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IA-64

IA-64 is the instruction set architecture of the Itanium family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors. The basic ISA specification originated at Hewlett-Packard, was evolved and implemented in a new processor microarchitecture by Intel with HP's continued partnership and expertise on the underlying EPIC design concepts. In order to establish what was their first new ISA in 20 years and bring an new product line to market, Intel made a massive investment in product definition, software development tools, OS, software industry partnerships, marketing. To support this effort Intel created the largest design team in their history and a new marketing and industry enabling team separate from x86; the first Itanium processor, codenamed Merced, was released in 2001. The Itanium architecture is based on explicit instruction-level parallelism, in which the compiler decides which instructions to execute in parallel; this contrasts with superscalar architectures, which depend on the processor to manage instruction dependencies at runtime.

In all Itanium models, up to and including Tukwila, cores execute up to six instructions per clock cycle. In 2008, Itanium was the fourth-most deployed microprocessor architecture for enterprise-class systems, behind x86-64, Power ISA, SPARC. In 1989, HP began to become concerned that reduced instruction set computing architectures were approaching a processing limit at one instruction per cycle. Both Intel and HP researchers had been exploring computer architecture options for future designs and separately began investigating a new concept known as long instruction word which came out of research by Yale University in the early 1980s. VLIW is a computer architecture concept where a single instruction word contains multiple instructions encoded in one long instruction word to facilitate the processor executing multiple instructions in each clock cycle. Typical VLIW implementations rely on sophisticated compilers to determine at compile time which instructions can be executed at the same time and the proper scheduling of these instructions for execution and to help predict the direction of branch operations.

The value of this approach is to do more useful work in fewer clock cycles and to simplify processor instruction scheduling and branch prediction hardware requirements, with a penalty in increased processor complexity and energy consumption in exchange for faster execution. During this time, HP had begun to believe that it was no longer cost-effective for individual enterprise systems companies such as itself to develop proprietary microprocessors. Intel had been researching several architectural options for going beyond the x86 ISA to address high end enterprise server and high performance computing requirements, thus Intel and HP partnered in 1994 to develop the IA-64 ISA, using a variation of VLIW design concepts which Intel named explicitly parallel instruction computing. Intel's goal was to leverage the expertise HP had developed in their early VLIW work along with their own to develop a volume product line targeted at high-end enterprise class servers and high performance computing systems that could be sold to all original equipment manufacturers while HP wished to be able to purchase off-the-shelf processors built using Intel's volume manufacturing and leading edge process technology that were higher performance and more cost effective than their current PA-RISC processors.

Because the resulting products would be Intel's and in order to achieve volumes necessary for a successful product line, the Itanium products would be required to meet the needs of the broader customer base and that software applications, OS, development tools be available for these customers. This required that Itanium products be designed and manufactured, have quality and support consistent with the rest of Intel's products. Therefore, Intel took the lead on microarchitecture design, industry software and operating system enabling, marketing; as part of Intel's definition and marketing process they engaged a wide variety of enterprise OEM's, OS vendors, as well as end customers in order to understand their requirements and ensure they were reflected in the product family so as to meet the needs of a broad range of customers and end-users. HP made a substantial contribution to the ISA definition, the Merced/Itanium microarchitecture, Itanium 2, but productization responsibility was Intel's.

The original goal for delivering the first Itanium family product was 1998. Intel's product marketing and industry engagement efforts were substantial and achieved design wins with the majority of enterprise server OEM's including those based on RISC processors at the time, industry analysts predicted that IA-64 would dominate in servers and high-end desktops, supplant RISC and complex instruction set computing architectures for all general-purpose applications. Compaq and Silicon Graphics decided to abandon further development of the Alpha and MIPS architectures in favor of migrating to IA-64. By 1997, it was apparent that the IA-64 architecture and the compiler were much more difficult to implement than thought, the delivery of Itanium began slipping. Since Itanium was the first EPIC processor, the development effort encountered more unanticipated problems than the team was accustomed to. In addition, the EPIC concept depends on compiler capabilities that had never been implemented before, so more research was needed.

Several groups developed operating systems for the arc

1998 NBA Finals

The 1998 NBA Finals was the championship round of the 1998 playoffs of the National Basketball Association and the conclusion of the 1997–98 NBA season. The Eastern Conference champion Chicago Bulls played against the Western Conference champion Utah Jazz, with the Jazz holding home-court advantage for the first 2 games in Salt Lake City. In a repeat of the previous year's Finals, the Bulls won the series 4 games to 2 for their third consecutive NBA title and their sixth in eight seasons. Michael Jordan was voted the NBA Finals MVP of the series; this would be his sixth NBA championship and sixth Finals MVP award in six full basketball seasons. This would be his final season of winning the NBA championship and Finals MVP; the 1998 Finals garnered the highest Nielsen TV ratings in NBA history at 18.7, surpassed the Nielsen ratings for the 1998 World Series, marking the first time the NBA had a higher rating in its championship round than of Major League Baseball's championship round. Until 2012, this was the most recent final played outside of either Texas or California.

Until 2014, it was the last consecutive Finals rematch between two teams. The series marked the first time since 1989 that the same two teams met in the Finals in consecutive years; the Jazz earned the league's best record by virtue of sweeping the two-game regular season series with the Bulls despite both teams finishing at 62 wins. In the playoffs, the Jazz were pushed to the brink by the Houston Rockets before winning Game 5 in Utah, overcame Rookie of the Year Tim Duncan and the San Antonio Spurs 4–1, they swept the Los Angeles Lakers in the Western Conference Finals. The Bulls swept the New Jersey Nets and took out the Charlotte Hornets in five, but it took seven games to overcome the Indiana Pacers in the Eastern Conference Finals; the Utah Jazz won both games in the regular season series: Bulls win the series 4–2. Unlike the 1997 Finals, the Jazz and Bulls entered this series as equals; the Jazz had won both regular season meetings with the Bulls, many analysts predicted a hard-fought seven-game series.

The two teams entered the Finals on different notes. The Bulls, endured a hard-fought series against a resurgent Indiana Pacers team helmed by Larry Bird, they would need all seven games to get past the Pacers and would have only two days' rest before having to travel to Utah. Predictions of a Jazz championship were strengthened with their 88–85 Game 1 victory in overtime in Utah, with Scottie Pippen just missing a 3-pointer at the buzzer. True to form, the Bulls tied the series in Game 2 while putting together a huge fourth-quarter run to silence the Delta Center and holding on to win 93–88 securing their first victory against Utah all season. Karl Malone shot poorly in the first two games of the series with some misses including one layup in Game 2 that hit the underside of the rim; the Finals moved to Chicago with control of the series at stake in Game 3. In a 96–54 loss, the Jazz set the record for the lowest points scored in Finals history, as well as the lowest number of points scored in any NBA game since the inception of the shot clock.

Chicago won Game 4 86-82, Utah took Game 5 83–81 despite nearly blowing a seven-point lead in the last two minutes. Karl Malone had his best game of the series with 39 points, while Antoine Carr made all five of his field goal attempts; the series returned to Utah with the Bulls leading 3-2. As they arrived at the Delta Center for Game 6, things didn't look good for the Bulls. Scottie Pippen, whose back was injured going into the game, aggravated his injury when he dunked the opening basket of the game, he scored. To keep pace with Utah, the Bulls were forced to rely entirely on Jordan, who scored 23 points in the first half. Emotions ran high at the Delta Center when the Jazz suffered a critical shot clock violation in the second quarter. Referee Dick Bavetta ruled that Howard Eisley did not get a successful 3-point shot off in time, although TV replays showed that the ball was out of Eisley's hands just before the shot clock hit zero. In the fourth quarter, Michael Jordan tied the game with only a minute left.

The Jazz received some relief as John Stockton hit a 3 with 41.9 seconds left to give Utah an 86–83 lead and sent the Delta Center into a frenzy. After Jordan made a layup to make it 86–85, the Bulls needed to stop the Jazz from scoring again; when John Stockton passed the ball to Karl Malone, Jordan stole the ball away and dribbled down the court. Guarding him was Bryon Russell, one of the Jazz's best defenders. With 10 seconds remaining, Jordan started to dribble right crossed over to his left. Jordan hit the 20-footer to give the Bulls an 87–86 lead with 5.2 seconds left. After a time-out, Stockton missed a potential game-winning 3-pointer, giving the Bulls their sixth NBA title in 8 years. Jordan, who scored 45 points, whose game-winning shot has been immortalized around the world, was once again named Finals MVP. Chicago BullsUtah Jazz The Finals were televised in the United States by NBC, with Bob Costas on play-by-play and Doug Collins and Isiah Thomas serving as color analysts. Hannah Storm hosted the pre-game show, assisted by Bill Walton, John Salley and Peter Vescey, Ahmad Rashād and Jim Gray reported from the sidelines.

This was the first time since NBC took over the broadcasting rights to the NBA Finals in 1991 that Marv Albert was not the play by play commentat

Jan Vansina

Jan Vansina was a Belgian historian and anthropologist regarded as an authority on the history of Central Africa. He was a major innovator in the historical methodology of oral history; as a professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he taught several generations of students and, according to a biographer, "set the pace in African historical studies from the 1950s into the 1990s." Vansina was first trained as a medievalist and ethnographer but became known as one of the most prominent Africanist scholars. In his work, he focused on the history of African societies prior to European contact, is regarded as the foremost authority on the history of the peoples of Central Africa, he published on the subject, including a landmark text on the factual interpretation oral history. On Vansina, historian David Beach writes, "In 1985, Jan Vansina's Oral Tradition as History provided a worldwide theoretical framework on oral tradition that rendered nearly all of its predecessors obsolete."Vansina obtained his doctorate in history from the Catholic University of Leuven in 1957.

After his retirement in 1994, he became a professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and lived in Madison, Wisconsin. Vansina died of lung cancer in Madison. Vansina assisted Alex Haley in deciphering several African words, handed down from Haley's ancestors, determining that they were of Mandinka origin. Vansina, Jan. Oral Tradition. A Study in Historical Methodology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Vansina, Jan. Kingdoms of the Savanna. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, Jan; the Children of Woot. A History of the Kuba Peoples. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, Jan. Oral Tradition as History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, Jan. Paths in the Rainforests. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, Jan. Living With Africa. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, Jan. Antecedents to Modern Rwanda: The Nyiginya Kingdom. Africa and the Diaspora series. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, Jan. How Societies Are Born: Governance in West Central Africa Before 1600.

Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. Vansina, Jan. Being Colonized: The Kuba Experience in Rural Congo, 1880-1960. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Vansina, Jan. Through the Day, through the Night. A Flemish Belgian Boyhood and World War II. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Harms, Robert W. ed. Paths toward the past: African historical essays in honor of Jan Vansina. Whitehead, Neil L.. "Interview with Jan Vansina". Ethnohistory. 42: 303–316. JSTOR 483088. "History Facing the Present: An Interview with Jan Vansina", by Karel Arnaut and Hein Vanhee "Jan Vansina on the Belgian Historiography of Africa: Around the Agenda of a Bombing Raid", by Jean-Luc Vellut

David Simpson (artist)

David Simpson is an American abstract painter who lives and works in Berkeley, California. In 1956 Simpson graduated from the California School of Fine Arts with a BFA. Since 1958 Simpson has had more than 70 solo exhibitions of his paintings in galleries and museums worldwide, his paintings have been included in hundreds of group exhibitions throughout the United States and Europe. During the early 1960s Simpson was included in two seminal group exhibitions: Americans 1963 at the Museum of Modern Art in New York curated by Dorothy Canning Miller and Post-Painterly Abstraction curated by Clement Greenberg in 1964. Simpson is an artist and teacher whose work is associated with the Minimalist and Color Field movements. David Simpson was born in Pasadena, California in 1928 to Frederick Simpson, an interior decorator and expert on 19th century fabrics and furniture and Mary Adeline White, a housewife. After Frederick died in 1936, Mary supported Simpson and his older brother, Robert, by working at the National Tuberculosis Association.

In 1952, Simpson met art student Dolores Debus. The two were married the following year in California. Simpson has a stepson, Gregory Vose, born in 1949, a daughter, Lisa Simpson, born in 1953. Simpson joined the Navy in 1945. For three years, he served as a Hospital Corpsman stationed near the Mexican border in El Centro, California. After staying on an extra year to help fellow hospital staff with the repercussions of war, Simpson left the Navy in 1949. Simpson used payments from the G. I. Bill to attend the San Francisco Art Institute, earning his BFA in 1956, he went on to receive his Master of Arts and Junior College Teaching Credential from San Francisco State University in 1958. While in school, Simpson worked the graveyard shift at a gas station and managed the campus cafeteria to cover tuition costs. Simpson has said that studying under professors like Clyfford Still, David Park, Elmer Bischoff helped him realize that he, could make a living teaching and producing art. In 1954, Simpson co-founded the Six Gallery at 3119 Fillmore Street in San Francisco alongside Wally Hedrick, a neo-expressionist painter and integral member of the Beat movement.

Before it was turned into one of the inaugural student-run cooperative galleries in the area, the space had been an auto-repair shop. Herb Caen wrote in the San Francisco Examiner on September 26, 1954 that the Six Gallery was "sponsored by six people interested in art, poetry and other worthwhile things." Many well-known artists, including Joan Brown and Manuel Neri, held their first one-person shows at the Six Gallery. On October 7, 1955, Allen Ginsberg read his famous poem, "Howl" publicly for the first time at a reading at the Six Gallery."Howl’s" future publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti, the poet Michael McClure, Jack Kerouac were in the audience, but Simpson, home sleeping after a night shift at his gas station job, missed the reading. The Six Gallery closed in 1957. In 1953, Simpson and Dee lived in the same house as Hedrick and his wife, the artist Jay Defeo, on Bay Street in San Francisco. During that time and Dee ran the San Francisco Art Institute's cafeteria to help with Simpson's tuition fees.

During their shifts at the cafeteria, Defeo babysat Lisa. Defeo, who worked in numerous mediums including drawing, photography and sculpture, was the subject of a retrospective at the Whitney Museum of American Art in 2013. In 1959, Simpson accepted a teaching position at the American River Junior College, near Sacramento, where he taught for two years before joining the teaching staff of Contra Costa Junior College in San Pablo, California. In 1965. Simpson became an assistant professor in the art department of the University of California, Berkeley. Five years he was promoted to full professor with tenure. After teaching at Berkeley for twenty-five years, Simpson retired in 1990. Simpson has had three notable artistic periods during which he produced cohesive works of particular resonance and importance; these phases are the Landscape-Based Abstractions, the Relational Abstractions, the Interference Paintings. "During the last several years I have been interested in paintings made up of horizontal stripes and bands.

Some of these appear as landscape—some as pure paintings. I’ve always been more interested in the painting than the landscape," –David Simpson, 1962. From the beginning of his career Simpson has described himself as a reductive rather than minimalist painter, his reductive, abstract landscapes of this period were inspired by the level earth floor and color-smeared sky of the Sacramento Valley. Simpson has related these works to "Indian blankets, or East-Indian madras, or the American tradition of landscape." Their abstract glazes and references to fog and sky caught the attention of the critic Clement Greenberg, who included Simpson in his seminal 1964 exhibition Post-Painterly Abstraction at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art alongside thirty other artists including Frank Stella, Thomas Downing, Helen Frankenthaler, Ellsworth Kelly. In 1958, Simpson had the first solo exhibition of his career at the San Francisco Art Association gallery, two y

Fock state

In quantum mechanics, a Fock state or number state is a quantum state, an element of a Fock space with a well-defined number of particles. These states are named after the Soviet physicist Vladimir Fock. Fock states play an important role in the second quantization formulation of quantum mechanics; the particle representation was first treated in detail by Paul Dirac for bosons and by Pascual Jordan and Eugene Wigner for fermions. The Fock states of bosons and fermions obey useful relations with respect to the Fock space creation and annihilation operators. One specifies a multiparticle state of N non-interacting identical particles by writing the state as a sum of tensor products of N one-particle states. Additionally, depending on the integrality of the particles' spin, the tensor products must be alternating or symmetric products of the underlying one-particle Hilbert space. Specifically: Fermions, having half-integer spin and obeying the Pauli exclusion principle, correspond to antisymmetric tensor products.

Bosons, possessing integer spin correspond to symmetric tensor products. If the number of particles is variable, one constructs the Fock space as the direct sum of the tensor product Hilbert spaces for each particle number. In the Fock space, it is possible to specify the same state in a new notation, the occupancy number notation, by specifying the number of particles in each possible one-particle state. Let B = i ∈ I be an orthonormal basis of states in the underlying one-particle Hilbert space; this induces a corresponding basis of the Fock space called the "occupancy number basis". A quantum state in the Fock space is called a Fock state if it is an element of the occupancy number basis. A Fock state satisfies an important criterion: for each i, the state is an eigenstate of the particle number operator N k i ^ corresponding to the i-th elementary state ki; the corresponding eigenvalue gives the number of particles in the state. This criterion nearly defines the Fock states. A given Fock state is denoted by | n k 1, n k 2..

N k i... ⟩. In this expression, n k i denotes the number of particles in the i-th state ki, the particle number operator for the i-th state, N k i ^, acts on the Fock state in the following way: N k i ^ | n k 1, n k 2.. N k i... ⟩ = n k i | n k 1, n k 2.. N k i... ⟩ Hence the Fock state is an eigenstate of the number operator with eigenvalue n k i. Fock states form the most convenient basis of a Fock space. Elements of a Fock space which are superpositions of states of differing particle number are not Fock states. For this reason, not all elements of a Fock space are referred to as "Fock states". If we define the aggregate particle number operator N ^ as N ^ = ∑ i N k i ^, the definition of Fock state ensures that the variance of measurement V a r = 0, i.e. measuring the number of particles in a Fock state always returns a definite value with no fluctuation. For any final state | f ⟩, any Fock state of two identical particles given by | 1 k 1, 1 k 2 ⟩, any operator O ^, we have the following condition for indistinguishability: | ⟨ f | O ^ | 1 k 1

Fifi Abdou

Fifi Abdou is an Egyptian belly dancer and actress. She has been described as "synonymous with belly dancing in the years she was performing." In her acting career, she is known as the woman-empowering type where in Egyptian culture and film, she beats up and overpowers men. Now she is considered an icon on social media, where she is one of the most active and most followed celebrities in the Arab world. Through her posts including regular belly dancing videos, she is known to be cheerful and empowering with no constraints. Abdou was born as'Atiyat Abdul Fattah Ibrahim in Cairo on April 26, 1953, her father is a policeman and she has 11 siblings, including her brother Abdelraheem Abdul Fattah Ibrahim, who encouraged her career. When she was 12 years old she joined a baladi troupe and found work as a model, she began to gain attention in the early 1970s. Over the years she danced at many other venues such as Le Meridien, Mena House and the El Gezira Sheraton, her performances lasted around two hours and she received up to $10,000 per performance.

In addition to dancing, her routines included circus tricks and rapping. The Moroccan newspaper La Vie Eco reported in 2004 shortly before her retirement that she possessed 5,000 costumes with the most expensive being valued at $40,000. Abdou has been criticized by some Egyptians. In 1991, she was charged with "depraved movements" by a Cairo court and sentenced to three months in jail. In 1999, Grand Mufti Sheik Nasr Farid Wasil issued an edict against her going to Mecca for hajj, but retracted it. In recent years, she has starred in several serial television dramas of the kind that are broadcast throughout the Arab world during Ramadan. In 2006, she took the lead in Souq El Khudar. For her role in the drama Al Hakika wa Al Sarab she was paid EGP 1 million, she is acted in a television series for Ramadan 2014 with her brother Abdelraheem. In 2019, she starred in the Ramadan series Kingdom of Gypsies, she has two daughters and one adopted daughter. Abdou's husband is the ambassador of Greenland, she is estimated to be one of the wealthiest women in Egypt and is known for her charitable donations to the poor of Cairo.

In 1996, she was the victim of a robbery when thieves stole $100,000 in jewelry and cash from her home. In 2003, Abdou filed a complaint against singer Medhat Saleh for unpaid debts and sued his ex-wife, the actress Shireen, for slander after she accused Abdou of breaking up their marriage. Fifi Abdou: Egypt's most celebrated belly dancer - performance review on Belly Dance UK