Hywel Dda or Hywel ap Cadell was a King of Deheubarth who came to rule most of Wales. He became the sole king of Seisyllwg in 920 and shortly thereafter established Deheubarth, proceeded to gain control over the entire country from Prestatyn to Pembroke; as a descendant of Rhodri Mawr through his father Cadell, Hywel was a member of the Dinefwr branch of the dynasty. He was recorded as King of the Annals of Ulster. Hywel is esteemed among other medieval Welsh rulers, his name is linked with the codification of traditional Welsh law, which were thenceforth known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. The latter part of his name refers to the fact; the historian Dafydd Jenkins sees in them compassion rather than punishment, plenty of common sense and recognition of the rights of women. Hywel Dda was a well-educated man by modern standards, having a good knowledge of Welsh and English; the office building and original home of the National Assembly for Wales is named Tŷ Hywel in honour of Hywel Dda. The original Assembly chamber, now known as Siambr Hywel, is used for educational courses and for children and young people's debates.
The local health board of south-west Wales bears his name. Hywel was born around the son of King Cadell of Seisyllwg, he had a brother, the younger of the two. Hywel was reputed to have married Elen, the supposed heiress of King Llywarch of Dyfed, which connection was subsequently used to justify his family's reign over that kingdom. Hywel's father Cadell had been installed as King of Seisyllwg by his father, Rhodri the Great of Gwynedd, following the drowning of the last king in the traditional line, Gwgon, in 872. After Gwgon's death, husband to the dead king's sister Angharad, became steward of his kingdom; this gave Rhodri no standing to claim the kingship of Seisyllwg himself, but he was able to install his son Cadell as a subject king. Cadell died around 911, his lands in Seisyllwg appears to have been divided between his two sons Hywel and Clydog. Hywel already controlled Dyfed by the time he assumed his father's lands in Ceredigion. No king is recorded after the death of Llywarch in 904, Hywel's marriage to Llywarch's only surviving heir ensured that the kingdom came into his hands.
Hywel and Clydog seem to have ruled Seisyllwg together following their father's death and jointly submitted to Edward the Elder of England in 918. However, Clydog died in 920. Hywel soon joined Dyfed into a single realm known as Deheubarth; this became the first significant event of his reign. In 926 or 928 Hywel made a pilgrimage to Rome, becoming the first Welsh prince to undertake such a trip and return. Upon his return he forged close relations with Athelstan of England. From the outset Athelstan's intention was to secure the submission of all other kings in Britain. In his reign, he was able to leverage his close association with Athelstan and the English crown to great effect in his ambitions within Wales. In 942 Hywel's cousin Idwal Foel, King of Gwynedd, determined to cast off English overlordship and took up arms against the new English king, Edmund. Idwal and his brother Elisedd were both killed in battle against Edwin's forces. By normal custom Idwal's crown should have passed to his sons.
He sent Iago and Ieuaf into exile and established himself as ruler over Gwynedd, which likely placed him in control of the Kingdom of Powys, under the authority of Gwynedd. As such Hywel became king of nearly all of Wales except for Gwent in the south. In 943 Hywel's wife Elen died. Hywel's reign was a violent one, but he achieved an understanding with Athelstan of England whereby Athelstan and Hywel ruled part of Wales jointly; such was the relationship between the neighbouring countries that Hywel was able to use Athelstan's mint at Chester to produce his own silver pennies. Following Hywel's death in 948, his kingdom was soon split into three. Gwynedd was reclaimed by the sons of Idwal Foel. Hywel’s name is associated with the laws of Medieval wales, which are known as the Laws of Hywel Dda. None of the law manuscripts can be dated to Hywel’s time, but Hywel’s name is mentioned in the prologues to the laws; these describe how Hywel gathered expert lawyers and priests from each commote in Wales together in Tŷ Gwyn ar Daf in order to revise and codify the Laws of Wales.
The story in the prologues lengthens with time, with more details in the versions of the prologue. It seems unlikely that this meeting took place, with the purpose of the prologues being to emphasize the royal and Christian origin and background to the laws, that in the face of criticism of the laws from outside Wales during John Peckham’s period as Archbishop of Canterbury, his name continued to be associated with Welsh law which remained in active use throughout Wales until the appointed date of implementation of the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 of Henry VIII of England who asserted his royal descent by blood-line from Rhodri Mawr via Hywel Dda. Opinions vary as to the motives for Hywel's close association with the court of Athelstan. J. E. Lloyd claimed Hywel was an admirer of Wessex, while D. P. Kirby suggests that it may have been the action of a pragmatist who recognized the realities of power in mid-10th century Br
Howell Harris was one of the main leaders of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century, along with Daniel Rowland and William Williams Pantycelyn. Harris was born at Trefeca, near Talgarth in Brecknockshire on 23 January 1714, he was the youngest of five children of Howel ap Howel alias Harris, a carpenter, his wife, daughter of Thomas Powell. He underwent a religious conversion in May 1735 after listening to a sermon by the Rev. Pryce Davies, the Sunday before Easter, in the parish church on the necessity of partaking of Holy Communion; this led to several weeks of self-examination. This reached a climax at Communion on Whit Sunday, May 1735, following the sermon. After what is described as answering the devil's accusations, he received Communion, came to the conviction that he had received mercy through the blood of Christ; this resulted in a sense of great joy. He began to tell others about this and to hold meetings in his own home encouraging others to seek the same assurance that he had of Christ's forgiveness.
Having failed to be accepted for ordination in the Church of England because of his "Methodist" views, he became a travelling preacher and was tireless in his determination to spread the word throughout Wales. His preaching led him into personal danger, he endured considerable persecution and hardship before gaining a following. From 1738 he was supported by Marmaduke Gwynne, a local squire and early convert. In 1750, having fallen out with Daniel Rowland, having been the subject of a public scandal as a result of his close friendship with "Madam" Sidney Griffith, he retreated to his home at Trefeca, near Brecon. In 1752, inspired by the example of the Moravians, he founded a religious community there, known as Teulu Trefeca with himself as "Father". However, Harris had not given up preaching, resumed his former activities in 1763, after a reconciliation with Daniel Rowland; when he died, ten years and was buried close to his birthplace at Talgarth, 20,000 people are said to have attended his funeral.
There is a memorial to Harris near Pwllheli, where he preached. He was the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Wales known as the Calvinistic Methodist church. Harris kept a detailed diary, in addition to a careful filing of letters he sent and received during his ministry, his papers afford access to a first eye witness of the Welsh Methodist revival. After his death, they were left to gather dust for over a century until O. M. Edwards, in the 1880s, noted their importance and suggested they ought to be cared for. By this time, the once-home of Harris at Trefeca had been turned into a college; the deputy head of the College, Edwin Williams, took on the task of putting the papers in order. They were kept at Trefeca until 1910 when the Presbyterian church of Wales decided to set up a committee whose responsibility it would be to take care of the papers and to study them. By 1913 the scale of the work needing to be done on the papers became apparent; as many of the papers were in Latin, it was estimated that it would take much of a decade and a vast sum of money to ready the papers for publication.
In 1913, it was decided that a better use of resources would be to set up a Historical Society of the Presbyterian church of Wales that would be responsible for publishing a regular journal to include, amongst other articles, some of Howell Harris’s papers. It is believed that around 1932, the papers were moved from Trefeca to the denomination's theological College in Aberystwyth; those papers, along with others from Coleg y Bala, were taken in 1934 to be stored safely at the National Library of Wales. The papers are in the vaults to this day. Revd Dr Geraint Tudur Lecturer in Church History at University of Wales, now General Secretary of the General Union of Welsh Independents, published a biography of Harris: Howell Harris: From conversion to separation, 1735–1750, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000. Davies, Gwyn, A light in the land: Christianity in Wales, 200–2000, Bridgend: Bryntirion Press. ISBN 1-85049-181-X Tudur, Geraint, "Papurau Howell Harris" in Cof Cenedl XVI, Gwasg Gomer.
Harris, Howel 1714–1773 at Welsh Biography Online, National Library of Wales Lloyd-Jones, Howell Harris and revival. Reproduction of article first published in 1973. Powys Digital History Project, Howell Harris 1714–1773 Howell Harris at 100 Welsh Heroes
Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd
Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, Wales Prince of Gwynedd in 1170, was a Welsh poet and military leader. Hywel was the son of Owain Gwynedd, prince of Gwynedd, an Irishwoman named Pyfog. In recognition of this, he was known as Hywel ap Gwyddeles. Hywel was known as the Poet Prince for his bardic skills. Hywel's father Owain and uncle Cadwaladr came to blows in 1143 when Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Prince Anarawd ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, Owain's ally and future son-in-law, on the eve of Anarawd's wedding to Owain's daughter. Owain followed a diplomatic policy of binding other Welsh rulers to Gwynedd through dynastic marriages, Cadwaladr's border dispute and murder of Anarawd threatened Owain's efforts and credibility; as ruler of Gwynedd, Owain stripped Cadwaladr of his lands, dispatched Hywel to Ceredigion where he burned Cadwaladr's castle at Aberystwyth. Cadwaladr fled to Ireland and hired a Norse fleet from Dublin, bringing the fleet to Abermenai to compel Owain to reinstate him. Taking advantage of the brotherly strife, with the tacit understanding of Cadwaladr, the marcher lords mounted incursions into Wales.
Realizing the wider ramifications of the war before him, Owain came to terms and reconciled, with Cadwaladr restored to his lands. Peace between the brothers held until 1147, when an unrecorded event occurred which led Owain's sons Hywel and Cynan to drive Cadwaladr out of Meirionydd and Ceredigion, with Cadwaladr retreating to Môn. Again an accord was reached, with Cadwaladr retaining Aberffraw until a more serious breach occurred in 1153, when he was forced into exile in England, where his wife was the sister of Gilbert de Clare, 2nd Earl of Hertford, the niece of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester. In 1146, news reached Prince Owain ap Cynan of Gwynedd that his favoured eldest son and heir, the edling, died. Owain was overcome with grief, falling into a deep melancholy from which none could console him, until news reached him that Mold castle in Tegeingl had fallen to Gwynedd, " that he had still a country for which to live," wrote historian Sir John Edward Lloyd; as the eldest surviving son and Edling, Hywel succeeded his father in 1170 as Prince of Gwynedd in accordance with Welsh law and custom.
However, the new prince was confronted by a coup instigated by his step-mother Cristin, Dowager Princess of Gwynedd. The dowager princess plotted to have her eldest son Dafydd usurp the Throne of Gwynedd from Hywel, with Gwynedd divided between Dafydd and her other sons Rhodri and Cynan; the speed with which Cristen and her sons acted suggest that the conspiracy may have had roots before Owain's death. Additionally, the complete surprise of the elder sons of Owain suggests that the scheme had been a well kept secret. Within months of his succession, Hywel was forced to flee to Ireland, returning that year with a Hiberno-Norse army and landing on Môn, where he may have had Maelgwn's support. Dafydd himself landed his army on the island and caught Hywel off guard at Pentraeth, defeating his army and killing Hywel. Following Hywel's death and the defeat of the legitimist army, the surviving sons of Owain came to terms with Dafydd. Iorwerth was apportioned the commotes of Arfon and Arllechwedd, with his seat at Dolwyddelan, with Maelgwn retaining Ynys Môn, with Cynan receiving Meirionydd.
However, by 1174, Iorwerth and Cynan were both dead and Maelgwn and Rhodri were imprisoned by Dafydd, now master over the whole of Gwynedd. The seven sons of Hywel's foster-father, were killed while defending him in this battle, were commemorated in verse: The sons of Cadifor, a noble band of brothers In the hollow above Pentraeth Were full of daring and of high purpose They were cut down beside their foster-brother. Hywel was an accomplished poet and eight of his poems have been preserved; the best known is Gorhoffedd Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd in which he praises his father's kingdom of Gwynedd, both its natural beauties and its beautiful women. Other poems include the earliest known love poetry in the Welsh language, may show a French influence. Hywel is known to have sired the following sons. Hywel ab Owain is written about in Sharon Kay Penman's novels When Christ and His Saints Slept, Time and Chance, he appears in the Sarah Woodbury'Gareth and Gwen Medieval Mystery Series' of books. Hywel is a prominent character in the first part of the novel 1170 by David Pryce, that chronicles the adventures of his half-brother Madoc, Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd at Wikisource Cristin verch Goronwy Kathleen Anne Bramley et al.
Gwaith Llywelyn Fardd. R R Davies, The Age of Conquest Wales 1063–1415 John Edward Lloyd A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions