Hyundai Motor Company
The Hyundai Motor Company known as Hyundai Motors, is a South Korean multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Seoul. The company was founded in 1967 and, along with its 32.8% owned subsidiary, Kia Motors, its 100% owned luxury subsidiary Genesis Motor, altogether comprise the Hyundai Motor Group. It is the third largest vehicle manufacturer in the world. Hyundai operates the world's largest integrated automobile manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea which has an annual production capacity of 1.6 million units. The company employs about 75,000 people worldwide. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 showrooms. Chung Ju-Yung founded the Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company in 1947. Hyundai Motor Company was established in 1967; the company's first model, the Cortina, was released in cooperation with Ford Motor Company in 1968. When Hyundai wanted to develop their own car, they hired George Turnbull in February 1974, the former Managing Director of Austin Morris at British Leyland.
He in turn hired five other top British car engineers. They were Kenneth Barnett body design, engineers John Simpson and Edward Chapman, John Crosthwaite ex-BRM as chassis engineer and Peter Slater as chief development engineer. In 1975, the Pony, the first South Korean car, was released, with styling by Giorgio Giugiaro of ItalDesign and powertrain technology provided by Japan's Mitsubishi Motors. Exports began in the following year to Ecuador and soon thereafter to the Benelux countries. Hyundai entered the British market in 1982. In 1984, Hyundai began exporting the Pony to Canada, but not to the United States, as the Pony would not pass emissions standards there. Canadian sales exceeded expectations, it was at one point the top-selling car on the Canadian market. In 1985, the one millionth Hyundai car was built. In 1986, Hyundai began to sell cars in the United States, the Excel was nominated as "Best Product #10" by Fortune magazine because of its affordability; the company began to produce models with its own technology in 1988, beginning with the midsize Sonata.
In the spring of 1990, aggregate production of Hyundai automobiles reached the four million mark. In 1991, the company succeeded in developing its first proprietary gasoline engine, the four-cylinder Alpha, its own transmission, thus paving the way for technological independence. In 1996, Hyundai Motor India Limited was established with a production plant in Irungattukottai near Chennai, India. In 1998, Hyundai began to overhaul its image in an attempt to establish itself as a world-class brand. Chung Ju Yung transferred leadership of Hyundai Motor to his son, Chung Mong Koo, in 1999. Hyundai's parent company, Hyundai Motor Group, invested in the quality, design and long-term research of its vehicles, it added a 10-year or 100,000-mile warranty to cars sold in the United States and launched an aggressive marketing campaign. In 2004, Hyundai was ranked second in "initial quality" in a survey/study by J. D. Power and Associates. Hyundai is now one of the top 100 most valuable brands worldwide. Since 2002, Hyundai has been one of the worldwide official sponsors of the FIFA World Cup.
In 2006, the South Korean government initiated an investigation of Chung Mong Koo's practices as head of Hyundai, suspecting him of corruption. On 28 April 2006, Chung was arrested, charged for embezzlement of 100 billion South Korean won; as a result, Hyundai Vice Chairman and CEO, Kim Dong-jin, replaced him as head of the company. On 30 September 2011, Yang Seung Suk announced his retirement as CEO of Hyundai Motor Co. In the interim replacement period, Chung Mong-koo and Kim Eok-jo will divide the duties of the CEO position. Hyundai has six research and development centers, located in South Korea, Germany and India. Additionally, a center in California develops designs for the United States. Hyundai has made an app with augmented reality, showing users how to maintain vehicles. In 1998, after a shake-up in the South Korean auto industry caused by overambitious expansion and the Asian financial crisis, Hyundai acquired the majority of rival Kia Motors. Hyundai owns 33.88% of Kia. In 2000, the company established a strategic alliance with DaimlerChrysler and severed its partnership with the Hyundai Group.
In 2001, the Daimler-Hyundai Truck Corporation was formed. In 2004, DaimlerChrysler divested its interest in the company by selling its 10.5% stake for $900 million. Hyundai has invested in manufacturing plants in North America, the Czech Republic, Russia and Turkey as well as research and development centers in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim. In 2004, Hyundai Motor Company had $57.2 billion in sales in South Korea making it the country's second largest corporation, or chaebol. Worldwide sales in 2005 reached an 11 percent increase over the previous year. In 2011, Hyundai sold 4.05 million cars worldwide and the Hyundai Motor Group was the world's fourth largest automaker behind GM, Volkswagen and Toyota. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 dealerships. In 2006, Hyundai hired Thomas Bürkle as head of the company's design center in Germany. Bürkle had worked for BMW, having designed the BMW 3 Series, the BMW 6 Series. Hyundai's current design philosophy is known as Fluidic Sculpture, inspired by nature.
Hyundai Motor America began selling cars in the United States on 20 February 1986, with a single model, the Hyundai Excel, offered in
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Diners Club International
Diners Club International, founded as Diners Club, is a charge card company owned by Discover Financial Services. Formed in 1950 by Frank X. McNamara, Ralph Schneider, Matty Simmons, Alfred Bloomingdale, it was the first independent credit card company in the world, it established the concept of a self-sufficient company producing credit cards for travel and entertainment. Diners Club International and its franchises service individuals from around the globe with operations in 59 countries; the idea for Diners Club was conceived at the Majors Cabin Grill restaurant in New York City in 1949. Diners Club cofounder Frank McNamara was dining with clients and realized he had left his wallet in another suit, his wife paid the tab, McNamara thought of a multipurpose charge card as a way to avoid similar embarrassments in the future. He discussed the idea with the restaurant owner at the table, the following day with his lawyer Ralph Schneider and friend Alfred Bloomingdale. McNamara returned to the same restaurant the following February, in 1950, paid for his meal using a cardboard charge card and a signature.
The story became well-known, Diners Club official history referring to this meal as "The First Supper" though, as stated following, some disputed accounts refer to it having been a lunch, is credited by historians as the beginnings of contemporary credit. Various versions of the story differ about whether it was a lunch or dinner at which McNamara forgot his wallet, whether the bill was paid on loan or McNamara waited for his wife to drive his wallet to him; some journalists credited Alfred Bloomingdale with the idea for Diners Club. McNamara and his attorney, Ralph Schneider, founded Diners Club International on February 8, 1950, with $1.5 million in initial capital. Alfred Bloomingdale joined then started a competing venture in California before merging his California-based Dine and Sign with Diners Club. Diners Club International was named for being a "club of diners" that would allow patrons to settle their bill at the end of each month through their credit account; when the card was first introduced, Diners Club listed 27 participating restaurants, 200 of the founders's friends and acquaintances used it.
Diners Club had 20,000 members by the end of 1950 and 42,000 by the end of 1951. At the time, the company was charging participating establishments seven percent and billed cardholders $5 a year. In 1952, McNamara sold his interest in Diners Club to his partners for $200,000; the first plastic Diners Club card was introduced in 1961. Diners Club International was acquired by Citigroup in 1981 and by Discover Financial Services in April 2008. Diners Club's monopoly was short-lived, as American Express and Carte Blanche began to compete with Diners Club in the travel and entertainment card market. American Express now dominates the charge card sector, providing millions of customers with cards that require the monthly balance to be paid in full. Towards the end of the 1960s, Diners Club faced competition from banks that issued revolving credit cards through Bank of America's BankAmericard, Interbank Master Charge. Diners Club began early on to allow franchises of the Diners Club name, at first in Europe and throughout the world, for many years eclipsing the BankAmericard or Interbank Master Charge networks abroad.
Starting in 1968, the American Oil Company, better known publicly as Amoco issued, for a time, its own co-branded Diners Club cards called American Torch Club, Sun Oil Company issued its version called Sun Diner Club Card starting in 1977. In 1981, Citibank, a unit of Citigroup, acquired Diners Club International, the franchisor that holds rights to the Diners Club trademark, many of the largest franchises worldwide. A majority of the franchises abroad remain independently owned; the credit card is closing down its services in the Nordic countries on 31 May 2019. In a transaction completed July 1, 2008, Discover Financial Services purchased Diners Club International from Citibank for $165 million; the deal was announced in April 2008 and approved by the U. S. government in May 2008. By merging the North American Discover Network with the international Diners Club Network, Discover created a global payment processing system. Discover Bank has no plans to issue Diners Club-branded cards, which continue to be issued by Diners Club International licensees.
In 2011, Discover began putting its logo on Diners Club cards. Some payment processors, like PayPal, can process only new Diners Club cards, bearing the Discover logo. In 2004, Diners Club announced an agreement with MasterCard. Diners Club cards issued in the United States and Canada featured a MasterCard logo and 16-digit account number on the front, could be used wherever MasterCards were accepted. Cards from other countries continued to bear a 14-digit account number on the front, with the MasterCard logo on the back. However, since the takeover of Diners Club International by Discover Financial Services, these cards have had the Discover logo on the back. Carte Blanche began in 1958 when entertainment card was renamed. Hilton sold Carte Blanche to First National City Bank in 1966. Regulatory challenges forced First National City Bank to sell Carte Blanche to Avco in 1968. In 1978, Citicorp reacquired Carte Blanche without regulatory opposition; the 1960s- and 1970s-era Carte Blanche cards were considered more prestigious worldwide than their competition, the American Express and Diners Club cards, though its small cardmember base hindered its
Hyundai Rotem is a South Korean company manufacturing rolling stock, defense products and plant equipment. It is part of the Hyundai Motor Group, its name was changed to the current one from Rotem in December 2007 to reflect its parent company. The company was founded in 1979. In 1999, the company changed its name as Korea Rolling Stock Corporation, the result of merger between three major rolling stock divisions of Hanjin Heavy Industries, Daewoo Heavy Industries and Hyundai Precision & Industries; the company subsequently changed its name to Railroading Technology System, or Rotem, on 1 January 2002. It adopted its current name in December 2007 to reflect its current owner. Hyundai Rotem employs 3,800 and exports to 50 countries worldwide. Notable projects include supplying most of South Korea's rolling stock, which include Korail's KTX high speed trains, Electric multiple units, Electric locomotives. Other products in South Korea include supplying all of Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit, Shinbundang Line's Electric multiple units.
International products include Hong Kong MTR's K-Stocks, commuter EMUs for Taiwan, trains for the New Delhi Metro, automated trains for the Canada Line between downtown Vancouver and Richmond in British Columbia, Canada. They are to supply the Silverliner V commuter trains for SEPTA Regional Rail in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area; the Philippine National Railways have partnered with Hyundai Rotem to upgrade and construct its train and stations in the Luzon island for convenience and fast transportation. Light rail vehicle Philippines – Manila Line 1 Turkey – Adana Metro Turkey – Istanbul LRT T4 Indonesia – Jakarta Light Rail Transit Turkey - Izmir Tramway High Speed Train Korail KTX-I Korail KTX-Sancheon Maglev Diesel multiple unit Iran Ireland – Iarnród Éireann 22000 Class Philippines – Philippine National Railways Thailand Syria – Syrian Railways South Korea – Korail DHC-PP DMU Electric multiple unit South Korea – Seoul – Line 5 – SMRT 5000 series VVVF inverter controlled electric car: 1st Batch, 2nd Batch South Korea – Seoul – Line 6 – SMRT 6000 series VVVF inverter controlled electric car South Korea – Seoul – Line 7 – SMRT 7000 series VVVF inverter controlled electric car: 1st Batch, 2nd Batch, 3rd Batch South Korea – Seoul – Line 8 – SMRT 8000 series VVVF inverter controlled electric car: 1st Batch, 2nd Batch South Korea – ITX-Saemaeul EMU-150 New Zealand – FP class for Greater Wellington Regional Council, for use in Wellington Taiwan – TRA EMU500 series, EMU600 series USA – SEPTA Regional Rail Silverliner V in Philadelphia Brazil – Supervia Commuter trains USA – RTD East Corridor in Denver – Silverliner V variants Malaysia – KTM Class 91 Malaysia – KTM Class 83 Australia – New Intercity Fleet serving Greater Sydney Metro cars South Korea – Seoul Metro, SMRT, Korail, DJET, DGSC, BTC, AREX, Incheon Metro Hong Kong – MTR – "K-stock" Hong Kong – MTR – "R-train" Canada – Vancouver SkyTrain Canada Line Hyundai Rotem EMU Malaysia – Kuala Lumpur Metro Line 12 Philippines – Manila Line 2, Manila Line 7 Singapore – SMRT C151 Greece – Athens Metro EMU, Lines 2, 3 Turkey – Ankara Metro EMU, Lines CapitalRail.
Turkey – Istanbul Metro Cross-Bosphorus Marmaray India – Delhi Metro Phase 1 India – Delhi Metro Phase 2 Brasil – Sao Paulo Metro Line 4 Salvador Metro Kazakhstan – Almaty Metro India – Bangalore Metro 2009 India – Hyderabad Metro 2013 India – Nagpur Metro 2017 India – Delhi Metro Phase 3 2013 Electric Locomotive Korea – Korail 8000, 8100, 8200, 8500 Diesel-Electric Locomotive Bangladesh Korea – Korail Class 4400, 7000, 7100, 7200, 7300, 7400, 7500 Electric push-pull train Taiwan – TRA: E1000 push-pull trainsets India – Bi-level car USA – Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority BTC-4D and CTC-5 USA – Metrolink Guardian CTC-5 and BTC-5 Tri-Rail CTC-5 and BTC-5 Bogies – Bolsterless, XG EMU, Power Motor Car, In-board, HST Electronic equipment K1A1 Main Battle Tank K2 Black Panther Main Battle Tank K1 Armoured Recovery Vehicle Decon Machinery 60-Ton Heavy Equipment Transporter K1 Tank Gunnery Trainer Depot Maintenance Integrated Logistics System Mechanical Press, Hydraulic Press, Auto Racking System Electric Arc Furnace – Steel Ladle Furnace Cranes Passenger Boarding Bridges Plant construction TransLink, BC, Canada MTR Regional Transportation District SEPTA Islamic Republic of Iran Railways Seoul Metro, SMRT, Korail, BUTC, DGSC, DJeT Supervia, Rio de Janeiro suburban trains Attiko Metro S.
A. General Directorate of Railways, Harbours & Airports at the Ministry of Transport of Turkey ViaQuatro, Sao Paulo Metro – Line 4 private company operator SMRT Trains Light Rail Transit Authority – A GOCC which owns and/or operates the Manila LRTA System Philippine National Railways – A GOCC which operates PNR Northrail and Southrail SMC-MRT7 Incorporated - A private company which owns and operates the Manila Line 7 Metrolink in Southern California – A commuter rail system serving the Los Angeles Metropolitan area. Transdev Wellington – passenger rail services in Wellington, New Zealand. Tri-Rail – A commuter rail system in the greater Miami, FL area Bangladesh Railway – supplying them with diesel locomotives Ukrainian Railways MBTA BMRCL India DMRC India Hyderabad Metro India Iarnród Éireann Ireland Shenzhen Metro China SMRT Corporation Singapore Regional Transportation District MRT Corp, SSP Line Malaysia J
Chung Mong-koo is a South Korean business magnate, the chairman and CEO of Hyundai Motor Group. The Hyundai Motor Group consists of 42 subsidiaries and is the second largest Chaebol in South Korea. Chung succeeded his father, Chung Ju-yung, the founder of the conglomerate known as the Hyundai Group; when the conglomerate split into several parts in 1999, Chung Mong-koo took over the Hyundai Motor division. He is the eldest surviving son of Chung Ju-yung's eight sons, he was convicted of embezzlement and breach of fiduciary duty in February 2007, but was given a suspended sentence and was pardoned by President Lee Myung-bak. As of March 2014, his net worth was $6.8 billion according to Forbes. Graduated, Kyungbock High School Bachelor of Science in industrial engineering, Hanyang University 2000–present: Chairman & CEO of Hyundai Motor Co. & Kia Motors Corp. 1996–1998: Chairman of Hyundai Group 1988–1996: CEO, Hyundai Motor Service 1986: CEO, Incheon Iron & Steel 1981: CEO, Hyundai Pipe 1976: CEO, Hyundai Precision & IndustryHe owns INNOCEAN Worldwide, an ad & marketing agency, with his eldest daughter Chung Sung-yi.
Chung is described as a "vigorous septuagenarian" who comes to work at 6:30 a.m. and "personally heads monthly quality reviews with senior executives". Although he only holds 5.2% of Hyundai Motor’s stock, Chung "wields disproportionately strong control" and is able to control its board thanks to a complex corporate governance arrangements in which Hyundai Motor owns 34% of Kia, which owns 16.9% of Mobis, which in turn owns 20.8% of Hyundai Motor. This means that "because the companies control each other, no outside shareholder is strong enough to name board members". In 2006, he and his family were targeted by the Seoul Supreme Prosecutor's Office as part of an investigation into embezzling 100 billion won from Hyundai to create slush funds to bribe officials. Despite a travel ban, Chung left South Korea in April 2006. Chung was arrested on 28 April 2006 on charges related to other corruption. On 5 February 2007 he was convicted of embezzlement and breach of fiduciary duty for selling securities to his son Chung Eui-sun at below-market prices.
He was sentenced to three years in prison. Chung remained free on bail. On September 6, 2007, Chief Judge Lee Jae-hong ruled to suspend the sentence of Chung Mong-koo, ordering instead of a 3-year jail term, community service and a $1 billion donation to charity; the trial was seen as "a victory for transparency and rule of law in South Korea", but on August 15, 2008, South Korean President Lee Myung-bak granted him a special pardon to allow Chung to continue to contribute to the development of Hyundai Motor Group as well as the Korean economy. His only son Chung Eui-sun is his "heir apparent", despite his unproven business and leadership skills. According to Bloomberg, "no one can assess how Eui Sun will perform when he becomes chairman because his father keeps him on a tight leash". Furthermore, in 2011, he was accused of nepotism when Ozen, a bakery cafe whose advisors included his three daughters Sung-yi, Myung-yi, Yun-yi, set up shop in company buildings. Ozen closed in 2012. 2009: James A. Van Fleet Award, The Korea Society 2008–present: Honorary Chairman of the Organizing Committee for the Expo 2012 in Yeosu 2001: Awarded Distinguished Service Citation by Detroit’s Automotive Hall of Fame 1997–present: Honorary Vice President of World Archery Federation 1986–1997: Chairman of Asia Archery Association 1985–1997: Chairman of Korea Archery Association Automotive industry in South Korea Chaebol Chung Eui-sun List of Korea-related topics List of Koreans Hyundai Card Media related to Chung Mong-Koo at Wikimedia Commons
GE Capital is the financial services unit of the American multinational conglomerate General Electric. It provides commercial lending and leasing, as well as a range of financial services for commercial aviation and support for GE's industrial business units. In April 2015, GE announced its plan to create a simpler company by reducing the size of its financial businesses through the sale of most GE Capital assets. GE Capital’s verticals are now aligned with GE’s core industrial businesses – GE Capital Aviation Services, Energy Financial Services and GE Industrial Finance, which will include the Healthcare Equipment Finance business, Working Capital Solutions, other financing activities to develop lending and leasing products for the GE Store. GE Capital Aviation Services is a key financial partner to more than 245 customers in 75 countries, providing aircraft leasing, financing and consulting in every sector of the industry. GE Energy Financial Services provides underwriting capabilities for Power and Oil+Gas infrastructure to meet rising demand and sustainability imperatives.
GE Capital's new Industrial Finance organization serves customers in Healthcare, Distributed Power, Marine industries and Municipalities around the world. On July 8, 2013, the Financial Stability Oversight Council designated GE Capital as a "systemically important financial institution", which makes it subject to oversight by the Federal Reserve; as of 2014, GE Capital had 35,000+ employees worldwide, operating in more than 40 countries, with total assets of US$499 billion. It was rated AA+ with stable outlook by S&P in 2012. GE Capital's subsidiaries operate under the GE Money brand. On April 10, 2015, Jeffrey R. Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, announced that GE would sell most of GE Capital over the next two years; the following areas were sold: GE Capital Sponsor Finance was sold to Canada Pension Plan Investment Board and Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation GE Capital Real Estate was sold to The Blackstone Group and Wells Fargo. The majority of GE Commercial Lending & Leasing was sold to Wells Fargo.
Operations in Germany and France were sold to Crédit Mutuel. Operations in Australia were sold to Sankaty Advisors. Mubadala GE Capital, a joint venture with Mubadala Development Company, was sold to MidCap Financial, a portfolio company of Apollo Management. GE Capital Rail Services was sold to First Union Rail, a subsidiary of Wells Fargo, Marmon Group GE Capital Bank was sold to Goldman Sachs. GE Healthcare Finance Services was sold to Capital One. GE Capital Equity was sold to Ardian. GE Capital Transportation Finance was sold to BMO Financial Group. GE Capital Corporate Finance - Aircraft was sold to Global Jet Capital, a portfolio company of AE Industrial Partners, the Carlyle Group and GSO Capital Partners. GE Capital's Mexican equipment lending and leasing operations were sold to Linzor Capital Partners. GE Trailer Fleet Services was sold to Element Arval. GE Capital's Japanese capital finance, fleet service and vendor finance businesses were sold to Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group GE Capital's American restaurant finance operations were sold to First Horizon National Corporation, Wintrust Financial and Sterling Bancorp.
Its hotel franchise operations were sold to Western Alliance Bancorp. Polish GE Money Bank S. A. was headquartered in Gdańsk prior to December 31, 2009. BPH SA is a Polish financial institution 89% owned by GE Money Bank, employing about 10,000 people. On 31 December 2009, Bank BPH merged with GE Money Bank Polska. After the merging of the two brands, GE's Capital's Polish headquarters are located in three cities: Warsaw, Kraków and Gdańsk. In October 2014, the bank's owner, General Electric, revealed. On April 1, 2016, it was revealed that GE had reached a deal to sell its majority stake in Bank BPH's core bank to Alior Bank, with this transaction GE will divest itself of the Core Bank while maintaining the Mortgage Bank and its US$3.9B of mortgages, which will be separated in a demerger from the non-mortgage based assets that will subsequently be merged into Alior Bank, GE will keep BPH TFI, the bank’s asset management business. In Australia, the GE Money brand encompassed the GE Consumer Finance and GE Capital Finance businesses.
The company provided car, boat and consolidation loans, credit cards and insurance. At the end of 2002 to beginning of 2003 GE purchased the Australian Guarantee Corporation business from Westpac Banking Corporation, as a result, AGC Automotive Finance became GE Automotive Finance, former retail finance competitor, AGC Creditline, became known as GE CreditLine. GE Consumer Finance controlled most credit cards and loans and has a strategic partnership with Coles Group to operate the Coles Group Source MasterCard. GE Consumer Finance governs the GE Creditline, GO MasterCard, gem Visa and Buyer's Edge cards which all offer interest-free terms at participating retailers. GE Finance had strategic financial relations with Myer, Australia's largest department store. In 2006 and 2007 Myer signed contracts with GE to issue and govern both the new Myer Card and the Myer Visa Card. GE was the issuer of the old red ColesMyer card, no longer an acceptable method of payment of Myer stores, this is following the decision of Myer being disenfranchised from the ColesMyer group.
In 2004, GE Capital Finance purchased the Wizard Home Loans business. On the 24th of October 2008, GE Money announced that it will cease offering motor finance in Australia and Ne
Business cards are cards bearing business information about a company or individual. They are shared during formal introductions as a memory aid. A business card includes the giver's name, company or business affiliation and contact information such as street addresses, telephone number, fax number, e-mail addresses and website. Before the advent of electronic communication business cards might include telex details. Now they may include social media addresses such as LinkedIn and Twitter. Traditionally many cards were simple black text on white stock. Business cards are printed on some form of card stock, the visual effect, method of printing and other details varying according to cultural or organizational norms and personal preferences; the common weight of a business card varies some by location. Business cards are printed on stock, 350 g/m2, 45 kg, or 12 pt. High quality business cards without full-color photographs are printed using spot colors on sheet-fed offset printing presses; some companies have gone so far as to trademark their spot colors.
If a business card logo is a single color and the type is another color, the process is considered two-color. More spot colors can be added depending on the needs of the card. With the onset of digital printing, batch printing, it is now cost effective to print business cards in full color. To simulate the effect of printing with engraved plates, a less-expensive process called thermography was developed that uses the application of a plastic powder, which adheres to the wet ink; the cards are passed through a heating unit, which melts the plastic onto the card. Spot UV varnish onto matte laminate can have a similar effect. Full color cards, or cards that use many colors, are printed on sheetfed presses as well. Screens of each color overprinted on one another create a wide gamut of color; the downside to this printing method is that screened colors if examined will reveal tiny dots, whereas spot color cards are printed solid in most cases. Spot colors should be used for simple cards with line art or non-black type, smaller than 5 points.
Some terminology in reference to full-color printing: 4/0 - Full color front / No print on back 4/1 - full color front / One color on reverse 4/4 - full color front / Full color backThese names are pronounced as "four over zero," "four over one," and "four over four". A business card can be coated with a UV glossy coat; the coat is applied just like another ink using an additional unit on a sheetfed press. That being said, UV coats can be applied as a spot coating - meaning areas can be coated, other areas can be left uncoated; this creates additional design potential. UV Coating is not to be confused with coated stock, which has a gloss or semi gloss finish, applied before printing. Business cards can be printed with a digital copier, which uses toner fused onto the surface of the card, however many modern printing firms instead utilise high end "Digital Presses," now distinct from office copiers, which range from light production units such as the Bizhub 5500 from Konica Minolta, to state of the art units such as the latest HP Indigo Digital Presses.
While some of the older office copiers may have had problems running heavy business card stock, the newest digital presses can print on stock as heavy as 407 g/m2, special substrates such as polypropylene. Available in both sheet-fed and web-fed models, many modern digital presses can emulate Pantone spot colors, print in up to seven colours in one pass, some contain embedded spectrophotometers and air-assisted feeding systems. UV coats, other coatings such as aqueous coatings are used to speed manufacturing of the cards. Cards that are not dry will "offset", i.e. the ink from the front of one card will mark up back of the next one. UV coatings are highly glossy but are more to fingerprint, while aqueous coatings are not noticeable but increase the life of the card, it is possible to use a dull aqueous coating on uncoated stock and get some durable uncoated cards, using UV coating or plastic lamination can be applied to thicken thin stocked cards and make them more durable as well. When cards are designed, they are given bleeds if color extends to the edge of the finished cut size.
This is to help ensure that the paper will cut without white edges due to small differences in where the blade cuts the cards, it is impossible to cut the cards properly without. Just being a hair off can result in white lines, the blade itself will pull the paper while cutting; the image on the paper can shift from page to page, called a bounce, off by a hairline on an offset press, but can be quite large on lower end equipment such as a copier or a duplicator press. Bleeds are an extra 3.175 to 6.35 mm to all sides of the card. Bleed size: 95.25 × 57.15 mm Standard cut size: 89 × 51 mm Bleed size: 91 × 61 mm Standard cut size: 85 × 55 mm Fold-over or "tent" cards, side fold cards are popular as well. These cards will fold to the standard size. Cards can be printed with a different language on each side. Aspect ratios range from 1.42 t