The Mitsubishi Group is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries. It is descended from the Mitsubishi zaibatsu, a unified company which existed from 1870, founded by Iwasaki Yatarō, to 1947 and was disbanded during the occupation of Japan following World War II; the former constituents of the company continue to share trademark. Although the group companies participate in limited business cooperation, most famously through monthly "Friday Conference" executive meetings, they are formally independent and are not under common control; the four main companies in the group are MUFG Bank, Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The Mitsubishi company was established as a shipping firm by Yatarō Iwasaki in 1870. In 1873, its name was changed to Mitsubishi Shokai; the name Mitsubishi consists of two parts: "mitsu" meaning "three" and "hishi" meaning "water caltrop", hence "rhombus", reflected in the company's logo. It is translated as "three diamonds".
Mitsubishi was established in 1870, two years after the Meiji Restoration, with shipping as its core business. Its diversification was into related fields, it entered into coal-mining to gain the coal needed for ships, bought a shipbuilding yard from the government to repair the ships it used, founded an iron mill to supply iron to the shipbuilding yard, started a marine insurance business to cater for its shipping business, so forth. The managerial resources and technological capabilities acquired through the operation of shipbuilding were utilized to expand the business further into the manufacture of aircraft and equipment; the experience of overseas shipping led the firm to enter into a trading business. In 1881, the company bought into coal mining by acquiring the Takashima Mine, followed by Hashima Island in 1890, using the production to fuel their extensive steamship fleet, they diversified into shipbuilding, insurance and trade. Diversification carried the organization into such sectors as paper, glass, electrical equipment, aircraft and real estate.
As Mitsubishi built a broadly based conglomerate, it played a central role in the modernization of Japanese industry. In February 1921, the Mitsubishi Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturing Company in Nagoya invited British Sopwith Camel designer Herbert Smith, along with several other former Sopwith engineers to assist in creating an aircraft manufacturing division. After moving to Japan, they designed the Mitsubishi 1MT, Mitsubishi B1M, Mitsubishi 1MF, Mitsubishi 2MR; the merchant fleet entered into a period of diversification that would result in the creation of three entities: Mitsubishi Bank was founded in 1919. After its mergers with the Bank of Tokyo in 1996, UFJ Holdings in 2004, this became Japan's largest bank. Mitsubishi Corporation, founded in 1950, Japan's largest general trading company Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which includes these industrial companies: Mitsubishi Motors, the sixth-largest Japan-based car manufacturer. Mitsubishi Atomic Industry, a nuclear power company. Mitsubishi Chemical, the largest Japan-based chemicals company Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, a power generation division Nikon Corporation, specializing in optics and imaging.
The firm's prime real estate holdings in the Marunouchi district of Tokyo, acquired in 1890, were spun off in 1937 to form Mitsubishi Estate, now one of the largest real estate development companies in Japan. During the Second World War, Mitsubishi manufactured military aircraft under the direction of Dr. Jiro Horikoshi; the Mitsubishi A6M Zero was a primary Japanese naval fighter in World War II. It was used by Imperial Japanese Navy pilots throughout the war, including in kamikaze attacks during the stages. Allied pilots were astounded by its maneuverability, it was successful in combat until the Allies devised tactics to utilize their advantage in armor and diving speed. Mitsubishi made use of forced labor during this tenure. Laborers included allied POWs, as well as Chinese citizens. In the post-war period and demands for compensations were presented against the Mitsubishi Corporation, in particular by former Chinese workers. On July 24, 2015, the company agreed to formally apologize for this wartime labor, compensated 3765 Chinese laborers who were conscripted to Mitsubishi Mining during the war.
On July 19, 2015, the company apologized for using American soldiers as slave laborers during World War II, making them the first major Japanese company to apologize for doing so. Mitsubishi was involved in the opium trade in China during this period. Mitsubishi was among a number of major Japanese companies targeted for dissolution during the occupation of Japan, it was broken up into a large number of smaller enterprises. For several years, these companies were banned from coordinating with each other and from using the Mitsubishi name and trademarks; these restrictions were lifted in 1952, as the Korean War generated a need for a stronger industrial base in Japan. Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, which had themselves been broken up into many smaller entities, again coalesced by the mid-1950s. Mitsubishi companies participated in Japan's unprecedented economic growth of the 1960s. For example, as Japan modernized its energy and materials indust
USS Bogue was the lead ship in the Bogue class of escort carriers in the United States Navy during World War II. She was classified AVG-9, but was changed to ACV-9, 20 August 1942. Aircraft operating from Bogue sank eleven German and two Japanese submarines, making her the most successful anti-submarine carrier in World War II. Bogue was laid down on 1 October 1941 as Steel Advocate under Maritime Commission contract by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding in Tacoma, Washington. Bogue was launched 15 January 1942. Short in command; the ship was named for Bogue Sound in North Carolina. After an extensive shakedown and repair period Bogue joined the Atlantic Fleet in February 1943 as the nucleus of the pioneer American anti-submarine hunter-killer group. During March and April 1943 she sank no submarines, she departed on her fourth crossing on 22 April and claimed her first submarine on 22 May when her aircraft sank the German submarine U-569 at 50°40′N 35°21′W. During her fifth North Atlantic cruise her planes sank two German submarines: U-217 at 30°18′N 42°50′W on 5 June and U-118 at 30°49′N 33°49′W on 12 June.
On 23 July 1943, during her seventh patrol, her planes sank U-527 at 35°25′N 27°56′W. The destroyer George E. Badger, of her screen, sank U-613 during this patrol. Bogue's eighth patrol was her most productive with three German submarines sunk. U-86 was sunk by her planes on 29 November 1943 at 39°33′N 19°01′W. On 30 November, Grumman TBF Avengers from Bogue damaged U-238 east of the Azores. On 13 December U-172 was sunk by her planes, with the aid of destroyers George E. Badger, Du Pont and Osmond Ingram at 26°19′N 29°58′W, and on 20 December U-850 was sunk by planes at 32°54′N 37°01′W. Bogue had a break from her anti-submarine operations during January and February 1944 when she carried a cargo of United States Army fighter aircraft to Glasgow, Scotland; the carrier returned to her anti-submarine role and on 13 March her aircraft teamed with British planes, Haverfield and the RCN River-class frigate Prince Rupert to sink U-575 at 46°18′N 27°34′W. On 5 May 1944, Bogue and her escorts departed Hampton Roads, for a cruise that netted two more submarines and lasted until 2 July.
Francis M. Robinson, of the screen, sank the Japanese RO-501 on 13 May and Bogue's aircraft sank the Japanese submarine I-52 at 15°16′N 39°55′W on 24 June. During the next cruise, from 24 July to 24 September 1944, Bogue's planes sank another German submarine, U-1229, on 20 August at 42°20′N 51°39′W. Following her return in September 1944, Bogue operated on training missions out of Bermuda and Quonset Point, Rhode Island, until February 1945 when she made a trip to Liverpool, with Army planes. In April 1945, she put to sea again as an anti-submarine vessel, forming part of Captain George J. Dufek's Second Barrier Force during Operation Teardrop. On 24 April, success came as Flaherty, Chatelain, Hubbard, Janssen and Keith sank U-546; this was the last of 13 submarines sunk by her escorts. With the war in the Atlantic over, Bogue moved to the Pacific, arriving at San Diego on 3 July 1945, she steamed westward to Guam, arriving on 24 July. She made a trip to Adak and joined the "Operation Magic Carpet" fleet returning servicemen from the Pacific islands.
She was placed out of commission in reserve on 30 November 1946 at Washington. Bogue received a Presidential Unit Citation and three battle stars for her World War II service. Photo gallery of Bogue at NavSource Naval History hazegray.org: USS Bogue Hunter-Killer Groups
Submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy
Imperial Japanese Navy submarines originated with the purchase of five Holland type submarines from the United States in 1904. Japanese submarine forces progressively built up strength and expertise, becoming by the beginning of World War II one of the world's most varied and powerful submarine fleets; the Imperial Japanese Navy acquired its first submarines during the Russo-Japanese War on 12 December 1904 where they arrived in sections at the Yokohama dockyards. The vessels were purchased from the new American company, Electric Boat, were assembled and ready for combat operations by August 1905. However, hostilities with Russia were nearing its end by that date, no submarines saw action during the war; the submarines that Electric Boat sold to Japan were based on the Holland designs, known as Holland Type VIIs similar to the American Plunger-class submarines. The five imported Hollands were built at Fore River Ship and Engine Company in Quincy, Massachusetts under Busch's direction for the Electric Boat Company back in August–October 1904.
They were shipped by freighter from Seattle, Washington in Knock-down kit form to Japan, reassembled by Arthur Leopold Busch at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan's largest naval shipyard, to become Hulls No. 1 through 5 and were designated Type 1 submarines by the Japanese Navy. Frank Cable, an electrician, working for Isaac Rice's Electro-Dynamic and Storage Companies along with Rice's Electric Boat, arrived some six months after Busch, training the IJN in the operation of the newly introduced vessels. In 1904 Kawasaki Dockyard Company purchased plans for a modified version directly from Holland, built two boats, with the help of two American engineers and Herbert, assistants to Holland; the Kawasaki-type submarines displaced 63 and 95 tons when submerged, measured 73 and 84 feet in overall length, respectively. Both vessels measured 7 feet at the beam; this contrasted with the original five imported Hollands-type submarines which had arrived that same year, at over 100 tons submerged, 67 feet in overall length and 11 feet beam.
The Kawasaki Type #6 and #7 submarines had gained extra speed and reduced fuel consumption by 1⁄4. However both boats could launch only one 18-inch torpedo, each was manned by 14 sailors, whereas the imported Holland-type submarines could fire two torpedoes and could be operated by 13 sailors; this new type was designated the Type 6 submarine by the Imperial Japanese Navy, was used for test purposes. The Kaigun Holland #6 was launched at Kobe on 28 September 1905 and was completed six months at Kure as the first submarine built in Japan, it sank during a training dive in Hiroshima Bay on 15 April 1910. Although the water was only 58 feet deep, there were no provisions at all for the crew to escape while submerged; the commanding officer, Lieutenant Tsutomu Sakuma, patiently wrote a description of his sailor's efforts to bring the boat back to the surface as their oxygen supply ran out. All of the sailors were found dead at their duty stations when this submarine was raised the following day.
The sailors were regarded as heroes for their calm performance of their duties until death, this submarine was preserved as a memorial in Kure until the end of World War II. Although the capabilities of these first submarines were never tested in combat during the Russo-Japanese War, the first submarine squadron was soon formed at Kure Naval District in the Inland Sea. Following the war, the Japanese government followed submarine developments by the Royal Navy with interest, purchased two British C-class submarines directly from Vickers, with an additional three built from kits by the Kure Naval Arsenal; these became the Japanese Ha-1-class and Ha-3-class submarines. An additional two vessels, forming the Ha-7 class were built by the Kure Naval Arsenal. In 1909, the first submarine tender, was commissioned. Japan, along with the rest of the Allies, drew upon Germany's Guerre de Course operations during the First World War, their submarine successes reinforced Japan's willingness to develop this weapon, resulting in eighteen ocean-going submarines being included in its 1917 expansion program.
At the end of World War I, Japan received nine German submarines as reparations, which allowed her and the other Allies to accelerate their technological developments during the interwar period. Imperial Japanese Navy submarines formed by far the most varied fleet of submarines of World War II, including manned torpedoes, midget submarines, medium-range submarines, purpose-built supply submarines, fleet submarines, submarines with the highest submerged speeds of the conflict, submarines able to carry multiple bombers, they were equipped with the most advanced torpedo of the conflict, the oxygen-fuelled Type 95. Overall, despite their advanced technical innovation, Japanese submarines were built in small numbers, had less effect on the war than those of the other major navies; the IJN pursued the doctrine of guerre d'escadre, submarines were used in offensive roles against warships. Warships were more difficult to attack and sink than merchant ships, because naval vessels were faster, more maneuverable, better defended.
The IJN submarine arm did have a number of notable successes against American warships, however. During t
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.
The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.
If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.
For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.
SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats
USS William C. Miller (DE-259)
USS William C. Miller was an Evarts-class destroyer escort constructed for the United States Navy during World War II, she was sent off into the Pacific Ocean to protect convoys and other ships from Japanese submarines and fighter aircraft. She performed escort and anti-submarine operations in dangerous battle areas and returned home with seven battle stars, a high number for a ship of her type, she was laid down on 10 January 1943 at Massachusetts, by the Boston Navy Yard. Miller, the mother of the late Radioman 3rd Class Miller. Frederick C. Storey, USNR, in command. William C. Miller got underway on 19 July. There, she conducted her shakedown before returning to Boston for post-shakedown availability and remained in the navy yard until 27 August, when she sailed for Panama. After transiting the Panama Canal between 1 and 3 September, the destroyer escort arrived at San Diego, California, on the 12th and shifted to San Francisco, California, on the 15th, before sailing for Hawaii nine days in the screen for Convoy 4796.
She returned to the west coast early in the fall but departed San Francisco on 19 October, bound for the Gilbert Islands and "Operation Galvanic". As a unit of Task Group 54.9, 5th Fleet, William C. Miller screened the ships of the Tarawa garrison group and patrolled in area "Longsuit" off the invasion beaches into early December, she guarded the entrance to the lagoon at Tarawa through the middle of the month before departing the Gilberts on Christmas Eve, bound for the Hawaiian Islands. Reaching Pearl Harbor on 30 December 1943, William C. Miller underwent upkeep alongside the destroyer tender Black Hawk and remained in Hawaiian waters into February 1944; that year was to prove a busy one for the destroyer escort. She earned the other six of her seven battle stars in the next year and one-half operating on screening and hunter-killer duties with convoys for the remainder of 1944. During that period, William C. Miller supported the occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro from 29 January to 8 February 1944.
It was during the Saipan screening operations, that the ship avenged the loss of her namesake. At 2120 on the evening of 13 July, a patrol plane sighted a Japanese submarine submerging some 78 miles from Rorpgattan Point and reported the enemy's position. Accordingly, William C. Miller and the other members of a hunter-killer group — Gilmer carrying the officer in tactical command — altered course and departed the screen for the transport area to track the submersible. At 0022 on the following day, the destroyer escort and her sisters arrived on the scene and commenced searching. Seven hours William C. Miller obtained sound contact at a range of 1,700 yards; the destroyer escort approached at 15 knots and dropped a 13-charge pattern at 0726. Opening the range after observing no damage, the escort vessel attacked for the second time, dropping a second pattern at 0752, once again, of 13 charges; that pattern appears to have proved devastating to Japanese submarine I-6. At 0804, William C. Miller noted pieces of wood popping to the surface about 500 yards ahead, one point on the starboard bow.
One minute a "heavy and prolonged underwater explosion" — estimated to be about three times the shock of a depth charge explosion — shook the ship. Shortly thereafter, observers in William C. Miller noted a large "boil" in the water some 50 yards in diameter. At 0806, the destroyer escort laid a third 13-charge pattern that landed atop the submarine, completing whatever devastation had been wreaked by the second salvo. William C. Miller lowered a boat to investigate; the ship soon recovered small pieces of cork insulating material. The depth charge barrage had torn the submarine apart. A postwar accounting credited William C. Miller with the destruction of Japanese submarine I-6; the Navy, in what seems to be in error gave credit to the William C. Miller for sinking the I-6, but due to recent research information presented by "combinedfleet.com", it seems to have been the I-55. I-6 was sunk in a collision with the freighter TOYOKAWA MARU on 16 June 1944 After the completion of the Tinian campaign, William C. Miller departed that island on 21 August in company with Indianapolis.
The destroyer escort paused at Eniwetok, in the Marshalls, on the 24th before she pushed on for the Hawaiian Islands, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 2 September. William C. Miller returned to Eniwetok at the end of October and shifted to Ulithi, in the Carolines, where she picked up Ulithi-to-Eniwetok Convoy Number 19 on 5 November. After bringing that convoy safely into port five days William C. Miller departed the Marshall Islands on 13 November with Eniwetok-to-Pearl Harbor Convoy Number 21. Making port at Pearl Harbor on 24 November, the destroyer escort underwent ordnance repairs at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard into the following year. William, C. Miller sortied from Pearl Harbor on 6 February 1945, as part of Task Unit 51.6.2 to participate in the assault and occupation of Iwo Jima between 23 February and 16 March. She returned to Pearl Harbor via Guam and Eniwetok; the destroyer escort subsequently steamed back to the west coast and remained there, first at San Francisco and at San Diego, until 13 June when she sailed for the Hawaiian Islands in company with Cabana.
After arriving at Pearl Harbor on
Japanese submarine I-24 (1939)
The Japanese submarine I-24 was one of five Type C cruiser submarines of the C1 sub-class built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during the 1930s. The Type C submarines were derived from the earlier KD6 sub-class of the Kaidai class with a heavier torpedo armament for long-range attacks, they displaced 2,595 tonnes surfaced and 3,618 tonnes submerged. The submarines had a beam of 9.1 meters and a draft of 5.3 meters. They had a diving depth of 100 meters. For surface running, the boats were powered by two 6,200-brake-horsepower diesel engines, each driving one propeller shaft; when submerged each propeller was driven by a 1,000-horsepower electric motor. They could reach 23.6 knots on 8 knots underwater. On the surface, the C1s had a range of 14,000 nautical miles at 16 knots; the boats were armed with eight internal bow 53.3 cm torpedo tubes and carried a total of 20 torpedoes. They were armed with a single 140 mm /40 deck gun and two single or twin mounts for 25 mm Type 96 anti-aircraft guns, they were equipped to carry one Type A midget submarine aft of the conning tower.
I-24 was commissioned at Sasebo, Japan on 31 October 1941. She participated in the attack on Pearl Harbor as the mother ship of a midget submarine piloted by Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki, who became the first Japanese prisoner of war when his boat washed up on the shore of Oahu some time after the attack. I-24 took part in the Battle of the Coral Sea and attack on Sydney Harbour in May and June 1942. I-24 was depth-charged and sunk with all hands by the United States Navy subchaser USS Larchmont at 53°16′N 174°24′E near Shemya, Alaska on 11 June 1943. Bagnasco, Erminio. Submarines of World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-962-6. Boyd, Carl & Yoshida, Akikiko; the Japanese Submarine Force and World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-015-0. Carpenter, Dorr B. & Polmar, Norman. Submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy 1904–1945. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-396-6. Chesneau, Roger, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press.
ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Hackett, Bob. "HIJMS Submarine I-24: Tabular Record of Movement". Sensuikan!. combinedfleet.com. Retrieved 10 May 2009. Hashimoto, Mochitsura. Sunk: The Story of the Japanese Submarine Fleet 1942 – 1945. Colegrave, E. H. M.. London: Cassell and Company. ASIN B000QSM3L0. Stille, Mark. Imperial Japanese Navy Submarines 1941-45. New Vanguard. 135. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-090-1