Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century.
The Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!. Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America.
Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter. The three main components of a book musical are its music and book; the book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound.
The creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second; the first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton.
Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing. In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story; as The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the ma
George S. Kaufman
George Simon Kaufman was an American playwright, theatre director and producer and drama critic. In addition to comedies and political satire, he wrote several musicals for the Marx Brothers and others. One play and one musical that he wrote won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama: You Can't Take It with You, Of Thee I Sing, he won the Tony Award as a Director, for the musical Guys and Dolls. George S. Kaufman was born to Joseph S. Kaufman, a hatband manufacturer, Nettie Meyers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he had Ruth. His other sister was Helen, nicknamed "Helse." He studied law for three months. He grew disenchanted and took on a series of odd jobs, selling silk and working in wholesale ribbon sales. Kaufman began contributing humorous material to the column that Franklin P. Adams wrote for the New York Mail, he became close friends with F. P. A. who helped him get his first newspaper job—humor columnist for The Washington Times—in 1912. By 1915 he was a drama reporter on The New York Tribune, working under Heywood Broun.
In 1917 Kaufman joined The New York Times, becoming drama editor and staying with the newspaper until 1930. Kaufman took his editorial responsibilities seriously. According to legend, on one occasion a press agent asked: "How do I get our leading lady's name in the Times?" Kaufman: "Shoot her." Kaufman's Broadway debut was September 4, 1918 at the Knickerbocker Theatre, with the premiere of the melodrama Someone in the House. He coauthored the play with Walter C. Percival, based on a magazine story written by Larry Evans; the play opened on Broadway during that year's serious flu epidemic, when people were being advised to avoid crowds. With "dour glee", Kaufman suggested that the best way to avoid crowds in New York City was to attend his play. In every Broadway season from 1921 through 1958, there was a play directed by Kaufman. Since Kaufman's death in 1961, there have been revivals of his work on Broadway in the 1960s, the 1970s, the 1980s, the 2000s and the 2010s. Kaufman wrote only one play alone, The Butter and Egg Man in 1925.
With Marc Connelly, he wrote Merton of the Movies and Beggar on Horseback. According to his biography on PBS, "he wrote some of the American theater's most enduring comedies" with Moss Hart, their work includes Once in a Lifetime, Merrily We Roll Along, The Man Who Came to Dinner and You Can't Take It with You, which won the Pulitzer Prize in 1937. For a period, Kaufman lived at 158 West 58th Street in New York City; the building would be the setting for Stage Door. It is now the Park Savoy Hotel. Despite his claim that he knew nothing about music and hated it in the theatre, Kaufman collaborated on many musical theatre projects, his most successful of such efforts include two Broadway shows crafted for the Marx Brothers, The Cocoanuts, written with Irving Berlin, Animal Crackers, written with Morrie Ryskind, Bert Kalmar, Harry Ruby. According to Charlotte Chandler, "By the time Animal Crackers opened... the Marx Brothers were becoming famous enough to interest Hollywood. Paramount signed them to a contract".
Kaufman was one of the writers who excelled in writing intelligent nonsense for Groucho Marx, a process, collaborative, given Groucho's skills at expanding upon the scripted material. Though the Marx Brothers were notoriously critical of their writers and Harpo Marx expressed admiration and gratitude towards Kaufman. Dick Cavett, introducing Groucho onstage at Carnegie Hall in 1972, told the audience that Groucho considered Kaufman to be "his god". While The Cocoanuts was being developed in Atlantic City, Irving Berlin was hugely enthusiastic about a song he had written for the show. Kaufman was less enthusiastic, refused to rework the libretto to include this number; the discarded song was "Always" a huge hit for Berlin, recorded by many popular performers. According to Laurence Bergreen, "Kaufman's lack of enthusiasm caused Irving to lose confidence in the song, and'Always' was deleted from the score of The Cocoanuts – though not from its creator's memory.... Kaufman, a confirmed misogynist, had had no use for the song in The Cocoanuts but his disapproval did not deter Berlin from saving it for a more important occasion."
The Cocoanuts would remain Irving Berlin's only Broadway musical – until his last one, Mr. President – that did not include at least one eventual hit song. Humor derived from political situations was of particular interest to Kaufman, he collaborated on the hit musical Of Thee I Sing, which won the 1932 Pulitzer Prize, the first musical so honored, its sequel Let'Em Eat Cake, as well as one troubled but successful satire that had several incarnations, Strike Up the Band. Working with Kaufman on these ventures were Ryskind, George Gershwin, Ira Gershwin. Kaufman, with Moss Hart, wrote the book to I'd Rather Be Right, a musical starring George M. Cohan as Franklin Delano Roosevelt, with songs by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, he co-wrote the 1935 comedy-drama First Lady. In 1945, Kaufman adapted H. M. S. Pinafore into Hollywood Pinafore. Kaufman contributed to major New York revues, including The Band Wagon with Arthur Schwartz and Howard Dietz, his often
The Cocoanuts (musical)
The Cocoanuts is a musical with music and lyrics by Irving Berlin and a book by George S. Kaufman, with additional text by Morrie Ryskind; the Cocoanuts was written for the Marx Brothers after the success of their Broadway hit I'll Say She Is. The Cocoanuts is set against the backdrop of the 1920s Florida Land Boom, followed by the inevitable bust. Groucho is a hotel proprietor, land impresario, con man and hampered by two inept grifters and Harpo, the ultra-rational hotel assistant, Zeppo. Groucho pursues a wealthy dowager ripe for a swindle, played by the dignified Margaret Dumont. Produced by Sam H. Harris, the musical was given a tryout in Boston on October 26, 1925 Philadelphia; the Broadway run opened at the Lyric Theatre on December 8, 1925 and closed on August 7, 1926 after 276 performances. The production was directed with musical staging by Sammy Lee. After the Broadway closing, the brothers took the show on tour. On June 10, 1926, four new songs and other changes were introduced in the show.
The new version, referred to as the "1926 Summer Edition", featured the Brox Sisters, who sang the songs assigned to the character of Penelope. A brief Broadway revival played at the Century Theatre from May 16, 1927 to May 28, 1927 with the same creative team; the more famous film adaptation was released by Paramount Pictures in 1929, soon after the addition of synchronized sound permitted talking movies. Scene 1 – Lobby of The Cocoanuts, a hotel in Cocoanut Beach, Florida; the hotel guests love Florida, but not the hotel. Eddie, a bellhop, asks a hotel desk clerk, when the staff will get paid. Jamison suggests that he ask Mr. Schlemmer, the hotel owner. Harvey Yates followed shortly by Mrs. Potter. Mrs. Potter wants her daughter, Polly, to marry Harvey, since she has known his family for a long time, she exits. Penelope and Harvey know each other from their backgrounds in thievery. Penelope suggests to Harvey that he can strike it rich by marrying Polly, since Mrs. Potter has millions of dollars.
Polly soon enters and makes it clear that she is romantically interested in Bob Adams, an architecture student, the chief clerk of the hotel. But Mrs. Potter won't allow Polly to be seen with Bob, she comments, "One who Polly, is a clerk. And that settles it." After Mrs. Potter exits, Polly laments the restrictions placed on her; the owner of the hotel, Henry W. Schlemmer and the bellboys go after him asking for their wages. Through fast double-talk he is able to send them on their way, he has his eyes on Mrs. Potter, trying unsuccessfully to convince her to buy the hotel. Meanwhile Bob and Polly discuss their predicament, he has a plan to build housing on a particular lot in Cocoanut Manor. The bellhops try to convince Bob. Schlemmer and Jamison are at the desk discussing business when Willie the Wop and Silent Sam enter and start to wreak havoc. After they leave and Penelope discuss how she will steal Mrs. Potter's valuable necklace that evening. Schlemmer explains to the girls why he is a "Hit With The Ladies".
Detective Hennessy enters along with Willie and Sam and explains that he's looking for two wanted men whose descriptions they fit. Although he won't do anything yet, he warns them. After they leave, Bob asks Polly. Scene 2 – Before the Palms. Schlemmer tries to make amorous advances toward Mrs. Potter. "I don't think you'd love me if I were poor" she says, to which Schlemmer responds "I might, but I'd keep my mouth shut." To prove his interest, he tells her about "A Little Bungalow". Scene 3 – Two adjacent rooms in the hotel. Penelope waits for Harvey. Meanwhile, Sam sneaks in and hides under Penelope's bed. Harvey discusses with Penelope, he draws a map. After he leaves, Penelope studies the map and throws in the garbage, but Sam retrieves it, unseen; as Penelope tries to enter Mrs. Potter's room and Mrs. Potter have to contend with a series of encounters with Schlemmer and Hennessey. Penelope succeeds in stealing the necklace and re-enters her own room, proclaiming "Alone at last," not realizing that Sam is still under the bed.
Scene 4 – Before the Palms. The guests extol "Florida By The Sea". Meanwhile, Schlemmer explains to Willie. After much misunderstanding, Willie agrees. Scene 5 – Cocoanut Manor. Frances Williams and the guest await the auction. Schlemmer begins the auction, he starts the bidding. Lot after lot is "sold" to Willie, who seems to keep bidding higher against his own bids. Schlemmer reaches Lot 26, both the lot where Bob wants to build his house and the lot containing the hollow tree stump where Penelope and Harvey are hiding Mrs. Potter's stolen necklace. Bidding between Bob and Harvey becomes fierce. Willie knocks out Harvey, Bob wins the auction for Lot 26. Just Mrs. Potter proclaims that her necklace has been stolen. Hennessey tries to investigate. Sam produces the necklace from the hollow tree stump. Harvey suggests. Penelope fabricates a story in which she teases Bob for stealing the necklace. That's enough for Hennessey, who takes him away. Mrs. Potter announces the engagement of Harvey to Polly, to be celebrated with a dinner a
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
The Man Who Came to Dinner
The Man Who Came to Dinner is a comedy in three acts by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart, it debuted on October 16, 1939, at the Music Box Theatre in New York City, where it ran until 1941, closing after 739 performances. It enjoyed a number of New York and London revivals; the first London production was staged at The Savoy Theatre starring Robert Coral Browne. In 1990, Browne stated in a televised biographical interview, broadcast on UK Channel 4, that she bought the rights to the play, borrowing money from her dentist to do so; when she died, her will revealed that she had received royalties for all future productions and adaptations. The song "What Am I To Do" was written by Cole Porter for the play; the play is set in the small town of Mesalia, Ohio in the weeks leading to Christmas in the late 1930s. The exposition reveals that the famously outlandish New York City radio wit Sheridan Whiteside is invited to dine at the house of the well-to-do factory owner Ernest W. Stanley and his family.
But before Whiteside can enter the house, he slips on a patch of ice outside the Stanleys' front door and injures his hip. Confined to the Stanleys' home, Whiteside is looked after by several professionals: Dr. Bradley, the absent-minded town physician, Miss Preen, his frantic nurse, Maggie Cutler, his faithful secretary, he is visited by the eccentric Professor Metz, who brings him a glass-encased cockroach colony. Confined to the house for a month, Sherry drives his hosts mad by viciously insulting them, monopolizing their house and staff, running up large phone bills, receiving many bizarre guests, including paroled convicts. However, Sherry manages to befriend the Stanleys' children and Richard, as well as Mr. Stanley's eccentric older sister Harriet, he befriends local newspaper man and aspiring playwright Bert Jefferson, but soon learns that Maggie is in love with Bert, plans to leave her job to marry him. Unable to bear losing his secretary, Sherry invites his friend, the glamorous and loose-living actress Lorraine Sheldon, to Mesalia to look at Bert's new play, hoping she can break up the marriage plans.
Dr. Bradley tells Sherry he was mistaken in his diagnosis, Sherry is well enough to leave. Sherry buys the doctor's silence by pretending to want to work on a book with him, for the rest of the play keeps brushing him off; as Christmas Day nears, Sherry encourages June Stanley to elope with a young union organizer whom her father disapproves of, Richard to run away and pursue his dream of becoming a photographer. Lorraine arrives, Maggie suspects Sherry's involvement, they receive a visit from their friend, noted British actor and playwright Beverly Carlton. Maggie learns Beverly can do a great impression of Lord Bottomley, an English lord whom Lorraine is hoping to marry, she gets Beverly to call Lorraine and pretend to be Lord Bottomley proposing, to get Lorraine to leave. However, Sherry soon sees through the ruse; when Lorraine realizes Maggie's involvement she starts to seduce Bert as revenge. The next day, Bert is enthralled with Lorraine, Maggie, hurt by Sherry's betrayal, tells him she is quitting.
Feeling guilty, Sherry tries to think of a way to get Lorraine out of Mesalia. He gets help from an unexpected visit by movie comedian Banjo. Mr. Stanley, furious at Sherry's interference with his family, has now ordered Sherry's eviction from the house and gives him fifteen minutes to leave. All looks hopeless. Sherry and Banjo manage to shut her inside. Sherry sees a photo of Harriet Stanley when she was younger, recognizes her as a famous murderer. Using this information, he blackmails Mr. Stanley into helping them get the case onto Banjo's plane. Sherry now stands, telling Maggie she is free to marry Bert, prepares to return to New York by train; as he is leaving the house, he slips on another patch of ice, injuring himself again. He is carried back inside the house screaming. Kaufman and Hart wrote the play as a vehicle for their friend Alexander Woollcott, the model for the lead character Sheridan Whiteside. At the time the play was written Woollcott was famous both as the theater critic who helped re-launch the career of the Marx Brothers and as the star of the national radio show The Town Crier.
He was well liked by both Kaufman and Hart, but that did not stop him from displaying the obnoxious characteristics displayed by Whiteside in the play. Kaufman and Hart had promised a vehicle for Woollcott but had been unable to find a plot that suited them until one day Woollcott showed up, unannounced, at Hart's Bucks County estate, proceeded to take over the house, he slept in the master bedroom, terrorized Hart's staff, acted like Sheridan Whiteside. On his way out he wrote in Hart's guest book, "This is to certify that I had one of the most unpleasant times I spent." Hart related the story to Kaufman soon afterwards. As they were both laughing about it, Hart remarked that he was lucky that Woollcott had not broken his leg and become stuck there. Kaufman looked at Hart and the idea was born. A plot point mentions Broadway producer Katharine Cornell; the character Bert Jefferson writes a play, Whiteside promises to give it to Cornell for her to star in. The character of Professor Metz is after Gustav Eckstein, MD, a physician writer from Cincinnati who studied animal behavior and was a long-time friend of Alexander Woollcott.
Woollcott was delighted with The Man Who Came to Dinner and was offered the role for its Broadway debut. With his busy schedule of radio
World Brain is a collection of essays and addresses by the English science fiction pioneer, social reformer, evolutionary biologist and historian H. G. Wells, dating from the period of 1936–1938. Throughout the book, Wells describes his vision of the World Brain: a new, synthetic, permanent "World Encyclopaedia" that could help world citizens make the best use of universal information resources and make the best contribution to world peace. Plans for creating a global knowledge network long predate Wells. Andrew Michael Ramsay described, c. 1737, an objective of freemasonry as follows:... to furnish the materials for a Universal Dictionary... By this means the lights of all nations will be united in one single work, which will be a universal library of all, beautiful, luminous and useful in all the sciences and in all noble arts; this work will augment according to the increase of knowledge. The Encyclopedist movement in France in the mid eighteenth century was a major attempt to actualize this philosophy.
However, efforts to encompass all knowledge came to seem less possible as the available corpus expanded exponentially. Paul Otlet, a contemporary of Wells and information science pioneer, revived this movement in the twentieth century. Otlet wrote in 1935, "Man would no longer need documentation if he were assimilated into a being that has become omniscient, in the manner of God himself." Otlet, like Wells, supported the internationalist efforts of the League of Nations and its International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation. For his part, Wells had advocated world government for at least a decade, arguing in such books as The Open Conspiracy for control of education by a scientific elite. In the wake of the first World War, Wells believed that people needed to become more educated and conversant with events and knowledge that surrounded them. In order to do this he offered the idea of the knowledge system of the World Brain that all humans could access; this section, Wells's first expression of his dream of a World Brain, was delivered as a lecture at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Weekly Evening Meeting, Friday, 20 November 1936.
Wells begins the lecture with a statement on his preference for cohesive worldviews rather than isolated facts. Correspondingly, he wishes the world to be such a whole "as coherent and consistent as possible", he mentions The Work and Happiness of Mankind, one of his own attempts at providing intellectual synthesis, calls it disappointingly unmatched. He expresses dismay at the ignorance of social science among the Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations framers, he mentions some recent works on the role of science in society and states his main problem as follows: We want the intellectual worker to become a more organised factor in the human scheme. How is that factor to be organised? Is there any way of implementing knowledge for ready and universal effect? In answer he introduces the doctrine of New Encyclopaedism as a framework for integrating intellectuals into an organic whole. For the ordinary man, who will be an educated citizen in the modern state: From his point of view the World Encyclopaedia would be a row of volumes in his own home or in some neighbouring house or in a convenient public library or in any school or college, in this row of volumes he would, without any great toil or difficulty, find in clear understandable language, kept up to date, the ruling concepts of our social order, the outlines and main particulars in all fields of knowledge, an exact and reasonably detailed picture of our universe, a general history of the world, if by any chance he wanted to pursue a question into its ultimate detail, a trustworthy and complete system of reference to primary sources of knowledge.
In fields where wide varieties of method and opinion existed, he would find, not casual summaries of opinions, but carefully chosen and correlated statements and arguments. This World Encyclopaedia would be the mental background of every intelligent man in the world, it would be alive and growing and changing continually under revision and replacement from the original thinkers in the world everywhere. Every university and research institution should be feeding it; every fresh mind should be brought into contact with its standing editorial organisation. And on the other hand its contents would be the standard source of material for the instructional side of school and college work, for the verification of facts and the testing of statements—everywhere in the world. Journalists would deign to use it; such an encyclopedia would be akin to a secular bible. Universal acceptance would be possible due to the underlying similarity of human brains. For specialists and intellectuals, the World Encyclopedia will provide valuable coordination with other intellectuals working in similar areas.
Wells calls for the formation of an Encyclopaedia Society to promote the project and defend it from exploitation. This society would organize departments for production. Of course, the existence of a society has its own risks: And there will be a constant danger that some of the early promoters may feel and attempt to realise a sort of proprietorship in the organisation, to make a group or a gang of it, but to recognise that danger is half-way to averting it. The language of the World Encyclopedia would be English because of its greater range and subtlety. Intellectual workers across the world would be bound together through their participation. Wells wishes, he suggests that a world intellectual project will have more positive impact
Dinner at Eight (play)
For the 1933 film version, see Dinner at Eight. Dinner at Eight is a 1932 American play by George S. Edna Ferber; the plot deals with the Jordan family, who are planning a society dinner, what they, as well as various friends and acquaintances—all of whom have their own problems and ambitions‚ do as they prepare for the event. Dinner at Eight opened October 22, 1932, at the Music Box Theatre, closed after 232 performances in May 1933; the play was produced by Sam H. Harris, staged by George S. Kaufman. Sinclair. Main cast: Ann Andrews as Millicent Jordan Marguerite Churchill as Paula Jordan Constance Collier as Carlotta Vance Malcolm Duncan as Oliver Jordan Austin Fairman as Dr J. Wayne Talbot Paul Harvey as Dan Packard Sam Levene as Max Kane Conway Tearle as Larry Renault Judith Wood as Kitty Packard Olive Wyndham as Lucy Talbot The revival opened on Broadway on September 27, 1966, at the Alvin Theatre and closed on January 14, 1967, after 127 performances. Produced by Elliot Martin, Lester Osterman, Jr. Alan King and Walter A. Hyman, Ltd.
The play was directed by Tyrone Guthrie. Main castJudith Barcroft as Paula Jordan Robert Burr as Dan Packard Mindy Carson as Lucy Talbot Arlene Francis as Carlotta Vance June Havoc as Millicent Jordan Phil Leeds as Max Kane Jeffrey Lynn as Dr J. Wayne Talbot Darren McGavin as Larry Renault Walter Pidgeon as Oliver Jordan Pamela Tiffin as Kitty Packard The revival opened on Broadway on December 19, 2002 and closed on January 26, 2003 after 45 performances and 28 previews. Produced by Lincoln Center Theater, André Bishop: Artistic Director. Directed by Gerald Gutierrez. Main cast Joanne Camp as Lucy Talbot Kevin Conway as Dan Packard John Dossett as Dr. J. Wayne Talbot Christine Ebersole as Millicent Jordan Joe Grifasi as Max Kane Byron Jennings as Larry Renault James Rebhorn as Oliver Jordan Marian Seldes as Carlotta Vance Emily Skinner as Kitty Packard Samantha Soule as Paula Jordan David Wohl as Mr. FitchThe play received 2003 Tony Award nominations for Best Revival of a Play, Best Featured Actress in a Play, Best Scenic Design, Best Costume Design.
Dinner at Eight at the Internet Broadway Database