Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Bandra is a coastal suburb located on Salsette Island in Maharashtra, India. The suburb is located to the immediate north of the Mithi River, which separates Bandra from Mumbai City, it is the third-largest commercial hub in Maharashtra, after Mumbai and Pune aided by the Bandra-Kurla Complex. Additionally, many personalities who are active in Bollywood and politics reside in the city; the name "Bandra" originates from the Persian and Urdu word for port, or "bandar." It is described by Duncan Forbes's A Dictionary and English' as "a city. In Marathi, Bandra is known as Vandre, which means'port' and is derived from the same Urdu/Persian word; the area was under the rule of the Silhara dynasty in the 12th century. Bandra was a tiny fishing village inhabited by farmers, it was acquired by the British East India Company while the rest of Mumbai belonged to the Portuguese. In 1534, a sea captain, Diego da Silveira, entered Bandra's creek and burned the fishing town he found there. With that, Bandra came under the rule of the Portuguese crown.
This turmoil was the start of a long period of Christianization of Bandra. Father Manuel Gomes, a Catholic priest, was instrumental in increasing the Church's prominence in Bandra. In 1580, he baptized 2,000 fishermen. By the time he died 11 years Father Gomes' "invincible strength of soul", as one historian describes it, had helped convert close to 6,000 people in the area. Father Gomes established St. Andrew's Church. Bandra became a Portuguese possession when the Sultanate of Cambay ceded the region in the Treaty of St. Matthew, signed aboard the Portuguese brig Sao Mateus in Baçaim harbor in 1534 and aided by Governor-General Nuno da Cunha and Diego da Silveira; the Portuguese enfeoffed Bandra, Kurla and four other villages in 1548 to António Pessoa as a reward for his military services. This was confirmed by the Royal Chancellery on 2 February 1550; as these villages were given for a period of'two lives', they reverted to the Crown after the death of Isabel Botelha, Pessoa's widow. The Jesuits, who had applied for acquisition of these villages in anticipation of Isabel's death, obtained them from the viceroy in 1568 and received royal confirmation in 1570.
In 1661, when King Charles married Catherine of Portugal, the island of Mumbai was given to England as part of the dowry. However, Salsette Island, on which Bandra lay, was not part of this treaty and remained with the Portuguese; the Portuguese built additional churches in Bandra, one of the earliest being St. Andrew's Church in 1575, their Jesuit missionaries, who learned local languages and cultures, attracted many Indian converts to Catholicism among the villagers on the island. Their descendants continued to support the six Catholic parish churches—Mount Carmel, St. Peter's, St. Andrew's, St. Theresa's, St. Anne's and St. Francis d'Assisi—that lie within an area of four square kilometres. Bandra became part of English territory with the signing of the Treaty of Surat in 1775, but was retroceded to the Marathas in 1779 during the First Anglo-Maratha War. In 1802, Bajirao II signed the Treaty of Bassein with the English, surrendering sovereignty and again ceding Bandra, it remained under British control until 14 August 1947.
On 12 April 1867, the first railway service was inaugurated, with one train per day between Virar and Mumbai. Six years it was increased to 24 each day; as of 2018, 940 trains stop daily at Bandra. As late as the 1930s, Bandra had only one bus service from Pali Naka, Hill Road to the Railway station. Other people just walked to the nearest railway station. After World War II, the building boom began to accommodate immigrants. Bandra was raised to the status of a municipality in 1876 and was expanded. In 1950, following independence, it was merged into the Bombay Municipal Corporation to form the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay. Bandra consisted of many villages, among them Sherly, Rajan, Waroda, Boran and Chuim; these have been lost to urban development of the island. The Catholic chapel of Mount Mary was built around 1640 by the Portuguese; the chapel was destroyed in 1738 by the Marathas during their invasion. The statue of the Virgin was recovered from the sea by fishermen and temporarily installed in St. Andrew's Church, before being shifted to the rebuilt Mount Mary's Church in 1761.
2018 marked the beginning of the "Feast of Our Lady of the Mount" known as the "Monti Fest" or the "Bandra Feast". To this day, the statue is venerated and many miracles and major, are attributed to the Lady of the Mount; the architect of Mount Mary's Church was Bombay architect Shahpoorjee Chandabhoy. The basilica was built in 1904 at a cost of INR 1 lakh; the original church was built to serve the garrison posted at the Castella de Aguada at Land's End, Bandra. In 1879, Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy constructed a flight of steps to Mount Mary's Church. People of all faiths and communities visit the church; the Bandra Fair is held during the eight days of the Octave of the Nativity of Our Lady, beginning 8 September, when pilgrims throng the church. The first school founded in Bandra after Mumbai passed on to the English was St Andrew's Parish School, started by Fr. Francisco de Melo in 1780 to teach catechism to the children of the parish; this became St. Andrew's High School; the school is located in Bandra West.
St. Theresa's High School grew out of St. Andrew's Indian Christians' School, housed in a dilapidated building situated in Old Khar; this school was founded in 1918. It was t
Saint Francis D'Assisi High School
Saint Francis D'Assisi High School is a school in Borivali West, India. It is managed by the Franciscan Missionary Brothers, a Catholic religious society founded by Rev. Bro. Paulus Moritz, a German Missionary; the school is recognized by the State Government of Maharashtra. It was established in 1908 and had its centenary celebrations in 2008 with the former President of India, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam as the chief guest, it is one of the biggest schools in Mumbai. The school's sports teams their football team, perform well and win trophies in the inter-school sports competitions conducted in Mumbai; the high school has an average of 10000 students on its roster, from Standards V to X. The curriculum followed in the school was that of the SSC exams. Now the school has started a separate wing, it was started in 2009 in place of the senior college, supposed to be opened offering B. Com, but instead the ICSE wing was opened; the SSC wing is a boys school. The school is located with a church located on the summit of this hill.
Being a rather picturesque location, the school has featured in movies and television serials. It has two arena used for school assemblies, wedding ceremonies, cultural programs and movie shoots and a sprawling ground adjoining Our Lady of Immaculate Conception Church, Mt. Poinsur which are used for conducting sports or programmes like Annual Day; the management has a child college offering engineering courses and an MBA course. There is a technical school offering vocational courses; the school features several extra curricular activities such as student council, RSP, Boys scouts and various sports. This institute runs a Hotel Management wing affiliated to Yashwantrao Chavan Open University; the history of St. Francis D'assissi School and Orphanage dates back to 1908. Sebastian Pereira, Archbishop of Daman, who had his see at Colaba and knew the Franciscan Missionary Brothers- CMSF, visited Bro. Paulus Mortiz, Superior General of the CMSF to start an apostolic activity for the welfare of the poor and neglected children of the Diocese of Bombay.
He selected the location at Mt. Poinsur in spite of it being a jungle, it was with the help of his brother companions that Bro. Mortiz took up residence in the rickety old balcony of the dilapidated church of the Immaculate Conception on 4 October 1908, it was no mean task to find a clearing in the forest and to set up a thatched hut that became a residence for the Brothers and the poor boys of the areas. Official website
Our Lady of Immaculate Conception Church, Mt. Poinsur
Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church, Borivali has been a Roman Catholic Parish from 1547 to 1739 and again from 1912 onwards. According to tradition, the intrepid Franciscan missionary, Padre Antonio do Porto was the founder of this church in 1544, ten years after the Bombay-Baçaim coastal tracts were ceded by the Sultan of Cambay, Bahadur Shah, to Portugal by the Treaty of Baçaim. Fr. Meersman however holds that although Porto was its founder, the foundation could only have taken place shortly after his arrival in these parts in 1547. Ratus, Frs. Leslie J.. 1982 Directory of the Archdiocese of Bombay. Seminary of Pope St. Pius X, Bombay. School Diary. St. Francis of Assisi School, Mount Poinsur. 2003
Borivali is a coastal suburb of Mumbai and is located at its north-western end. Borivali is 18 kilometres from Mumbai Airport; the estimated population of Borivali in 2010 was 513,077. Borivali has developed from, it is believed that the name'Borivali' comes from the existence of a lot of bushes of a sweet fruit called'Borr' meaning berries in English. Hence, named the town of berries literally'bori-vali'; the existence of the ancient temple of Lord Ganesha'Shree Svayambhu Ganpati Devalaya' in Vazira Naka area, meaning the'self-manifested' or the'one, created from its own accord' in Hinduism, of the'Our Lady of Immaculate Conception', a Roman Catholic church at Mt. Poinsur, are the examples of the mix of ethnicity and a vibrant cultural mix of the population living here; the pre-historic era's "Mandpeshwar" and "Kanheri caves" stand testament to the rich history of this place. Borivali was spelt'Berewlee' by the ruled India under the British Raj Era, it is spelt and pronounced as "Borivli". Borivali is densely populated but continues to retain some green cover due to the presence of the'Sanjay Gandhi National Park' known as the "BORIVALI NATIONAL PARK" in the east and the mangroves in the west end of Borivali.
One of the many gardens that Borivali boasts of is the Veer Savarkar Udyan on Lokmanya Tilak Road. It has four entrances from T. P. S. Road, Factory lane and Babhai and is an ideal place for all which have facilities like jogging track, boating area, kids' play-garden, skating etc. Gorai Udyan is at Gorai Sector-1. In 2009, Jhansi Ki Rani Laxmibai Joggers' Park was inaugurated on Link road adjacent to the famous Eskay Resort; the plot measures around 4 acres, has a jogging track surrounding a water body where boating facilities have been started and features slabs with information on various freedom fighters scripted on them, besides seating areas for senior citizens. Another Joggers' Park is located in Chikuwadi. Borivali is a melting pot of different ages as the large number of gardens in the western part of this suburb makes this an ideal residential option for kids, senior citizens, the middle aged, college goers, it has become a hub for street food. Road Ways: Autorickshaws, Taxis, BEST buses and Trains are the public modes of transport available in and to Borivali.
Connectivity is set to increase with the two metro lines set to pass through Borivali viz. Mumbai Metro Line 2 and Mumbai Metro Line 7 Borivali railway station is a railway station on the Western line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway network. Rohit Sharma, Indian Cricketer, Swami Vivekanand International School student Jaywant Dalvi, Marathi author Dhondutai Kulkarni, Hindustani classical singer Ratnakar Pai, Hindustani classical singer Drashti Dhami, TV Actress Avdhoot Gupte, Marathi Classical Singer Bhavya Gandhi, Child Artist Known as Tapu in Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah Tanuj Mahashabde, Artist Known as Iyer in Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah Rohan Shah, Acted in Channel V and Aao Wish Karein Asha Bhosale, Singer Bose Krishnamachari, Malayali Painter Vinod Tawde, Member of Legislative Assembly, Minister Ram Naik, UP Governor, former minister Gorai Beach is on the western end of Borivali. One can reach here by crossing the Gorai Creek in a ferry. Rickshaw is available on the other side of the ferry.
On holidays the beach is full of localites. Plenty of accommodation options are available at Gorai beach. Essel World: One of Mumbai's largest amusement parks. Water Kingdom: Asia's largest water park.. Sanjay Gandhi National Park is one of the famous national park within the metro limit and one of the most visited park in the world. VIBGYOR Group of Schools Swami Vivekanand International School Saint Francis D'Assisi High School Mary Immaculate Girls' High School Our Lady of Vailankanni High School Abhinav Vidya Mandir S. E. International School Devipada Kandivali Dahisar Sanjay Gandhi National Park