to 31 BCE, her works, which survive only in fragments, focus on local Boeotian legends. Though her poetry is of interest as the work of one of the few preserved female poets from ancient Greece, modern critics rate it poorly. Corinna was from Tanagra in Boeotia, the daughter – according to the Suda – of Acheloodorus and Procratia. According to ancient tradition, she lived during the 5th century BC, because she long resided in Thebes, she was sometimes called a Theban, she was supposed to have been a contemporary of Pindar, either having taught him, or been a fellow-pupil of Myrtis of Anthedon with Pindar. Corinna was said to have competed with Pindar, defeating him in at least one competition, though some sources claim five.
However, from the early twentieth century, scholars have been divided over the accuracy of the traditional chronology of Corinna's life. As early as 1930, Edgar Lobel argued that the language used in Corinna's surviving poetry seems to favour a date than tradition suggests, that there is no reason to believe that Corinna predated the mid-fourth century BC, the point at which the orthography preserved in the Berlin Papyrus of Corinna's poetry began to be used. More M. L. West has argued for dating Corinna to the late third century BC, W. J. Henderson supports a middle-ground, between West's late and the traditional early date. David A. Campbell judges it "almost certain" that her poetry belongs to the 3rd century BC. Other scholars such as Archibald Allen and Jiri Frel argue for the accuracy of the traditional date, writing that a Hellenistic Corinna as argued for by West would be "astonishing". Corinna, like Pindar, wrote choral lyric poetry – as demonstrated by her invocation of Terpsichore, the Muse of dance and chorus, in one of her fragments.
According to the Suda, she wrote five books of poetry. Derek Collins writes that "the most distinctive feature of Corinna's poetry is her mythological innovation", one ancient story says that Corinna considered that myth was the proper subject for poetry, rebuking Pindar for not paying sufficient attention to it. According to this story, Pindar responded to this criticism by packing his next ode full of myths, leading Corinna to advise him, "Sow with the hand, not with the sack." Corinna's poetry concentrates on local legends, with poems about Orion and the Seven Against Thebes. Her Orestes is an exception to her focus on Boeotian legends; some scholars state that Corinna wrote in the Boeotian dialect to convey her local pride and patriotism. Some Greek sources, describe her dialect as Aeolic with a strong Boeotian influence. Forty-two fragments of Corinna's poetry survive; the three most substantial fragments are preserved on pieces of papyrus discovered in Hermopolis and Oxyrhynchus in Egypt, dating to the second century AD.
Her poetic diction is clear and undecorated. Two of Corinna's most substantial fragments, the "Daughters of Asopus" and "Terpsichore" poems, demonstrate a strong interest in genealogy; this genealogical focus is reminiscent of the works of Hesiod the Catalogue of Women, though other lost genealogical poetry is known from the archaic period – for instance by Asius of Samos and Eumelus of Corinth. The third major surviving fragment of Corinna's poetry, on the contest between Mount Cithaeron and Mount Helicon seems to have been influenced by Hesiod, who wrote an account of this myth. Marylin Skinner argues that Corinna's poetry is part of the tradition of "women's poetry" in ancient Greece, though it differs from Sappho's conception of that genre, she suggests that Corinna's songs were composed for performance by a chorus of young girls in religious festivals, were related to the ancient genre of partheneia. Skinner considers that although it was written by a woman, Corinna's poetry tells stories from a patriarchal point of view, describing women's lives from a masculine perspective.
Corinna seems to have been well-regarded by the people of her hometown. Pausanias reports that there was a monument to her in the streets of the town – a statue – and a painting of her in the gymnasium. In the early Roman Empire, Corinna's poetry was popular: the earliest mention of Corinna is by the first century BC poet Antipater of Thessalonica, who includes her in his selection of nine "mortal muses". However, modern critics have tended considering it dull. Works written by or about Corinna at Wikisource