Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus
Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus, English: Volkswagen Trucks and Buses, is a Brazilian commercial vehicles manufacturing company based in Resende, Brazil and a subsidiary of MAN SE. It manufactures heavy buses under the Volkswagen marque. Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus was a part of the Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles division of the Volkswagen Group, but as of 1 January 2009, it came under the ownership of MAN SE and is now part of MAN Latin America. In 1979, Volkswagenwerk AG acquired. In January 1980, it increased its shareholding to 100%, therefore giving it the right to rename the company to Volkswagen Caminhões Ltda. Volkswagen Caminhões Ltda. Released their first trucks in February/March 1981. From 1990 to 1995, Volkswagen Trucks and Buses were built with Ford components as part of the AutoLatina venture, were built in Ford's Ipiranga complex in Brazil. Once the AutoLatina marriage fell through, Volkswagen Group had no factory for its trucks and their parts, so the Resende plant was built in 1995.
1996, Resende was the official start for Volkswagen Trucks and Buses, developing their own parts and platforms. The Modular Consortium was introduced for the first time in Resende; the Modular Consortium is the group of main suppliers that make the parts, assembles them for Volkswagen Truck and Bus on site in the Resende factory. Volkswagen Groups involvement is only in supplying the factory and inspection at the end of production; the Modular Consortium comprises these companies: Maxion Sistemas Automotivos Ltda. Manufacture the chassis parts such as Air Reservoir, Fuel Tank and Frame ArvinMeritor manufacture the Suspension and Axle parts such as Springs and Hubs and Drums Remon S. A. manufacture the Tires and Wheels Aethra Karmann-Ghia manages the Body Shop Carese manages the Paint Shop Continental AG manufacture the Cab Trim components such as Seats and Instrument Panel Most of the early sales of the Truck and Bus chassis' operations were within South America. Prior to Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles' new role of managing the Truck and Bus operation.
Due to the European Union Gas Emissions EU4 standards. Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles took over the Brazilian Trucks and Buses operation in 2000 from Volkswagen do Brasil; this signaled the start of a new era for the Volkswagen Group in producing its own Heavy Truck and Bus chassis range, which covers the gross combination mass of 5 tonnes to 57 tonnes category. Since Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles have taken control. All Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus vehicles are built in the Resende, Brazil factory and sent in semi knocked down kits to Uitenhage in South Africa and Puebla in Mexico. Planned future markets for export are Eastern Europe countries. Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus released the new Volkswagen Constellation range in September 2005, with a gross combination mass from 13 tonnes to 57 tonnes; the Resende plant was built in 153 days at a cost of US$250 million The Resende plant adheres to International Organization for Standardization ISO TS and ISO 14001 Resende plant produces 240 vehicles per day in two working shifts and employs 4,500 workers.
Volkswagen Trucks and Buses are sold in over 35 countries around the world. Some of the countries are Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Côte d'Ivoire and Saudi Arabia. Most of the Volkswagen truck and Bus growth has been in the last eight years All the 2007 Volkswagen truck range are capable of operating in minus 20 °C and plus 45 °C. Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus are assembled at the MAN Automotive Concessionaires Corporation plant in Quezon City, Philippines since March 2014. Established in 2002 10 km from Resende the assembly plant, the BMB Mode Center is responsible for modifications to the truck and bus range that cannot be done on the production line. BMB Mode Center build: For bus range: low entry buses and articulated buses. For truck range: 4x4, 8x4 & 8x2 conversions as well as an armored truck & exterior design modifications; the BMB division moved in June 2006 to the new location 150 m outside the Resende Plant. The new location has 30,000 square metres of land.
January 1981 Volkswagenwerk AG acquires 100% of the Chrysler Motors of Brazil Ltda February 1981 Volkswagen Caminhões Ltda releases first trucks — 11.130, 13.130, an ethanol powered truck March 1981 Changing of name from Chrysler Motors of Brazil Ltda to Volkswagen Caminhões Ltda September 1982 Launching of 6 tonne truck range July 1984 Integration of Volkswagen Caminhões Ltda. into Volkswagen do Brasil August 1984 Volkswagen 140, the first methane gas/biogas powered truck in Brazil July 1985 Volkswagen 11.130 exported to China July 1987 Truck division integrates with Ford Trucks with the formation of AutoLatina July 1990 Volkswagen Caminhões e Ônibus plant moves to Industrial Complex of the Ipiranga April 1993 Launching of the first Volkswagen Volksbus chassis 16.180 CO April 1994 Volkswagen Cami
SEAT, S. A. is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Spain. It was founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria, a Spanish state-owned industrial holding company, it became the largest supplier of cars in Spain. In 1986 the Spanish government sold SEAT to the German Volkswagen Group of which it remains a wholly owned subsidiary; the headquarters of SEAT, S. A. are located at SEAT's industrial complex in Martorell near Barcelona. By 2000 annual production peaked at over 500,000 units. SEAT today is the only major Spanish car manufacturer with the ability and the infrastructure to develop its own cars in-house, its headquarters and main manufacturing facilities are located in Martorell, an industrial town located some 30 kilometres northwest of Barcelona, with a production capacity of around 500,000 units per annum. The plant was opened by King Juan Carlos of Spain on February 22, 1993, replaced SEAT's former assembly plant by the coast in Barcelona's freeport zone.
A rail connection between SEAT's Martorell and Zona Franca complexes facilitates vehicle and parts transportation between the two sites. The industrial complex in Martorell hosts the facilities of SEAT Sport, SEAT's Technical Center and Development Center, Design Center, Prototypes Centre of Development, SEAT Service Center, as well as the Genuine Parts Centre for SEAT, Audi and Škoda brands; the development and assembly facilities are some of the newest within the Volkswagen Group, with the ability to produce cars not only for its own brand but for other Volkswagen Group brands, such as Volkswagen and Audi. For example, the development and design of several Audi models and several Audi development projects took place there, from 2011 onwards the Martorell plant manufactures the Audi Q3 small SUV; the Barcelona Zona Franca site includes the SEAT Training Centre, the Zona Franca Press Shop factory, producing stamped body parts, the Barcelona Gearbox del Prat plant, producing gearboxes not only for SEAT but for other Volkswagen Group marques.
Another plant owned directly by SEAT from 1975 was the Landaben plant in Pamplona, but in December 1993 its ownership was transferred to the Volkswagen Group subsidiary "Volkswagen-Audi-Espana, S. A.", the site today is producing Volkswagen cars in Spain. However, SEAT's Martorell site still provides support to Volkswagen's operations in the Pamplona plant when necessary, as it did after a serious fire in the paint shop in the Landaben VW plant in April 2007. Factories of the Volkswagen Group producing SEAT models include the Bratislava site in Slovakia, the Palmela AutoEuropa factory in Portugal, the Sidi Khettab factory in Algeria, while in the past other plants were involved too in producing SEAT models, such as the factories in Germany and Belgium. Future plans include a new Research and development centre in the city of Barcelona in the field of environmental and energy efficiency for the entire Volkswagen Group and the launch of a project on the city's urban mobility, as well as a SEAT museum in the Zona Franca's'Nave A122' site hosting all production and prototype models presented by SEAT together with some special or limited edition vehicles with historical value for the brand and the automotive history of Spain.
Among SEAT's subsidiaries, the SEAT Deutschland GmbH subsidiary company is based in Mörfelden-Walldorf and apart from its commercial activities has the further responsibility of operating SEAT's electronic platform, the SEAT IT Services Network. In Wolfsburg, Germany, in the middle of a lake inside the Autostadt, the Volkswagen Group's corporate theme park, is SEAT's thematic pavilion, one of the largest pavilions in the park. In its 60 years, there was only a short period from 1953 to 1965 when the firm produced its cars for the domestic Spanish market. In 1965 and in a rather symbolic move, the company exported some 150 units of its SEAT 600 model destined for Colombia by air freight for the first time, until two years in 1967 SEAT reached a deal over the renegotiation of its licence contract with Fiat which allowed the Spanish firm to form an international distribution network for its cars and thereafter start its export operations massively to more than twelve different countries, entering the export market in 1969.
Until the early 1980s, most SEAT exports were sold with Fiat badging. As a response to SEAT's bid for independence, Fiat committed themselves to selling 200,000 SEAT-built cars a year from 1981, compared to 120,000 the year before. At the end of 1983, just after SEAT had won its legal battle with Fiat, a quarter of the production went to Egypt and Latin America. In Europe, they were represented in West Germany, France, Italy and Greece; the UK, various Scandinavian markets were planned to be added in 1984. This was with the Fura to follow; the exponential growth in exports in the 70´s happened under the leadership of Juan Sánchez Cortés and the export director José María García-Courel. To date, the company has launched its own mode
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L
Groupe PSA is a French multinational manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles sold under the Peugeot, Citroën, DS, Opel and Vauxhall brands. Peugeot is the largest PSA brand in the world. PSA is listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange and is again a constituent of the CAC 40 index after having been removed in 2012. Beginning in 2016, PSA began to outline a strategy which entailed the rapid expansion of the company, through both geographic expansion and acquisitions of other car companies. PSA has announced plans to enter the Indian, Canadian, ASEAN, other markets in the coming years. Headquartered in Rueil-Malmaison, PSA, with sales of 3.78 million units, was in 2018 the second-largest Europe-based automaker. In December 1974 Peugeot S. A. acquired a 38.2% share of Citroën. On 9 April 1976 they increased their stake of the bankrupt company to 89.95%, thus creating the PSA Group, becoming PSA Peugeot Citroën. Since Citroën had two successful new designs in the market at this time and Peugeot was prudent in its own finances, the PSA venture was a financial success from 1976 to 1979.
In late 1978, PSA purchased the failing Chrysler Europe from the troubled US parent firm for a nominal US$1.00, plus assumption of outstanding debt, leading to losses for the consortium from 1980 to 1985. Further investment was required because PSA decided to create a new brand for the entity for the disparate French and British models, based on the Talbot sports car last seen in the 1950s. From on, the whole Chrysler/Simca range was sold under the Talbot badge until production of Talbot-branded passenger cars was shelved in 1987 and on commercial vehicles in 1992. All of this investment caused serious financial problems for the entire PSA group. In 1987, the company dropped the Talbot brand for passenger cars when it ceased production of the Simca-developed Horizon. What was to have been the Talbot Arizona became the Peugeot 309, with the former Rootes plant in Ryton and Simca plant in Poissy being turned over for Peugeot assembly from October 1985. Producing Peugeots in Ryton was significant, as it signaled the first time that PSA would build cars in the UK.
The Talbot name survived for a little longer on commercial vehicles until 1992 before being shelved completely. From 1987 to 1995, the Ryton plant produced the Peugeot 405 saloon. On 29 February 2012, PSA announced the creation of a major alliance with General Motors, as part of which GM became PSA's second-largest shareholder, after the Peugeot family, with a holding of 7%; the alliance was intended to enable $2 billion per year of cost savings through platform sharing, common purchasing and other economies of scale. In July 2012, a union official said that PSA Peugeot Citroën would cut as much as 10 percent of its French workforce of 100,356 employees on permanent and temporary contract; the jobs cut was more than announced. On 24 October, PSA said it was close to an agreement with creditor banks on €11.5 billion of refinancing and had won state guarantees on €7 billion in further borrowing by its Banque PSA Finance. CEO Philippe Varin says that "Citroën and Peugeot are too close", so he plans on positioning Citroën C-line models lower than Peugeot with DS models above Peugeot.
On 12 December 2013, General Motors announced it was selling its 7% stake in PSA Peugeot Citroën to the multibillion-dollar Padmapriya Automobile Investment Group. In 2014, Dongfeng Motor Group, the Chinese partner that builds PSA cars in China, the French government each took a 13% stake in PSA, in a financial rescue operation, reducing the Peugeot family share from 25% to 14%. Following Dongfeng and the French government each acquiring stakes in Groupe PSA, various cost-cutting measures at the company turned its fortune around and reduced PSA's debt, until the company began to turn a profit beginning in 2015. A new CEO, Carlos Tavares, was engaged and began to implement various cost-cutting measures and expanded the model range of all three core brands, alongside the creation of a new brand, DS Automobiles. In early 2016, PSA unveiled a roadmap detailing its plan to re-enter the North American car market for the first time since 1991. Although many only expected the DS to enter the North American market, PSA announced that all of its brands would be sold across the continent.
The plan to re-enter the market has three-stages, be a partner in a transportation network company begin renting and sharing PSA's own vehicles to the public several years after, followed by a full launch, establishing a dealer network in 2020. On 10 February 2017, PSA announced a 50:50 joint venture with the C. K. Birla Group the owner of the Hindustan Motors to sell Peugeot, Citröen, DS vehicles in India and purchase of the Ambassador brand from Hindustan Motors at the cost of INR 80 Crore; this marks the first time in over twenty years. On 14 February 2017 PSA announced that it was in talks to acquire Opel and Vauxhall Motors from General Motors; the talks were in an advanced stage, but were a surprise to the press and to much of Opel's leadership as they had plans to transform the company into an electric-car-only brand using the platform of the Opel Ampera-e for a wide range of models. GM agreed to continue to supply PSA with other electric vehicle technology. GM reported a loss of US$257 million from its European operations on 2016, sixt
Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. is a French high-performance luxury automobiles manufacturer and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, with its head office and assembly plant in Molsheim, France. Volkswagen purchased the Bugatti trademark in June 1998 and incorporated Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. in 1999. Bugatti presented several concept cars between 1998 and 2000 before commencing development of its first production model, the Veyron 16.4, delivering the first Veyron to a customer in 2005. At the urging of then-chairman Ferdinand Piëch, Volkswagen purchased the rights to produce cars under the Bugatti marque in June 1998; this followed the earlier Volkswagen purchases of the Lamborghini marque, the Rolls-Royce factory in Crewe, United Kingdom, the Bentley marque. On 22 December 2000, Volkswagen incorporated Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. with former VW drivetrain chief Karl-Heinz Neumann as president. The company purchased the 1856 Château Saint Jean Ettore Bugatti's guest house in Dorlisheim, near Molsheim, began refurbishing it to serve as the company's headquarters.
The original factory was still in the hands of Snecma. At the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance in August 2000, VW announced that they would instead build a new modern atelier next to and south of the Château; the atelier was inaugurated on 3 September 2005. Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen AG After the Veyron's discontinuation in 2014, the new Bugatti model was revealed to be the Chiron in 2016. With an 8-liter W16 engine delivering 1500 horsepower, an electronically limited top speed of 260 miles per hour, a price of about €2,400,000, the Chiron attempts to vastly surpass the Veyron's performance. Volkswagen commissioned Italdesign's Giorgetto Giugiaro to design a series of concept cars to return the marque to prominence; the first example, the EB 118, was a two-door coupé and was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1998. It was followed by the four-door EB 218 touring sedan, introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in 1999; that year, the 18/3 Chiron was shown at the IAA in Frankfurt.
Volkswagen designed the EB 18/4 GT in house. Bugatti introduced the EB 18/4 at the 1999 Tokyo Motor Show. All of these early concepts featured a 555 PS 18-cylinder engine; this was the first-ever W-configuration engine on a passenger vehicle, with three blocks of 6 cylinders each. It shared many components with Volkswagen's modular engine family; the 16C Galibier was unveiled during Celebration of the Centenary of the Marque in Molsheim. The presentation was only for Bugatti customers; the car show in Molsheim showed the car in blue carbon aluminum parts. One year Bugatti showed the world the 16C Galibier Concept at "VW Group Night" at the Geneva Auto Show in a new black and aluminum color combination; the Galibier, a 1000 HP sedan, was first shown as a concept in 2010 and when they planned to put it into production in 2015, it would have cost about $1.4 million. It would use the same 16-cylinder 8.0-litre engine as the Veyron but instead of four turbos, the 16C Galibier would instead use two superchargers to deliver better torque.
Production would require new facilities in Molsheim, France, to be refitted, which pushed back potential deliveries until 2015. In 2013, it was announced that the car will never be produced as they wish to focus on a Veyron replacement. In the 1980s the Bugatti brand was brought back as Bugatti Automobili S.p. A. in Italy. The company produced the EB110 in the 1990s; the company was bought by Volkswagen at the end of the 20th century. Development of this vehicle began with the 1999 EB 18/4 "Veyron" concept car, which itself had a chassis based on that of the Bugatti 18/3 Chiron concept car, it was similar in appearance to the final Veyron production car. One major difference was the EB 18/4's use of a W18 engine with three banks of six cylinders; the Veyron's chief designer was Hartmut Warkuss, the exterior was designed by Jozef Kabaň of Volkswagen, rather than Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign, who had handled the three prior Bugatti concepts. The – Volkswagen Group chairman Ferdinand Piëch announced the Veyron at the 2000 Geneva Motor Show.
It was promised to be the fastest, most expensive car in history. Instead of the W18, it would use a VR6/WR8-style W16 engine. First seen in the 1999 Bentley Hunaudières concept car, the W16 would have four turbochargers and produce a quoted 1001 horsepower. Top speed was promised at 407 km/h, the price was announced at €1 million. Development continued throughout 2001 and the EB 16/4 Veyron was promoted to "advanced concept" status. In late 2001, Bugatti announced that the car called the "Bugatti Veyron 16.4", would go into production in 2003. Piëch retired that year as chairman of the Volkswagen Group and was replaced by Bernd Pischetsrieder; the new chairman promptly sent the Veyron back to the drawing board for major revisions. Neumann was replaced as Bugatti president by Thomas Bscher in December 2003, substantial modifications were made to the Veyron under the guidance of a former VW engineer, Bugatti Engineering chief Wolfgang Schreiber; the Veyron costs €1,100,000. Prices for the UK or the US are over £880,000, or around $1,400,000.
It was noted in an April issue of Live magazine that customers are free to order additional extras which can push the price up by the cost of a Rolls Royce Phantom. During
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, manufacturing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's largest economic sectors by revenue; the automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to the maintenance of automobiles following delivery to the end-user, such as automobile repair shops and motor fuel filling stations. The word automotive is from the Greek autos, Latin motivus to refer to any form of self-powered vehicle; this term, as proposed by Elmer Sperry, first came into use with reference to automobiles in 1898. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, the U. S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them. At that time the U. S. had one car per 4.87 persons. After World War II, the U.
S. produced about 75 percent of world's auto production. In 1980, the U. S. was overtaken by Japan and became world's leader again in 1994. In 2006, Japan narrowly passed the U. S. in production and held this rank until 2009, when China took the top spot with 13.8 million units. With 19.3 million units manufactured in 2012, China doubled the U. S. production, with 10.3 million units, while Japan was in third place with 9.9 million units. From 1970 over 1998 to 2012, the number of automobile models in the U. S. has grown exponentially. Safety is a state that implies to be protected from any risk, damage or cause of injury. In the automotive industry, safety means that users, operators or manufacturers do not face any risk or danger coming from the motor vehicle or its spare parts. Safety for the automobiles themselves, implies that there is no risk of damage. Safety in the automotive industry is important and therefore regulated. Automobiles and other motor vehicles have to comply with a certain number of norms and regulations, whether local or international, in order to be accepted on the market.
The standard ISO 26262, is considered as one of the best practice framework for achieving automotive functional safety. In case of safety issues, product defect or faulty procedure during the manufacturing of the motor vehicle, the maker can request to return either a batch or the entire production run; this procedure is called product recall. Product recalls happen in every industry and can be production-related or stem from the raw material. Product and operation tests and inspections at different stages of the value chain are made to avoid these product recalls by ensuring end-user security and safety and compliance with the automotive industry requirements. However, the automotive industry is still concerned about product recalls, which cause considerable financial consequences. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly; the automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies.
The Detroit branch of Boston Consulting Group predicts that, by 2014, one-third of world demand will be in the four BRIC markets. Meanwhile, in the developed countries, the automotive industry has slowed down, it is expected that this trend will continue as the younger generations of people no longer want to own a car anymore, prefer other modes of transport. Other powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia. Emerging auto markets buy more cars than established markets. According to a J. D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010; the study, performed in 2010 expected this trend to accelerate. However, more recent reports confirmed the opposite. In the United States, vehicle sales peaked in 2000, at 17.8 million units. The OICA counts over 50 countries which assemble, manufacture or disseminate automobiles. Of that figure, only 13, boldfaced in the list below, possess the capability to design automobiles from the ground up; this is a list of the 15 largest manufacturers by production in 2016.
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers. These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies. Notable current relationships include: Daimler AG holds a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ. Daimler AG holds an 89.29% stake in Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Daimler AG holds a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Daimler AG holds a 12% stake in Beijing Automotive Group, Daimler AG holds an 85% stake in Master Motors. Dongfeng Motor holds a 12.23% stake and a 19.94% exercisable voting rights in PSA Groupe. FAW Group owns 49% of Haima Automobile. FCA holds a 10% stake in Ferrari. FCA holds a 67% stake in Fiat Automobili Srbija. FCA holds 37.8% of Tofaş with another 37.8% owned by Koç Holding. Fiat Automobili Srbija owns a 54% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fiat Industrial owns a 46% stake in Zastava Trucks. Fujian Motors Group holds a 15% stake in King Long. FMG, Beijing Automotive Group, China Motor, Daimler has a joint venture called Fujian Benz.
FMG, China Motor, Mitsubishi Motors has a joint venture called Soueast, FMG holds a 50% stake, both China Motor and Mitsubishi Motors holds an equal 25% stake. Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in The London Taxi Company. Geely Automobile holds a 49.9% stake in PROTON Holdings and a 51% stake in Lotus Cars. Geely Holding Group holds a 9.69% stake in Daimle
General Motors Company referred to as General Motors, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company; the company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. General Motors manufactures vehicles in 37 countries, it owns or holds controlling interest in foreign brands such as Holden, Wuling and Jiefang. Annual worldwide sales volume reached a milestone of 10 million vehicles in 2016. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea, it has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling and FAW-GM in China, GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia, GM Uzbekistan, General Motors India, General Motors Egypt, Isuzu Truck South Africa.
General Motors does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into four business segments: GM North America, GM International Operations, GM Cruze, GM Financial; the company operates a mobility division called Maven, which operates car-sharing services in the United States, is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership. GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, in 2012 was among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China through 10 joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety and information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.
In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering, one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, returned to profitability that year. General Motors Company was formed with an escrow account set up by R S McLaughlin for 15 years of Buick Motors in 1907 on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant, owner of Buick. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were fewer than 8,000 automobiles in the U. S. and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint helped by his purchase of the Carriage Gear patent from the McLaughlin family in Canada, in the 1880s and 1890s, before making his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the fledgling Buick Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation in 1918. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder in The USA, spent his life with his Mott Foundation, which has benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home.
GM acquired Oldsmobile that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore and several others. In 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant, along with R. S. McLaughlin, lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers who held the Escrow account' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales; the next year, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in the U. S. and in Canada in 1915, through this, he and McLaughlin in Canada secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant regained control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in U. S. business history. Durant reorganized General Motors Holding Company into General Motors Company in 1916, merging Chevrolet with GM and allying General Motors of Canada Limited in 1918 after McLaughlin Traded his Outstanding Stocks for GM stocks to allow the Corporation in the USA.
Shortly thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation, led it to its post-war global dominance when the seven manufacturing facilities operated by Chevrolet before Chevrolet acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations; these facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive to Cadillac, Oldsmobile and other companies acquired by the corporation. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants in the USA. On July 10, 2009, General Motors emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC.
The shares in Ally were sold on December 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue. In 2009 General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands