Electro is a genre of electronic music and early hip hop directly influenced by the use of the Roland TR-808 drum machines, funk. Records in the genre feature drum machines and heavy electronic sounds without vocals, although if vocals are present they are delivered in a deadpan manner through electronic distortion such as vocoding and talkboxing; this is the main distinction between electro and prominent genres such as disco, in which the electronic sound was only part of the instrumentation. It palpably deviates from its predecessor boogie for being less vocal-oriented and more focused on electronic beats produced by drum machines. Following the decline of disco music in the United States, electro emerged as a fusion of funk and New York boogie. Early hip hop and rap combined with German and Japanese electropop influences such as Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra inspired the birth of electro. In 1982, producer Arthur Baker with Afrika Bambaataa released the seminal "Planet Rock", built using samples from Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express and drum beats supplied by the TR-808.
Planet Rock was followed that year by another breakthrough electro record, Nunk by Warp 9. In 1983, Hashim created an electro funk sound which influenced Herbie Hancock, resulting in his hit single "Rockit"; the early 1980s were electro's mainstream peak. By the mid 1980s, the genre moved away from its electronic and funk influences, using harder edged beats and rock samples, exemplified by Run DMC. Electro became popular again in the late 1990s with artists such as Anthony Rother and DJs such as Dave Clarke. A third wave of popularity occurred in 2007. Electro has branched out into subgenres, including Electrocore and Skweee, which developed in Sweden and Finland. From its inception, one of the defining characteristics of the electro sound was the use of drum machines the Roland TR-808, as the rhythmic basis of the track; as the genre evolved and sampling replaced drum machines in electronic music, are now used by the majority of electro producers. It is important to note, that although the electro of the 1980s and contemporary electro both grew out of the dissolution of disco, they are now different genres.
Classic electro drum patterns tend to be electronic emulations of breakbeats, with a syncopated kick drum, a snare or clap accenting the backbeat. The difference between electro drumbeats and breakbeats is that electro tends to be more mechanical, while breakbeats tend to have more of a human-like feel, like that of a live drummer; the definition however is somewhat ambiguous in nature due to the various uses of the term. The Roland TR-808 drum machine hit the market in 1980, defining early electro with its recognizable sound. Staccato, percussive drumbeats tended to dominate electro exclusively provided by the TR-808; as an inexpensive way of producing a drum sound, the TR-808 caught on with the producers of early electro because of the ability of its bass drum to generate extreme low-frequencies. This aspect of the Roland TR-808 was appealing to producers who would test drive their tracks in nightclubs, where the bass drum sound was essential for a record's success, its unique percussion sounds like handclaps and closed high-hat and cowbell became integral to the electro sound.
A number of popular songs in the early 1980s employed the TR-808, including Marvin Gaye's “Sexual Healing,” Cybotron's “Clear,” and Afrika Bambaataa's “Planet Rock.” The Roland TR-808 has attained iconic status being used on more hits than any other drum machine. Through the use of samples, the Roland TR-808 remains popular in electro and other genres to the present day. Other electro instrumentation was electronic, favoring analog synthesis, programmed bass lines, sequenced or arpeggiated synthetic riffs, atonal sound effects all created with synthesizers. Heavy use of effects such as reverbs, chorus or phasers along with eerie synthetic ensemble strings or pad sounds emphasized the science fiction or futuristic themes of classic electro, represented in the lyrics and/or music. Electro hip hop group Warp 9's 1983 single, Light Years Away and written by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, exemplifies the Sci-Fi, afrofuturist aspect of electro, reflected in both the lyrics and instrumentation; the imagery of its lyrical refrain space is the place for the human race pays homage to Sun Ra's 1974 film, while its synth lines and sound effects are informed by sci-fi, computer games, cartoons,"born of a science-fiction revival.".
Most electro is instrumental. Additionally, speech synthesis may be used to create robotic or mechanical lyrical content, as in the iconic Planet Rock and the automatous chant in the chorus of Nunk by Warp 9. Although instrumental, early electro utilized rap. Male rap dominated the genre, however female rappers are an integral part of the electro tradition, whether featured in a group as in Warp 9 or as solo performers like Roxanne Shante; the lyrical style that emerged along with electro became less popular by the 1990s, as rapping continued to evolve, becoming the domain of hip hop music. About electro origins, Greg Wilson claims: Following the decline of disco music in the late 1970s, various funk artists such as Zapp & Roger began experimenting with talk boxes and the use of heavier, more distinctive beats. Boogie played a role during the formative years of electro, notably "Feels Good" by Electra, the post-disco production "You're the One for Me" by D. Trai
Dance Club Songs
The Dance Club Songs chart is a weekly chart published by Billboard in the United States. It is a national survey of the songs which are the most popular in nightclubs across the country and is compiled from reports from a national sample of disc jockeys, it was launched as the Disco Action Top 30 chart on August 28, 1976, became the first chart by Billboard to document the popularity of dance music. Since its inception, several artists garnered multiple achievements. In January 2017, Billboard proclaimed Madonna as the most successful artist in the history of the chart, ranking her first in their list of the 100 top all time dance artists and Janet Jackson being the second most successful dance club artist of all-time. Katy Perry holds the record for having eighteen consecutive number-one songs. Perry's third studio album, Teenage Dream, became the first album in the history of the chart to produce at least seven number-one songs between 2010–12, a record it held until Rihanna's eighth studio album Anti produced seven chart toppers through 2016-17.
Rihanna is the only artist to have achieved five number-one songs in a calendar year. The first number-one song on the Dance Club Songs chart for the issue dated August 28, 1976, was "You Should Be Dancing" by the Bee Gees; the current number-one song on the Dance Club Songs chart for the issue dated April 13, 2019, is "The Boss 2019" by Diana Ross. Dance Club Songs has undergone several incarnations since its inception in 1974. A top-ten list of tracks that garnered the largest audience response in New York City discothèques, the chart began on October 26, 1974 under the title Disco Action; the chart went on to feature playlists from various cities around the country from week to week. Billboard continued to run regional and city-specific charts throughout 1975 and 1976 until the issue dated August 28, 1976, when a thirty-position National Disco Action Top 30 premiered; this expanded to forty positions in 1979 the chart expanded to sixty positions eighty, reached 100 positions from 1979 until 1981, when it was reduced to eighty again.
During the first half of the 1980s the chart maintained eighty slots until March 16, 1985 when the Disco charts were splintered and renamed. Two charts appeared: Hot Dance/Disco, which ranked club play, Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales, which ranked 12-inch single sales. Only Hot Dance Club Songs still exists today. In 2003 Billboard introduced the Hot Dance Airplay chart, based on radio airplay of six dance music stations and top 40 mix shows electronically monitored by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems; these stations are a part of the electronically monitored panel that encompasses the Hot 100. On January 26, 2013, Billboard added a new chart, Dance/Electronic Songs, which tracks the 50 most popular Dance and Electronic singles and tracks based on digital single sales, radio airplay, club play as reported on the component Dance/Electronic Digital Songs, Dance/Electronic Streaming Songs, Dance Club Songs charts. Radio airplay is not limited to that counted on the Dance/Mix Show Airplay chart.
Although the disco chart began reporting popular songs in New York City nightclubs, Billboard soon expanded coverage to feature multiple charts each week which highlighted playlists in various cities such as San Francisco, San Diego, Los Angeles, Phoenix and Houston. During this time, Billboard rival publication Record World was the first to compile a dance chart which incorporated club play on a national level. Noted Billboard statistician Joel Whitburn has since "adopted" Record Worlds chart data from the weeks between March 29, 1975 and August 21, 1976 into Billboards club play history. For the sake of continuity, Record Worlds national chart is incorporated into both Whitburn's Dance/Disco publication as well as the 1975 and 1976 number-ones lists. With the issue dated August 28, 1976, Billboard premiered its own national chart and their data is used from this date forward. For the full list of all 100 All Time Top Dance Club Artists, click here. 19th week — "Wordy Rappinghood"/"Genius of Love" by Tom Tom Club 19th week — "Walking on a Dream" by Empire of the Sun 17th week — "Losing It" by Fisher 16th week — "The Look of Love" by ABC 16th week — "Most Precious Love" by Blaze presents U.
D. A. U. F. L. Featuring Barbara Tucker 16th week — "Where Have You Been" by Rihanna 16th week — "Right Now" by Rihanna featuring David GuettaSources: Thriller by Michael Jackson "The Boss" — Diana Ross, The Braxtons, Kristine W, again Diana Ross. Enrique Iglesias, Dave Audé and Pitbull are tied with 14 number-ones on the chart, the most among male artists. Iglesias, however, is the only male vocalist to accomplish this feat, while Audé is the only producer to achieve this milestone, as his singles feature a different vocalist. Rihanna is the first artist to earn 4 number-ones on the chart in a year and is the first act to earn 5 number-ones in a year as well. Three acts have attained thirteen number-one songs: Deborah Cox, Whitney Houston, Yoko Ono. Kylie Minogue became the first act to have two songs in the top three on March 5, 2011, her song "Better than Today" was number-one while "Higher", a song by Taio Cruz on which Minogue features, was number three. On July 28, 2016, Rihanna became the secon
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Prince Rogers Nelson was an American singer, musician, record producer and filmmaker. With a career spanning four decades, Prince was known for his eclectic work, flamboyant stage presence, extravagant fashion sense and use of makeup, wide vocal range. A multi-instrumentalist, he was considered a guitar virtuoso and was skilled at playing the drums, bass and synthesizer. Prince pioneered the Minneapolis sound, a subgenre of funk rock with elements of synth-pop and new wave, in the late 1970s. Prince was born and raised in Minneapolis and developed an interest in music as a young child, he signed a recording contract with Warner Bros. Records at the age of 17, released his debut album For You in 1978, his 1979 album Prince went platinum, his next three albums—Dirty Mind, 1999 —continued his success, showcasing his prominently explicit lyrics and blending of funk and rock music. In 1984, he began referring to his backup band as the Revolution and released Purple Rain, the soundtrack album to his film debut.
It became his most critically and commercially successful release, spending 24 consecutive weeks atop the Billboard 200 and selling over 20 million copies worldwide. After releasing the albums Around the World in a Day and Parade, The Revolution disbanded, Prince released the double album Sign o' the Times as a solo artist, he released three more solo albums before debuting The New Power Generation band in 1991. In 1993, while in a contractual dispute with Warner Bros. he changed his stage name to an unpronounceable symbol known as the "Love Symbol," and began releasing new albums at a faster rate to remove himself from contractual obligations. He released five records between 1994 and 1996 before signing with Arista Records in 1998. In 2000, he began referring to himself as "Prince" again, he released 16 albums including the platinum-selling Musicology. His final album, Hit n Run Phase Two, was first released on the Tidal streaming service on December 2015. Four months at the age of 57, Prince died of an accidental fentanyl overdose at his Paisley Park recording studio and home in Chanhassen, Minnesota.
Prince's innovative music integrated a wide variety of styles, including funk, rock, R&B, new wave, soul and pop. He has sold over 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time, he won seven Grammy Awards, six American Music Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award for the 1984 film Purple Rain. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone ranked Prince at number 27 on their list of 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Prince Rogers Nelson was born on June 7, 1958, in Minneapolis, the son of jazz singer Mattie Della and pianist and songwriter John Lewis Nelson, his ancestry is centered with all four of his grandparents hailing from that state. Prince was given his father's stage name, Prince Rogers, which his father used while performing with his mother in a jazz group called the Prince Rogers Trio. In 1991, Prince's father told A Current Affair that he named his son Prince because he wanted Prince "to do everything I wanted to do".
Prince was not fond of his name and wanted people to instead call him Skipper, a name which stuck throughout his childhood. Prince has said, he stated, "My mother told me one day I walked in to her and said,'Mom, I'm not going to be sick anymore,' and she said,'Why?' and I said,'Because an angel told me so.'"Prince's younger sister, was born on May 18, 1960. Both siblings developed a keen interest in music, encouraged by their father. Prince wrote his first song, "Funk Machine", on his father's piano. Prince's parents divorced when he was 10, his mother remarried to Hayward Baker, with whom she had a son named Omarr. Baker took Prince to see James Brown in concert, Prince credited Baker with improving the family's finances. After a brief period of living with his father, who bought him his first guitar, Prince moved into the basement of the Anderson family, his neighbors, after his father kicked him out, he befriended the Andersons' son, who collaborated with Prince and became known as André Cymone.
Prince attended Minneapolis' Bryant Junior High and Central High School, where he played football and baseball. He was a student at the Minnesota Dance Theatre through the Urban Arts Program of Minneapolis Public Schools, he played on Central's junior varsity basketball team, continued to play basketball recreationally as an adult. Prince met Jimmy Jam in 1973 in junior high, impressed Jimmy with his musical talent, early mastery of a wide range of instruments, work ethic. In 1975, Pepe Willie, the husband of Prince's cousin Shauntel, formed the band 94 East with Marcy Ingvoldstad and Kristie Lazenberry, hiring André Cymone and Prince to record tracks. Willie wrote the songs, Prince contributed guitar tracks, Prince and Willie co-wrote the 94 East song, "Just Another Sucker"; the band recorded tracks which became the album Minneapolis Genius – The Historic 1977 Recordings. In 1976, Prince created a demo tape in Moon's Minneapolis studio. Unable to secure a recording contract, Moon brought the tape to Owen Husney, a Minneapolis businessman, who signed Prince, age 19, to a management contract, helped hi
C'est Chic is the second studio album by American R&B band Chic, released on Atlantic Records in 1978. C'est Chic includes the band's classic hit "Le Freak", which topped the US Hot 100 chart, US R&B, US Club Play in October 1978, selling six million copies in the US alone and is to date both Atlantic Records' and parent company Warner Music's best-selling single – a record it's held for 35 years; the album contains the hit single "I Want Your Love". C'est Chic topped the US R&B chart for eleven weeks. C'est Chic was Billboard Magazine's 1979 R&B Album of the Year, claiming the number one spot on Billboard's Year End Review; the album was certified platinum by the RIAA. In the UK it peaked at #2 and has been certified Gold by the BPI; the European version was called Très Chic, with the cover featuring a woman wrapped around a neon light tube. It was replaced with the C'est Chic version with a less risqué cover. Très Chic had a different track listing. C'est Chic was released on compact disc by Atlantic Records/Warner Music in 1991.
The album was digitally remastered and re-issued by Warner Music Japan in 2011. All songs written by Nile Rodgers. Side one"Chic Cheer" – 4:42 "Le Freak" – 5:23 Listen "Savoir Faire" – 5:01 "Happy Man" – 4:17Side two"I Want Your Love" – 6:55 Listen "At Last I Am Free" – 7:08 "Sometimes You Win" – 4:26 " Bone" – 3:41 Side one"Chic Cheer" – 4:42 "Le Freak" – 5:23 Listen "I Want Your Love" – 6:55 Listen "Happy Man" – 4:17 "Dance, Dance" – 3:35Side two"Savoir Faire" – 5:01 "At Last I Am Free" – 7:08 "Sometimes You Win" – 4:26 " Bone" – 3:41 "Everybody Dance" - 3:22 List of number-one R&B albums of 1978 List of number-one R&B albums of 1979 Billboard Year-End
Omar Hakim is an American jazz, jazz fusion and pop music drummer, producer and composer. He has worked with David Bowie, Madonna, Dire Straits, Kate Bush, George Benson, Miles Davis, Daft Punk, Mariah Carey, Celine Dion. A graduate of the New York School of Music and Art, Omar Hakim began his career recording with various pop and soul groups, his father, Hasan Hakim, had played trombone for Count Basie. Hakim credits jazz vibraphonist Mike Mainieri with giving him his first break in 1980. Hakim first came to major attention as a member of Weather Report. Hakim played drums on David Bowie's most commercially successful album, 1983's Let's Dance, as well as the follow-up, Tonight, in 1984. Bowie described Hakim as "a fascinating drummer, with impeccable timing" and "always fresh in his approach". In the mid-1980s, Hakim joined Dire Straits as drummer while recording their fifth album Brothers in Arms. Hakim temporarily replaced the band’s then-permanent drummer Terry Williams, when his performance was felt to be unsuitable for the desired sound of the album after most of the album tracks had been recorded.
Hakim re-recorded all the drum tracks on the album in two days and left for other commitments. Hakim and Williams are both credited on the album. Hakim was part of the band for Sting's first solo album, The Dream of the Blue Turtles, appearing in the film Bring on the Night. By this time, Hakim was teaching himself to program drum machines, which put him in greater demand as a pop, R&B session musician, landed him work with Madonna. Meanwhile, he continued his work as a jazz fusion drummer. In December 1989, Hakim released his first solo album, Rhythm Deep, which occupied a middle ground between jazz, R&B, pop, gave him a chance to showcase his vocal abilities as well; the results earned Hakim a Grammy nomination in early 1990. During the 1990s, Hakim continued to improve his skills in the realm of electronic percussion, keeping abreast of new technologies, he performed on albums by Mariah Carey, Celine Dion, Jewel, among other pop stars, kept his jazz work going as well, though it had tapered off by the middle of the decade.
In 2000, Hakim released his second solo CD, The Groovesmith, produced and mixed in his personal recording studio "The OH-Zone". In 2010, Hakim formed a band with wife Rachel Z called "The Trio of OZ" and they recorded and toured extensively internationally behind their successful eponymous release. In 2014, he released his third album, entitled. Hakim played drums for the Kate Bush 22-night residency called Before the Dawn in London from August 26 – October 1, 2014 at the Hammersmith Apollo. On June 18, 2015, Journey announced that Hakim would replace longtime drummer Deen Castronovo on their North American tour after Castronovo was arrested for domestic violence in Salem, Oregon. Omar was featured on the cover of Modern Drummer Magazine in 2014. Omar was featured on the cover of DrumHead Magazine in 2017. Omar became the Chairman of the Percussion Department of Berklee College of Music in 2017, replacing the previous Department Chair, John Ramsey. Between 1988 and 1989 Hakim appeared as the house band drummer in The Sunday Night Band during the first half season of the acclaimed music performance program Sunday Night on NBC late-night television.
After being temporarily replaced by drummer J. T. Lewis for the remainder of that season, Hakim reappeared in the band for the second season in the fall of 1989, when the program returned under the new name Night Music. Rhythm Deep The Groovesmith The Omar Hakim Experience With Victor Bailey 1989 Bottom's Up 1999 Low Blow 2001 That's RightWith David Bowie 1983 Let's Dance 1984 Tonight 1989 Blue Jean 1989 Sound + Vision 1990 ChangesbowieWith Chic 1999 Live at the Budokan 2002 In Japan 2006 Night in AmsterdamWith Miles Davis 1986 Tutu 1987 Music from Siesta 1989 AmandlaWith Dire Straits 1985 Brothers in Arms 1988 Money for Nothing compilation 1998 Sultans of Swing: The Very Best of Dire Straits compilation 2005 The Best of Dire Straits & Mark Knopfler: Private Investigations compilationWith Najee 1986 Najee's Theme 1990 Tokyo Blue 1992 Just an Illusion 2000 Love Songs 2003 EmbraceWith Lee Ritenour 1988 Festival 1995 Larry & Lee 2005 World of BrazilWith Special EFX 1988 Confidential 1988 Double Feature 1990 Just Like Magic 1991 Peace of the World 2013 GenesisWith Weather Report 1984 Domino Theory 1984 Sportin' Life 1985 This Is This!
2002 Live and Unreleased 2006 Forecast: Tomorrow 2011 Live in Cologne 1983With others
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45