The Hyundai Elantra, or Hyundai Avante in South Korea, is a compact car produced by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai since 1990. The Elantra was marketed as the Lantra in Australia and some European markets. In Australia, this was due to the named Mitsubishi Magna Elante model; this gave rise to a disagreement with other motor manufacturers, the name was standardized as "Elantra" worldwide in 2001. Launched in October 1990, the Elantra received a mid-term facelift in 1993, it was sold in Europe from the spring of 1991. It replaced the somewhat larger on the outside Stellar, although that model had not been offered in many markets; the Elantra competed with the likes of the Ford Sierra and Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Vectra, but at a lower price. The Elantra was powered by a Mitsubishi-designed 1.6 L straight-four. This DOHC 16-valve 1.6 L unit produced 113 hp at 6000 rpm and could push the Elantra to 60 mph in 9.5 seconds. The quarter-mile run produced 80 mph. Top speed was 116 mph; the Elantra got 22 mpg‑US in the city cycle.
Starting in 1993 a Mitsubishi-designed 1.8 L inline-four option was available. The vehicle was refreshed in 1992 for the European market, adding Hyundai's current logo to the grille, although North American models retained the previous year's look. In 1993, the vehicle was refreshed again; the third and final facelift of this generation occurred in 1994 for rear fascias. The vehicle featured ABS brakes, front airbags, fog lamps, power-operated side mirrors and optional alloy seven-spoke wheels; the Thailand options were: 1.5 GL 1.6 GL 1.6 GLS 1.8 GT 1.8 GTS The first Hyundai J2-series model was launched in the Asia Korean Domestic Market in March 1995. The first variants were offered with either 5-speed manual transmission or a 4-speed automatic transmission and was "only" equipped with an Alpha II G4FK DOHC with an advertised power of 79 kW/ 106 hp /107 PS and 137 Nm / 101 lb-ft of torque; the introduction of the first Hyundai Beta-series engine came in September 1995, manufactured and sold in the European market and vehicle versions and sub-models were named Lantra.
The 1.6L Lantra version and sub-models were equipped with the Beta I G4GR DOHC 16v engine which had two varying net horsepower in the European market. Beta I G4GR DOHC 16v with an advertised power of 66 kW/ 89 hp/ 90 PS, 126 Nm/ 93 lb-ft and torque, manufactured and sold in the Europe Germany Market. Beta I G4GR DOHC 16v with an advertised power of 84 kW / 113 hp/ 114 PS and 143 Nm/ 105 lb-ft of torque, manufactured and sold in the Europe UK Market 1995 was the year were Hyundai launched the Hyundai Lantra 1.9 D GL 5-door wagon in the European market. This vehicle was equipped with PSA XUD9 SOHC 8-valve diesel engine with an advertised power of 50 kW/ 67 hp /68 PS and 118 Nm/ 87 lb-ft of torque; this was the first diesel engine powered version of the Hyundai J2 series, followed by a sedan version in 1997. Hyundai launched the Beta I series engine in the Asia Korean Domestic Market in the mid-year of 1996; the Beta I G4GM DOHC 16v, equipped on either the J2-series sedan or touring version but was only offered with an automatic transmission and had an advertised power of 101.5 kW/ 136 hp / 138 PS and 172 Nm / 127 lb-ft of torque.
The North American Market for the J2-series Elantra were only equipped with the 1.8 Beta G4GM and 2.0 Beta G4GF engines. Launched in 1995, the second generation was offered as a station wagon, it was sold in the South Korean market as the "Hyundai Avante" in sedan form and "Avante Touring" in the wagon body style. Some export markets such as Australia and Europe received the series as the "Hyundai Lantra" as per the first generation. Australian market wagons were titled "Lantra Sportswagon". Between 1996 and 1998, the Elantra was marketed as the "Bimantara Nenggala" in Indonesia. In Europe, 1996 through 1997 sedan models had carried a silver Mercury-type false grille, while the wagon carried no front grille. At launch, a 1.5-liter Alpha SOHC inline-four engine and 1.8-liter Beta DOHC gasoline I4 engine were available domestically. A 1.5-liter lean-burn gasoline engine based on the Alpha DOHC engine was added. The Philippine version, as well as in some European markets, had DOHC which produced. New grilles arrived in 1998 for the 1999 model year.
The Lantra in Europe converged for both sedan and wagon. The model received the "RD2" or "J3" model codes. A PSA-built 1.9-liter atmospheric diesel option was added for some European markets, producing 68 PS. A new 2.0-liter engine option became available. In Australia the GLS model was an upgrade on the GL model and offered the 2.0-liter engine, velour trim, softer cloth seats and alloy wheels. The GLS had body-colored rear license plate light exterior side-view mirrors. An all-new model was launched in 2000; the station wagon version was dropped in favor of a five-door hatchback. Starting in 2001, all American models came with standard front and front-side airbags, air conditioning, power locks, power windows and power steering; this simplified
A turbocharger, colloquially known as a turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Today the term "supercharger" is applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices; the key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive.
Twincharger refers to an engine with a turbocharger. Turbochargers are used on truck, train and construction equipment engines, they are most used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885; the turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi, the head of diesel engine research at Gebrüder Sulzer, engine manufacturing company in Winterthur, who received a patent in 1905 for using a compressor driven by exhaust gases to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output, but it took another 20 years for the idea to come to fruition. The first use of turbocharging technology based on his design was for large marine engines, when the German Ministry of Transport commissioned the construction of the "Preussen" and "Hansestadt Danzig" passenger liners in 1923. Both ships featured twin ten-cylinder diesel engines with output boosted from 1750 to 2500 horsepower by turbochargers designed by Büchi and built under his supervision by Brown Boveri.
During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine; the engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 ft to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s. Turbochargers were used in aviation, most used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers—which included mass-produced ones designed by General Electric for American aviation use—include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, P-47 Thunderbolt.
The technology was used in experimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of experimental inline engine-powered Focke-Wulf Fw 190 prototype models, with some developments for their design coming from the DVL, a predecessor of today's DLR agency, but the need for advanced high-temperature metals in the turbine, that were not available for production purposes during wartime, kept them out of widespread use. Turbochargers are used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power and higher torque. In contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the engine. For example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower, yet the benefits outweigh the costs. This is. Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency when compared with turbochargers.
Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor's ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated output temperature. Roots superchargers impart more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers producing 15% to 30% more power based on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses; this is more ef
The Hyundai Tucson is a compact crossover SUV produced by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai since 2004. In the brand's lineup, the Tucson fits below Veracruz, it is named after the city of Arizona. The first generation Tucson was launched in 2004, it shares its Elantra-based platform with the redesigned 2005 Kia Sportage. 2.0 CRDi models include variable geometry turbocharger. In the U. S. the 2.0 model, automatic is standard in Limited trim. Four-wheel drive models of the Tucson include a Borg-Warner torque controller system. In the U. S. the Tucson is offered in base GLS, mid-line SE, top-tier Limited trim levels for 2007 models. Earlier 2005 and 2006 models were offered as GL/GLS/Limited. Standard equipment includes air conditioning, six airbags, electronic stability control, a CD player, alloy wheels, remote keyless entry, premium cloth seats; the SE adds to the roster with contrasting gray body cladding, a different alloy design, an AM/FM/Cassette/CD as well as fog lights and a front windshield wiper de-icing grid.
The Limited adds leather seating surfaces, a 6-disc in dash CD changer, body-colored cladding, automatic climate control, heated seats. The SE and Limited are only available with the 2.7 L V6. The GLS comes only with the 2.0-liter four-cylinder. The Tucson offers modest cargo space but its easy-to-fold seats can expand this volume so they lie flat; the front passenger seat folds flat for extra-long cargo. There are dual-stage frontal impact airbags, torso side-impact airbags built into the front seats, curtain airbags for side-impact protection for front and rear passengers. 2009 Hyundai Tucson by the U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Frontal Rating: Frontal Rating: Side Rating: Side Rating: Changes for 2006 were minimal; the LX became the Limited and got color-coded cladding, automatic climate control, a high-performance sound system. The GLS retained the gray cladding but'HYUNDAI' is no longer branded into the cladding on the front doors; the GLS got improved cloth seats with the option of a heating element.
Both GLS and Limited got redesigned alloy wheels. The base GL remained unchanged. Changes for 2007 were minimal; the GL and GLS trims were renamed to GLS and SE to match the standard for all new Hyundai vehicles. The SE comes with a sport utility rack, has 4 wheel drive, is a 6 cylinder engine. 2009 Tucsons see minor trim changes. The Tucson Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle is a test fuel cell vehicle for Hyundai's 2nd generation hydrogen fuel cell; the vehicle includes an 80 kW electric motor by Enova Systems of Torrance, California, UTC Fuel Cells by South Windsor, Connecticut, 152V battery co-developed by Hyundai Motor Co. and LG Chem in Seoul, Korea, 152 litres hydrogen storage tanks developed by Dynetek Industries of Calgary, Canada. The vehicle has top speed of 150 km/h; the vehicle was unveiled in 2005 at the Los Angeles Auto Show and completed a 4,300-mile journey as part of the Hydrogen Road Tour in 2008. It is a version of the 2.0 CRDi 6-speed manual 4WD for UK market. It included following: Color-coded side mouldings and bumpers Rear privacy glass Two tone leather and Alcantara upholstery Alcantara covered instrument cluster surround, gear gaiter, steering wheel, armrest, door pull linings and door inserts Birds eye black maple wood effect trim on dashboard and door pulls Leather and alloy sports gear knob Luxury stainless steel embossed door entry guards Aluminum sports pedal trims 19" multi spoke alloy wheels with polished rimsThe vehicle has MSRP of £20,670.
It is a version of the 2009 Tucson 2.0 GLS FWD model with premium Kenwood stereo system, a Garmin in-dash GPS system, a 2-way power sunroof, body color door handles and mirrors. The options cost $1,000. In Japan, it was sold as Hyundai JM; until November 2009, the Japanese JM's were withdrawn from Japan because of failing to recognize parking spaces. Sold in Europe, but not EuroNCAP tested. A facelifted version of the first generation exclusive to China was produced by Beijing Hyundai; the second generation Tucson was renamed to ix35 in China and became an independent model while the Tucson name returned with the introduction of the third generation. The Hyundai Tucson received accolades from Canadian Car of the Year Best New Crossover award for 2005; the Tucson was named as one of the most reliable vehicles from the 2009 Consumer Reports reliability survey. In most markets outside South Korea and North America, the Hyundai Tucson name was retired in favor of Hyundai ix35. Vehicles sold in the U.
S. continued to be called Tucson. The ix35 was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show; the power output, fuel-efficiency and safety features have been all upgraded. Known by the project name LM, it took 280 billion won to develop. In China, the first generation Tucson was sold alongside the ix35, was replaced by the third generation Tucson directly while the ix35 spawned its own successor, the ix35 II; the Hyundai ix35 II was revealed on the 2017 Shanghai Auto Show in China. The ix35's styling was reported to be based on Hyundai ix-onic concept; the ix35 was penned by Hyundai designer Cha Il-Hoei in 2007, under the guidance of former BMW designer Thomas Buerkle at Hyundai's Russelsheim design studio in Germany and continues the company's styling language, marketed as "fluidic sculpture". The compact crossover vehicle has sweeping coupe-like lines, a premium vehicle feel and comes with features unavailable on its predecessor. The
The Kia Soul is a front-engine, front-wheel-drive, five-door subcompact crossover SUV manufactured and marketed worldwide by Kia and now in its third generation. Designed at Kia's design center in California, the Soul debuted at the 2008 Paris Motor Show and is manufactured in South Korea. Since 2014, Kia has marketed an electric variant as the Soul EV in North and Central America as well as Europe; the Soul concept was styled by Mike Torpey in early 2005. As a new member of Kia's Design Team in Irvine, Torpey was sent to Kia Korea to brainstorm a new vehicle. After seeing a television documentary on wild boars and learning of their importance in Korean culture, Torpey sketched a caricature of a boar wearing a backpack; the New York Times reported "the boar’s attitude of strength and capability was the image wanted for a new model aimed at hip urban youths."According to the Automotive News, the Soul had been criticized for a "plasticky" interior and a harsh ride. Both the ride quality and interior were upgraded during the first year of production.
The interior features two front bucket seats and a rear flat-folding bench seat that can adjust to prioritize passenger or cargo volume. The first generation was marketed with a six-speaker stereo system that includes a CD player, a USB port for iPod connection, Sirius Satellite Radio. Additional features available for upgrade included additional speakers, steering-wheel-mounted audio controls and Bluetooth for hands-free connectivity. Options included themed special editions as well as 18-inch alloy wheels, cruise control, leather-wrapped steering wheel, racing stripes, "dragon" and "houndstooth" graphics, LED turn indicators. For 2011, the Kia Soul was updated with more conventional pull-out door handles, standard metallic interior trim, redesigned instrument cluster, leather shift boot, switchblade style fold-in integrated key and remote, with an optional Smart Key available in the Exclaim trim. For model year 2012, the Soul received interior styling and new powertrains. In North America the updated 1.6 liter engine, featuring direct injection, makes 138 hp/123 lb-ft.
The 1.6 now delivers 30-31 on the highway. The 2.0 returns 28-29 on the highway. New features included navigation, UVO infotainment and heated seats and automatic climate control; as part of the 2012 upgrades, European models were fitted with new 1.6-liter GDI gasoline or 1.6 CRDi diesel engines, both of which can be specified with an automatic gearbox or a new six-speed manual gearbox, replacing the five-speed unit in the old version. As a result, the gasoline offers a 14 bhp uplift in power compared to its predecessor, while returning improved fuel economy; the modified 1.6 CRDi diesel returns 57.6mpg and has cut its CO2 emissions from 138g/km to 129g/km - important for the European market where taxation is based on carbon emissions. The 2013 North American Kia Soul received upgrades including 3 new colors, a bulged hood, revised grille with black chrome accents, LED red tail lights, LED amber front turn signals under the headlights and white LED running lights under the front turn signals.
The exterior Kia badges became now smooth instead of raised lettering. Inside, audio controls were relocated to the steering wheel and Bluetooth became standard across the range. Upper trims included power folding heated mirrors with turn signal repeaters; the center display for sound system was red LED and was revised to include a full color range. The Kia Soul will be a mini SUV after 2013 in its second generation which the Kia Track'ster will succeed the first generation Kia Soul. Kia Soul Denim The Denim is a limited version of 2010 Kia Soul Soul+ for the US market. Appearing in June 2009, it features a blue body color with white racing stripes, white painted side-view mirrors, white, 18-inch, alloy wheels. Kia Soul Dragon The Shadow Dragon edition is based on the Soul trim line and was limited to about 1900 units. Exterior details include shadow black paint with matte-black dragon graphics on its hood and tailgate, gloss-black bumper inserts, a body-color rear wing and 18 inch black alloy wheels.
The interior features heated, black leather trimmed seats. MSRP for Shadow Dragon Soul starts at $18,195 with a five speed manual transmission or $19,195 with the available four-speed automatic; the Kia Soul Tiger The Soul White Tiger Special Edition comes with features such as Clear White with Grey exterior graphics, body colored bumpers, sport rear spoiler, black 18-inch alloy wheels, black fender vents with side marker repeater, rear bumper applique, alloy fuel door, black leather seat trim, heated front seats, leather wrapped steering wheel and shift knob, push button start with smart key, illuminated sill plates, automatic climate control and front fog lights. Soul Flex Kia presented the Soul Flex at the 2010 São Paulo International Auto Show; the Soul Flex is the first Korean flexible-fuel vehicle capable of running on any blend from E20-E25 gasoline to E100. The new Soul Flex delivers a 44% improvement in fuel efficiency compared with the existing gasoline model, as well as superior power and torque.
The North American version of the Soul was available in 2010 and 2011 with one of two inline four-cylinder gasoline engines. The base model is powered by a 1.6-liter unit producing 122 bhp and mated with a five-speed manual transmission. Higher trims feature a 2.0-liter unit producing 142 bhp connected to a standard five-speed manual transmission with a four-speed automatic available as a stand-alone option. A 1.6-liter diesel engine producing 126 bhp and 260 N
Hyundai Motor Company
The Hyundai Motor Company known as Hyundai Motors, is a South Korean multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Seoul. The company was founded in 1967 and, along with its 32.8% owned subsidiary, Kia Motors, its 100% owned luxury subsidiary Genesis Motor, altogether comprise the Hyundai Motor Group. It is the third largest vehicle manufacturer in the world. Hyundai operates the world's largest integrated automobile manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea which has an annual production capacity of 1.6 million units. The company employs about 75,000 people worldwide. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 showrooms. Chung Ju-Yung founded the Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company in 1947. Hyundai Motor Company was established in 1967; the company's first model, the Cortina, was released in cooperation with Ford Motor Company in 1968. When Hyundai wanted to develop their own car, they hired George Turnbull in February 1974, the former Managing Director of Austin Morris at British Leyland.
He in turn hired five other top British car engineers. They were Kenneth Barnett body design, engineers John Simpson and Edward Chapman, John Crosthwaite ex-BRM as chassis engineer and Peter Slater as chief development engineer. In 1975, the Pony, the first South Korean car, was released, with styling by Giorgio Giugiaro of ItalDesign and powertrain technology provided by Japan's Mitsubishi Motors. Exports began in the following year to Ecuador and soon thereafter to the Benelux countries. Hyundai entered the British market in 1982. In 1984, Hyundai began exporting the Pony to Canada, but not to the United States, as the Pony would not pass emissions standards there. Canadian sales exceeded expectations, it was at one point the top-selling car on the Canadian market. In 1985, the one millionth Hyundai car was built. In 1986, Hyundai began to sell cars in the United States, the Excel was nominated as "Best Product #10" by Fortune magazine because of its affordability; the company began to produce models with its own technology in 1988, beginning with the midsize Sonata.
In the spring of 1990, aggregate production of Hyundai automobiles reached the four million mark. In 1991, the company succeeded in developing its first proprietary gasoline engine, the four-cylinder Alpha, its own transmission, thus paving the way for technological independence. In 1996, Hyundai Motor India Limited was established with a production plant in Irungattukottai near Chennai, India. In 1998, Hyundai began to overhaul its image in an attempt to establish itself as a world-class brand. Chung Ju Yung transferred leadership of Hyundai Motor to his son, Chung Mong Koo, in 1999. Hyundai's parent company, Hyundai Motor Group, invested in the quality, design and long-term research of its vehicles, it added a 10-year or 100,000-mile warranty to cars sold in the United States and launched an aggressive marketing campaign. In 2004, Hyundai was ranked second in "initial quality" in a survey/study by J. D. Power and Associates. Hyundai is now one of the top 100 most valuable brands worldwide. Since 2002, Hyundai has been one of the worldwide official sponsors of the FIFA World Cup.
In 2006, the South Korean government initiated an investigation of Chung Mong Koo's practices as head of Hyundai, suspecting him of corruption. On 28 April 2006, Chung was arrested, charged for embezzlement of 100 billion South Korean won; as a result, Hyundai Vice Chairman and CEO, Kim Dong-jin, replaced him as head of the company. On 30 September 2011, Yang Seung Suk announced his retirement as CEO of Hyundai Motor Co. In the interim replacement period, Chung Mong-koo and Kim Eok-jo will divide the duties of the CEO position. Hyundai has six research and development centers, located in South Korea, Germany and India. Additionally, a center in California develops designs for the United States. Hyundai has made an app with augmented reality, showing users how to maintain vehicles. In 1998, after a shake-up in the South Korean auto industry caused by overambitious expansion and the Asian financial crisis, Hyundai acquired the majority of rival Kia Motors. Hyundai owns 33.88% of Kia. In 2000, the company established a strategic alliance with DaimlerChrysler and severed its partnership with the Hyundai Group.
In 2001, the Daimler-Hyundai Truck Corporation was formed. In 2004, DaimlerChrysler divested its interest in the company by selling its 10.5% stake for $900 million. Hyundai has invested in manufacturing plants in North America, the Czech Republic, Russia and Turkey as well as research and development centers in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim. In 2004, Hyundai Motor Company had $57.2 billion in sales in South Korea making it the country's second largest corporation, or chaebol. Worldwide sales in 2005 reached an 11 percent increase over the previous year. In 2011, Hyundai sold 4.05 million cars worldwide and the Hyundai Motor Group was the world's fourth largest automaker behind GM, Volkswagen and Toyota. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 dealerships. In 2006, Hyundai hired Thomas Bürkle as head of the company's design center in Germany. Bürkle had worked for BMW, having designed the BMW 3 Series, the BMW 6 Series. Hyundai's current design philosophy is known as Fluidic Sculpture, inspired by nature.
Hyundai Motor America began selling cars in the United States on 20 February 1986, with a single model, the Hyundai Excel, offered in
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers. Motor oil is used for lubrication of internal combustion engines; the main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge and varnish. It neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant, improves sealing of piston rings, cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. In addition to the basic constituents noted in the preceding paragraph all lubricating oils contain corrosion and oxidation inhibitors. Motor oil may be composed of only a lubricant base stock in the case of non-detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil's detergency, extreme pressure performance, ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts. Motor oils today are blended using base oils composed of petroleum-based hydrocarbons, that means organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, or polyalphaolefins or their mixtures in various proportions, sometimes with up to 20% by weight of esters for better dissolution of additives.
On September 6, 1866 American John Ellis founded the Continuous Oil Refining Company. While studying the possible healing powers of crude oil, Dr. Ellis was disappointed to find no real medicinal value, but was intrigued by its potential lubricating properties, he abandoned the medical practice to devote his time to the development of an all-petroleum, high viscosity lubricant for steam engines – using inefficient combinations of petroleum and animal and vegetable fats. He made his breakthrough when he developed an oil that worked in high temperatures; this meant corroded cylinders or leaking seals. Motor oil is a lubricant used in internal combustion engines, which power cars, lawnmowers, engine-generators, many other machines. In engines, there are parts which move against each other, the friction wastes otherwise useful power by converting the kinetic energy to heat, it wears away those parts, which could lead to lower efficiency and degradation of the engine. This increases fuel consumption, decreases power output, can lead to engine failure.
Lubricating oil creates a separating film between surfaces of adjacent moving parts to minimize direct contact between them, decreasing heat caused by friction and reducing wear, thus protecting the engine. In use, motor oil transfers heat through conduction. In an engine with a recirculating oil pump, this heat is transferred by means of air flow over the exterior surface of the, airflow through an oil cooler and through oil gases evacuated by the Positive Crankcase Ventilation system. While modern recirculating pumps are provided in passenger cars and other engines similar or larger in size, total loss oiling is a design option that remains popular in small and miniature engines. In petrol engines, the top piston ring can expose the motor oil to temperatures of 160 °C. In diesel engines the top ring can expose the oil to temperatures over 315 °C. Motor oils with higher viscosity indices thin less at these higher temperatures. Coating metal parts with oil keeps them from being exposed to oxygen, inhibiting oxidation at elevated operating temperatures preventing rust or corrosion.
Corrosion inhibitors may be added to the motor oil. Many motor oils have detergents and dispersants added to help keep the engine clean and minimize oil sludge build-up; the oil is able to trap soot from combustion in itself, rather than leaving it deposited on the internal surfaces. It is a combination of this, some singeing that turns used oil black after some running. Rubbing of metal engine parts produces some microscopic metallic particles from the wearing of the surfaces; such particles could circulate in the grind against moving parts, causing wear. Because particles accumulate in the oil, it is circulated through an oil filter to remove harmful particles. An oil pump, a vane or gear pump powered by the engine, pumps the oil throughout the engine, including the oil filter. Oil filters can be a full bypass type. In the crankcase of a vehicle engine, motor oil lubricates rotating or sliding surfaces between the crankshaft journal bearings, rods connecting the pistons to the crankshaft; the oil collects in sump, at the bottom of the crankcase.
In some small engines such as lawn mower engines, dippers on the bottoms of connecting rods dip into the oil at the bottom and splash it around the crankcase as needed to lubricate parts inside. In modern vehicle engines, the oil pump takes oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil filter into oil galleries, from which the oil lubricates the main bearings holding the crankshaft up at the main journals and camshaft bearings operating the valves. In typical modern vehicles, oil pressure-fed from the oil galleries to the main bearings enters holes in the main journals of the crankshaft. From these holes in the main journals, the oil moves through passageways inside the crankshaft to exit holes in the rod journals to lubricate the rod bearings and connecting rods; some simpler designs relied on these moving parts to splash and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. However, in modern designs, there are passageways through the rods which carry oil from the rod bearings to the rod-piston connections and lubricate the contacting su
A valvetrain or valve train is a mechanical system that controls operation of the valves in an internal combustion engine, whereby a sequence of components transmits motion throughout the assembly. A conventional reciprocating internal combustion engine uses valves to control the flow of the air/fuel admix into and out of the combustion chamber. A typical ohv valvetrain consists of valves, rocker arms, pushrods and camshaft. Valvetrain opening/closing and duration, as well as the geometry of the valvetrain, controls the amount of air and fuel entering the combustion chamber at any given point in time. Timing for open/close/duration is controlled by the camshaft, synchronized to the crankshaft by a chain, belt, or gear. Valvetrains are built in several configurations, each of which varies in layout but still performs the task of opening and closing the valves at the time necessary for proper operation of the engine; these layouts are differentiated by the location of the camshaft within the engine: Cam-in-block The camshaft is located within the engine block, operates directly on the valves, or indirectly via pushrods and rocker arms.
Because they require pushrods they are called pushrod engines. Overhead camshaft The camshaft is located above the valves within the cylinder head, operates either indirectly or directly on the valves. Camless This layout uses no camshafts at all. Technologies such as solenoids are used to individually actuate the valves; the valvetrain is the mechanical system responsible for operation of the valves. Valves are of the poppet type, although many others have been developed such as sleeve and rotary valves. Poppet valves require small coil springs, appropriately named valve springs, to keep them closed when not actuated by the camshaft, they are attached to the valve stem ends, seating within spring retainers. Other mechanisms can be used in place of valve springs to keep the valves closed: Formula 1 engines employ pneumatic valve springs in which pneumatic pressure closes the valves, while motorcycle manufacturer Ducati uses desmodromic valve drive which mechanically close the valves. Depending on the design used, the valves are actuated directly by a rocker arm, finger, or bucket tappet.
Overhead camshaft engines use fingers or bucket tappets, upon which the cam lobes contact, while pushrod engines use rocker arms. Rocker arms are actuated by a pushrod, pivot on a shaft or individual ball studs in order to actuate the valves. Pushrods are slender metal rods seated within the engine block. At the bottom ends the pushrods are fitted with lifters, either solid or hydraulic, upon which the camshaft, located within the cylinder block, makes contact; the camshaft pushes on the lifter, which pushes on the pushrod, which pushes on the rocker arm, which rotates and pushes down on the valve. Camshafts must actuate the valves at the appropriate time in the combustion cycle. In order to accomplish this the camshaft is linked to and kept in synchronisation with the crankshaft through the use of a metal chain, rubber belt, or geartrain; because these mechanisms are essential to the proper timing of valve actuation they are named timing chains, timing belts, timing gears, respectively. Typical normal-service engine valve-train components may be too lightweight for operating at high revolutions per minute, leading to valve float.
This occurs when the action of the valve no longer opens or closes, such as when the valve spring force is insufficient to close the valve causing a loss of control of the valvetrain, as well as a drop in power output. Valve float will damage the valvetrain over time, could cause the valve to be damaged as it is still open while the piston comes to the top of its stroke. Upgrading to high pressure valve springs could allow higher valvetrain speeds, but this would overload the valvetrain components and cause excessive and costly wear. High-output and engines used in competition feature camshafts and valvetrain components that are designed to withstand higher RPM ranges; these changes include additional modifications such as larger-sized valves combined with freer breathing intake and exhaust ports to improve air flow. Automakers offer factory-approved performance parts to increase engine output, numerous aftermarket parts vendors specialize in valvetrain modifications for various engine applications.
Cam-in-block Overhead camshaft Camless Animation