United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President
Air Training Corps
The Air Training Corps is a British youth organisation sponsored by the Ministry of Defence and the Royal Air Force. A Full Time Reserve Service RAF officer serves as Commandant Air Cadets at the rank of Air Commodore, the majority of staff are volunteers although some are paid for full-time work. Although many ATC cadets go on to join the RAF or other services, Cadet membership can begin from the start of School Year 8, or equivalent in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Service as a cadet ends at the age of 20, as of 2014, the ATC numbered 33,590 cadets and 10,430 Cadet Force Adult Volunteers. In addition, there are approximately 5,000 civilian committee members, together with the RAF contingents of the Combined Cadet Force, the ATC form the Air Cadet Organisation. The ATC is part of the Community Cadet Forces, Air Commodore Sir John Chamier is affectionately known as the father of the air cadet movement. The purpose of the Air Defence Cadet Corps, set up in 1938 by Air Commodore Chamier, was to young men in various aviation-related skills.
The ADCC proved popular, with thousands joining up, on 5 February 1941 the Air Training Corps was officially established, with King George VI agreeing to be the Air Commodore-in-Chief, and issuing a Royal Warrant setting out the Corps aims. Within the first month of its existence, the size of the old ADCC, now the ATC, virtually doubled to more than 400 squadrons, a new badge was designed for the ATC and, once approved by the King, was distributed in August 1941. The motto Venture Adventure, devised by Air Commodore Chamier, was adopted by the ATC, the new ATC squadrons adopted training programmes to prepare young men for entry to the Royal Air Force. Squadrons arranged visits to RAF and Fleet Air Arm stations as part of the cadets training, such opportunities were not widely available and many cadets were disappointed. One solution was to introduce opportunities for gliding, as a way to allow a cadet to get the feel of an aircraft in flight, after the end of the Second World War, gliding lessons became available.
As of 2013, the GVCAC still exists, although in reduced numbers due to competition from the ATC. After a number of lectures and when the cadet felt ready, they would take a multiple choice examination, some wings ran courses that would involve the cadet spending a few solid days learning and awarded the appropriate classification if successful in their exams. In May 2008, HQAC decided to change the programme for junior and second class cadets. Advertising material such as leaflets and official websites brand the Air Training Corps, members of the ATC may refer to themselves as Royal Air Force Air Cadets, although to the general population they are more commonly known as Air Cadets. The Air Training Corps is formed of six Regions across the United Kingdom, as of 2015 there are 1009 ATC squadrons and detached flights, each assigned to a wing. The ATC is the largest part of the Air Cadet Organisation, a FTRS RAF Air Commodore serves as Commandant Air Cadets
Hythe Pier, Railway and Ferry
Hythe Pier, the Hythe Pier Railway and the Hythe Ferry provide a link between the English port city of Southampton and the Hampshire village of Hythe on the west side of Southampton Water. It is used both by commuters and tourists, and forms an important link in the Solent Way and E9 European coastal paths, the pier and ferry service are currently operated by White Horse Ferries Ltd of Swindon. In October 2016 the White Horse Ferries staff were given redundancy letters which suggests an uncertain future from the pier, the railway is the oldest continuously operating public pier train in the world. Hythe Pier stretches 700 yards from the centre of Hythe to the water channel of Southampton Water. It is approximately 16 feet wide, and carries a pedestrian walkway and cycleway on its northern side, during normal high tides the pier is 4 feet above the surface of the water. A company was formed to construct a pier in 1870 and in 1871 it obtained an Act of Parliament in order to do so and this effort stalled and a pier was not constructed.
A second company called the Hythe Pier & Hythe & Southampton Ferry company was formed in late 1874, a new act passed parliament in 1875 but legal disagreements with the Southampton Harbour and Pier Board delayed royal assent until 1878. Construction started in 1879 and the pier opened in 1881, originally there was a tollhouse at the landward end of the pier, and this was replaced by the present ticket office in the first decade of the 20th century. Large scale maintenance was carried out on the pier in 1896 at a cost of £1,500, the 1878 Act of Parliament made provision for the construction of a tramway along the pier, although one was not originally laid. The trucks that carried luggage along the pier were found to be damaging the pier decking, the vehicles were hand-propelled, and the track was laid flush with the pier decking. In 1922 the railway was reconstructed and electrified, attaining its current form, the track is laid to 2 ft narrow gauge and is electrified at 250 V DC by a third rail on the seaward side of the track.
The line consists of a track with no passing loops. One of the sidings enters the lines covered workshop, equipped with low wooden platforms, exist at both ends of the line. The pier head station has a roof, whilst the landward station has a ticket office. The line is operated by two four-wheeled electric locomotives built in 1917 by Brush with works numbers 16302 &16307 and they were originally battery powered, being used at the World War I mustard gas factory at Avonmouth. They were transferred to Hythe after the war, where they were converted to power from a third rail and had their batteries removed. They are crudely numbered №1 & №2 on their seaward sides, there was initially a third locomotive but it was taken apart for spares. The line owns four bogie passenger cars, two of which have a cab at their seaward ends
Fawley Refinery is an oil refinery located at Fawley, England. The refinery is owned by Esso, which acquired the site in 1925, situated on Southampton Water, it was rebuilt and extended in 1951 and is now the largest oil refinery in the United Kingdom, and one of the most complex refineries in Europe. With a capacity of 270,000 barrels a day, Fawley provides 20 percent of UK refinery capacity, an estimated 2,300 people are employed at the site. The refinery was established in 1921 by the Atlantic, the site was chosen because a large amount of land was available for development, and the area was not heavily populated, and because of the position on Southampton Water. This provided access to the amount of water used in the refining process. Proximity to Southampton was a factor, as at the much of the plants output was used to supply liners using Southampton Docks. In 1939 capacity was around 600,000 tonnes of oil per annum which met just 6. 7% of UK demand. Refining ceased during World War II, when most refined oil for the UK was imported, in 1949 Esso embarked on the construction of a new refinery, and a further 1200 hectares of land were acquired.
The first stage of expansion, which came on-stream in 1951, consisted of primary distillation units. The refinery was opened by British prime minister Clement Attlee on 14 September 1951 and it had an initial estimated capacity of 157,000 barrels per day, or around one third of UK demand at that time. The chemical plant was created in 1958, additional refining capacity was added, and Fawleys capacity reached around 19,500,000 tonnes of crude oil per annum in 1973, and has since decreased, partly because of reduced demand for oil. Fawley refinery processes around 270,000 barrels of oil a day. Crude oil is transported by sea in tankers to the refinerys mile-long marine terminal, the crude oil is pumped into storage tanks before being processed. In addition to this, the refinery is home to the largest refrigerated LPG storage facility in Northern Europe, about 5% of Fawleys production is distributed by rail or road, 25% by sea and 70% by pipelines. The refinery at Fawley supplies feedstock to the adjacent chemical plant, the site houses a chemical facility operated by ExxonMobil and Nalco.
The ExxonMobil chemical plant produces approximately 750,000 tonnes of products every year. Butene is stored in seven large pressurised spheres - known as the seven sisters - that are a prominent feature of the Fawley site, the higher olefins plant is the largest chemical plant at Fawley. The 14 higher olefins manufactured at Fawley are shipped to other plants in Europe for further processing
Southampton Water is a tidal estuary north of the Solent and the Isle of Wight in England. The city of Southampton lies at its most northerly point, along its salt marsh-fringed western shores lie the New Forest villages of Hythe and the waterside, Dibden Bay, and the Esso oil refinery at Fawley. On the slightly steeper eastern shore are the Southampton suburb of Weston, the villages of Netley and Hamble-le-Rice, together with the Solent, Southampton Water is world-renowned for yachting. It served as one of the sailing and motorboating venues for the 1908 Summer Olympics, Southampton Water is classified as a ria, or drowned valley, of the English Channel. Southamptons emergence as a port, and particularly as a port handling very large vessels. Its depth, even in its state, was generous. An additional factor is the phenomenon of the tide, which results in unusually prolonged periods of high water. This greatly facilitates the movements of large ships. Southampton Water is an estuary with major potential for land use conflicts, an area of urban development runs in the narrow band of land between Southampton Water and the New Forest National Park.
Villages such as Marchwood, Dibden Purlieu, between Hythe and Marchwood, an area of reclaimed land - Dibden Bay - was the site of a proposed port expansion by Associated British ports. This was argued to be essential for the economic development of the Port of Southampton. The intertidal marshlands of Dibden Bay have international significance, the government accepted the recommendations of the planning inspector in April 2005. In July 2009, Associated British Ports launched a consultation on a 20-year masterplan for Southampton port
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Postcodes in the United Kingdom
Postal codes used in the United Kingdom are known as postcodes. They are alphanumeric and were adopted nationally between 11 October 1959 and 1974, having been devised by the GPO, a full postcode is known as a postcode unit and designates an area with a number of addresses or a single major delivery point. For example, the postcode of the University of Roehampton in London is SW15 5PU, the postcode of GCHQ is GL51 0EX, where GL signifies the postal town of Gloucester. The postal town refers to an area and does not relate to a specific town. GL51 is one of the postcodes for the town of Cheltenham which is where GCHQ is located, the London post town covers 40% of Greater London. On inception it was divided into ten districts, EC, WC, N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W. The S and NE sectors were abolished and these divisions changed little, usually only changed for operational efficiency. Some older road signs in Hackney still indicate the North East sector/district, following the successful introduction of postal districts in London, the system was extended to other large towns and cities.
Liverpool was divided into Eastern, Northern and Western districts in 1864/65, in 1917 Dublin – still part of the United Kingdom – was divided into numbered postal districts. These continue in use in a form by An Post. In 1923 Glasgow was divided in a way to London. In January 1932 the Postmaster General approved the designation of some urban areas into numbered districts. In November 1934 the Post Office announced the introduction of numbered districts in every town in the United Kingdom large enough to justify it. Pamphlets were issued to each householder and business in ten areas notifying them of the number of the district in which their premises lay, the pamphlets included a map of the districts, and copies were made available at local head post offices. The public were invited to include the district number in the address at the head of letters. A publicity campaign in the following year encouraged the use of the district numbers, the slogan for the campaign was For speed and certainty always use a postal district number on your letters and notepaper. A poster was fixed to every box in the affected areas bearing the number of the district.
Every post office in the district was to display this information
Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, the capital city of England. The larger South Hampshire metropolitan area has a population of 1,547,000, Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force. It is bordered by Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, Surrey to the north-east, the southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight. At its greatest size in 1890, Hampshire was the fifth largest county in England and it now has an overall area of 3,700 square kilometres, and measures about 86 kilometres east–west and 76 kilometres north–south. Hampshires tourist attractions include many seaside resorts and two parks, the New Forest and the South Downs. Hampshire has a maritime history and two of Europes largest ports and Southampton, lie on its coast. The county is famed as home of writers Jane Austen and Charles Dickens, Hampshire takes its name from the settlement that is now the city of Southampton.
Southampton was known in Old English as Hamtun, roughly meaning village-town, the old name was recorded in the Domesday book as Hantescire, and it is from this spelling that the modern abbreviation Hants derives. From 1889 until 1959, the county was named the County of Southampton and has been known as Southamptonshire. The region is believed to have continuously occupied since the end of the last Ice Age about 12,000 BCE. At this time Britain was still attached to the European continent and was covered with deciduous woodland. The first inhabitants came overland from Europe, these were anatomically and behaviourally modern humans, notable sites from this period include Bouldnor Cliff. Agriculture had arrived in southern Britain by 4000 BCE, and with it a neolithic culture, some deforestation took place at that time, although it was during the Bronze Age, beginning in 2200 BCE, that this became more widespread and systematic. Hampshire has few monuments to show from early periods, although nearby Stonehenge was built in several phases at some time between 3100 BCE and 2200 BCE.
It is maintained that by this period the people of Britain predominantly spoke a Celtic language, hillforts largely declined in importance in the second half of the second century BCE, with many being abandoned. Julius Caesar invaded southeastern England briefly in 55 and again in 54 BCE, notable sites from this period include Hengistbury Head, which was a major port. There is a Museum of the Iron Age in Andover, the Romans invaded Britain again in 43 CE, and Hampshire was incorporated into the Roman province of Britannia very quickly
South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km², and is the most populous with a population of over eight. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to south east England becoming an economic hub and it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UKs second-busiest airport, and its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe. The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs, the River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley. The region has many universities, the University of Oxford is ranked among the best in the world. South east England is host to sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and the Epsom Derby.
Some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney, the largest city in the region is Brighton & Hove. The dominant influence on the economy is neighbouring London. The highest point is Walbury Hill in Berkshire at 297 metres, until 1999, there was a south east Standard Statistical Region, which included the counties of Bedfordshire, Greater London and Hertfordshire. The former south east Civil Defence Region covered the area as the current government office region. The South East is used as a synonym for the home counties. The population of the region at the 2011 census was 8,634,750 making it the most populous English region, the major conurbations of the region include Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton, Portsmouth and Reading. Settlements closer to London are part of the known as the Greater London Urban Area. The South East has the highest percentage of people born outside of Britain other than London. Estimates in 2007 state 87. 2% of people as White British,4.
8% Other White,3. 5% South Asians,1. 5% Mixed Race,1. 6% Black British,0. 7% Chinese,0. 7% Other. The area has some seats where there is support for other parties, for example and Oxford for Labour. Buckingham, the seat of Speaker John Bercow, is in this region, out of 83 parliamentary seats, the Conservatives hold 78
Fawley is a village and civil parish in Hampshire, England. It is situated in the New Forest on the shore of the Solent. Fawley is the site of Fawley Refinery, operated by ExxonMobil, the decommissioned Fawley Power Station is located less than a mile to the south east of the village. A settlement has existed at Fawley for many centuries, and the village itself was recorded in the Domesday Book, other areas in the parish can boast remains from the Stone Age and Roman occupation. A church at Fawley apparently existed in 971, the present church was built between 1170 and 1340. This church still exists and is the church of much of the surrounding area. The arrival of the Esso oil refinery in 1921 transformed a sparsely populated agricultural area into a centre with a population of around 14,500. Modern Fawley is smaller and less populous than its more recently founded neighbours and Blackfield, other villages within the parish of Fawley include Hardley, Langley and Calshot. Calshot possesses shingle beaches and attracts significant numbers of tourists and local visitors during the summer months, near Calshot is Luttrells Tower, an 18th-century Gothic folly.
The origin of the name Fawley is uncertain and it might mean fallow wood/clearing or clearing with land broken in for arable. In Domesday Book of 1086 Fawley is listed among those lands which were held by the Bishop of Winchester for the support of the monks of Winchester, in 1284 the monks gave up all their rights in Fawley to the bishop. There seems to have been a close connexion between Fawley Manor and the manor of Bitterne, which belonged to the bishops of Winchester. In 1546 John Skullard was tenant at Fawley Manor, which remained in the hands of family until 1681. In 1705 the manor was conveyed to Edward Peachey, and a settlement concerning Fawley Manor was made by William. In 1801 the manor was conveyed to Robert Drummond of Cadlands, Fawley thus became annexed to the neighbouring manor of Cadlands. The manor of Cadlands was in the 13th century attached to the lordship of the Isle of Wight until the end of the century when the overlordship was sold to the Crown, the manor was held from 1241 onwards by Titchfield Abbey until the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Sometime after 1560 the manor was combined with the estates of Holbury and Langley, one moiety was in the possession of the Stanley family from 1693 onwards, the other moiety passed to Lady Mary Talbot, and thence after 1772 into Drummond family. The Cadland estate, which stretched down the coast of Southampton Water for nearly eight miles, was the residence of the Drummond family, Cadland house was built in 1773, but was greatly enlarged in 1836, it burnt down in 1916 but was rebuilt in 1935
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide