Hanover Square (Manhattan)
Hanover Square is a square with a public park in the Financial District, Lower Manhattan, New York City. It is triangular in shape, bordered by Pearl Street, a street named Hanover Square. Most surrounding buildings are commercial; the square's pocket park is maintained by the New York City Department of Parks, has an area of 0.056 acres or 2,440 square feet. The square was known by its current name as early during the period of British colonialism. In 1714, it was named for the House of Hanover; the Queen Elizabeth II Garden was opened in June 2008. A memorial park for those victims of September 11 who were citizens of any Commonwealth realm it was given its broader designation on September 11, 2011. In July 2010, Queen Elizabeth II visited Hanover Square after laying a wreath at the World Trade Center site and meeting with families of the British victims. For many years, Hanover Square was the center of New York's commodity market, with the New York Cotton Exchange at 1 Hanover Square, New York Cocoa Exchange and others located nearby.
The square was known as "Printing House Square," and it was here that the Great Fire of New York broke out on December 16, 1835, decimating much of Lower Manhattan. 3 Hanover Square, a former home to the New York Cotton Exchange, 10 Hanover Square, a former office building, have been converted to residential use. The IRT Third Avenue Line elevated railway had a station above the square from 1878 until 1950, when it was deactivated and dismantled; the fourth stage of the Second Avenue Subway is slated to extend subway service to Hanover Square. The nearest subway stations are: Wall Street Broad Street South Ferry – Whitehall Street Wall Street NYC Parks history of Hanover Square
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features original articles on finance, industry and marketing topics. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and law, its headquarters is located in New Jersey. Primary competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek; the magazine is well known for its lists and rankings, including of the richest Americans, of the world's top companies, The World's Billionaires. The motto of Forbes magazine is "The Capitalist Tool", its chair and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, its CEO is Mike Federle. It was sold to Integrated Whale Media Investments. B. C. Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15, 1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise; the original name of the magazine was Forbes: Devoted to Doings.
Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C. Forbes became editor-in-chief, a post he held until his death in 1954. B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his father's death, his strengths lay in streamlining operations and developing marketing. During his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazine's circulation nearly doubled. On Bruce's death, his brother Malcolm Stevenson "Steve" Forbes Jr. became President and Chief executive of Forbes and Editor-in-Chief of Forbes magazine. Between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. In 2006, an investment group Elevation Partners that includes rock star Bono bought a minority interest in the company with a reorganization, through a new company, Forbes Media LLC, in which Forbes Magazine and Forbes.com, along with other media properties, is now a part.
A 2009 New York Times report said: "40 percent of the enterprise was sold... for a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million". Three years Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners observed, "It's not worth half of that now", it was revealed that the price had been US$264 million. In January 2010, Forbes reached an agreement to sell its headquarters building Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to New York University; the company's headquarters subsequently moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City, New Jersey, in 2014. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale; this was encouraged by minority shareholders Elevation Partners. Sale documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publisher's 2012 EBITDA was US$15 million. Forbes sought a price of US$400 million. In July 2014, the Forbes family bought out Elevation and sold a 51 per cent majority of the company to Integrated Whale Media Investments. Apart from Forbes and its lifestyle supplement, Forbes Life, other titles include Forbes Asia and fifteen local language editions.
Steve Forbes and his magazine's writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes on Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group and Forbes Custom Media. From the 2009 Times report: "Steve Forbes returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10." In addition, that year the company began publishing ForbesWoman, a quarterly magazine published by Steve Forbes's daughter, Moira Forbes, with a companion Web site. The company published American Legacy magazine as a joint venture, although that magazine separated from Forbes on May 14, 2007; the company formerly published American Heritage and Invention & Technology magazines. After failing to find a buyer, Forbes suspended publication of these two magazines as of May 17, 2007. Both magazines were purchased by the American Heritage Publishing Company and resumed publication as of the spring of 2008. Forbes has published the Forbes Travel Guide since 2009.
On January 6, 2014, Forbes magazine announced that, in partnership with app creator Maz, it was launching a social networking app called "Stream". Stream allows Forbes readers to save and share visual content with other readers and discover content from Forbes magazine and Forbes.com within the app. Forbes.com is part of Forbes Digital, a division of Forbes Media LLC. Forbes's holdings include a portion of RealClearPolitics. Together these sites reach more than 27 million unique visitors each month. Forbes.com employs the slogan "Home Page for the World's Business Leaders" and claimed, in 2006, to be the world's most visited business web site. The 2009 Times report said that, while "one of the top five financial sites by traffic off an estimated $70 million to $80 million a year in revenue, never yielded the hoped-for public offering". Forbes.com uses a "contributor model" in which a wide network of "contributors" writes and publishes articles directly on the website. Contributors are paid based on traffic to their respective Forbes.com pages.
Forbes allows advertisers to publish blog posts on its website alongside regular editorial content through a program called BrandVoice, which accounts for more than 10 pe
David Jang is a Korean American professor, Christian theologian, pastor. He has founded several Christian organizations, including Olivet University in San Francisco, Christian Today headquartered in Korea, Christian Daily Korea, Christianity Daily in Los Angeles, CA, he is a member of the North American Council of the World Evangelical Alliance, the president of World Olivet Assembly, international president of Olivet University, president of the Holy Bible Society. Jang was the 88th President of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Korea, he has traveled around the world, including Africa and South Asia and North and South America, advising churches, educational institutions, other Christian ministries. Jang was raised in the Presbyterian tradition; as a young man he spent much time in Bible study, vigil prayer meetings, evangelism. He pursued theological studies at Hanshin University and received two degrees, a Bachelor of Theology and a Master of Divinity, he earned an M. A. in Communications from Yonsei University and completed his formal studies with a Ph.
D. in Public Administration of Social Welfare from Dankook University. While he was studying, Jang participated in missions and teaching, serving in campus fellowships and churches, lectured in theology. In 2000, Jang founded Christian Today, which came to have the highest number of visitors among religious news websites in Korea. Jang aimed for the media company to provide online in-depth coverage across all areas in Christianity, encourage a spirit of unity and reconciliation within the church, promote international recognition of Christian culture, contribute to global mission work. In the year 2000, Olivet Theological College and Seminary was established in both Los Angeles and in Seoul, where it was co-located with the Southern Cross College Korea Campus. Jang was a member of the faculty of Southern Cross College and the first director of its Korea campus. By 2004, the seminary expanded and incorporated into a university comprising five colleges - Olivet Theological College & Seminary, Jubilee College of Music, Olivet College of Journalism, Olivet College of Art & Design, Olivet Institute of Technology - in the institution’s new home in San Francisco.
Dr. Ralph D. Winter advised Jang on the relocation and expansion plan, served as the honorary chairman of Olivet University; the university moved into the former University of California, Berkeley Downtown Extension Campus, near the Moscone Center in 2005. They founded Olivet Business School, which offers MBA programs and opened extension sites in Nashville, TN, New York City, San Francisco, Washington, D. C.. Olivet combines Winter's focus on training men and women in biblical scholarship and leadership with Jang’s emphasis on practical skills for preaching. In 2006, Jang handed over the presidency of the university to Dr. David James Randolph in order to concentrate on mission field work. Jang continues to serve at Olivet University as a professor of theology and international president. Since 2007, Jang has been a member of the North American Council of the WEA. In 2007, he began work with the Holy Bible Society whose mission is to make "the Bible more accessible to all people by using digital technology and the Internet in unreached mission frontiers."
Over the years, he has engaged in discussions about helping to establish churches in difficult mission fields such as China. Criticisms of Jang have been raised in the last several years, such as accusing him of connections with the Unification Church and his being seen by some people as the "Second Coming of Christ". A member of the World Evangelical Alliance, The Christian Council of Korea's Heresy Investigation Committee member Sam Kyung Chae and two other members in 2008 wrote to clarify that it "was not able to find any suspicions that David Jang had any involvement with Unification Church since 1997." The Christian Post, founded by students from Olivet University, issued a defense of David Jang and an excoriation of Christianity Today and every person who criticized Jang within the piece. "They issued, in other words, a performative affirmation that they are, in fact, David Jang’s mouthpiece." "The Christian Post felt attacked, lashed out against Christianity Today and Ken Smith."In the early days of the International Business Times, IBT Media employed immigrant students of Olivet University to translate English into Chinese and other languages, working illegally and being paid less than minimum wage.
The connection of "the Community," a Christian sect led by a "charismatic Korean pastor named David Jang" with IBT is disputed. Jang has two sons, he considers the late Ralph D. Winter and Dr. Jang Sik Lee among his mentors. Official website About Founder - Olivet University
To publish is to make content available to the general public. While specific use of the term may vary among countries, it is applied to text, images, or other audio-visual content, including paper; the word publication means the act of publishing, refers to any printed copies. "Publication" is a technical term in legal contexts and important in copyright legislation. An author of a work is the initial owner of the copyright on the work. One of the copyrights granted to the author of a work is the exclusive right to publish the work. In the United States, publication is defined as: the distribution of copies or phonorecords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; the offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of people for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display, constitutes publication. A public performance or display of a work does not of itself constitute publication. To perform or display a work "publicly" means – to perform or display it at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of people outside a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered.
—17 USC 101The US Copyright Office provides further guidance in Circular 40, which states: "When the work is reproduced in multiple copies, such as in reproductions of a painting or castings of a statue, the work is published when the reproductions are publicly distributed or offered to a group for further distribution or public display". The right to publish a work is an exclusive right of copyright owner, violating this right is a copyright infringement, the copyright owner can demand that e.g. copies distributed against his will be confiscated and destroyed. Exceptions and limitations are written into copyright law, however; the definition of "publication" as "distribution of copies to the general public with the consent of the author" is supported by the Berne Convention, which makes mention of "copies" in article 3, where "published works" are defined. In the Universal Copyright Convention, "publication" is defined in article VI as "the reproduction in tangible form and the general distribution to the public of copies of a work from which it can be read or otherwise visually perceived."
Many countries around the world follow this definition, although some make some exceptions for particular kinds of works. In Germany, §6 of the Urheberrechtsgesetz additionally considers works of the visual arts "published" if they have been made permanently accessible by the general public. Australia and the UK do not have this exception and require the distribution of copies necessary for publication. In the case of sculptures, the copies must be three-dimensional. In biological classification, the publication of the description of a taxon has to comply with some rules; the definition of the "publication" is defined in nomenclature codes. Traditionally there were the following rules: The publication must be available; the date of publication is the date the published material became available. Electronic publication with some restrictions is permitted for publication of scientific names of fungi since 1 January 2013. There is an enormous variety of material types of publication, some of which are: Book: Pages attached together between two covers, to allow a person to read from or write in.
Bulletin: Information written in short on a flyer or inside another publication for public viewing. Bulletins are brief messages or announcements broadcast to a wide audience by way of TV, radio, or internet. Booklet: Leaflet of more than one sheet of paper attached in the style of a book. Broadside: A large single sheet of paper printed on one side, designed to be plastered onto walls. Produced from 16th - 19th cent. Became obsolete with the development of newspapers and cheap novels. Flyer or handbill: A small sheet of paper printed on one side, designed to be handed out free Leaflet: Single sheet of paper printed on both sides and folded. Journal: A book with blank pages inside, to allow you to write down any personal information. Another word for a newspaper or similar publication. Newsletter: A bulletin, pamphlet, or newspaper distributed to a specific audience. Newspaper: A publication of several pages printed with news, sports and advertising. Newspapers may be published and distributed daily, monthly, quarterly, or annually.
Magazine: A book with front and back paper covers, printed with information and advertising. Some magazines are distributed every week or every month. Pamphlet: Can be a booklet or saddle-stapled booklet. Electronic publishing includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, the development of digital libraries and catalogues. Electronic publishing has
Christianity Today magazine is an evangelical Christian periodical, founded in 1956 and is based in Carol Stream, Illinois. The Washington Post calls Christianity Today, "evangelicalism's flagship magazine". Christianity Today magazine has a print circulation of 130,000, of which 36,000 is free, readership of 260,000, as well as a website at ChristianityToday.com. The founder, Billy Graham, stated that he wanted to "plant the evangelical flag in the middle-of-the-road, taking the conservative theological position but a definite liberal approach to social problems". Graham started the magazine as counterpoint to The Christian Century, the predominant independent periodical of mainline Protestantism, as a way to bring the evangelical Christian community together; the first issue of Christianity Today was mailed October 15, 1956, the opening editorial, Why'Christianity Today'?, stated "Christianity Today has its origin in a deep-felt desire to express historical Christianity to the present generation.
Neglected, misrepresented—evangelical Christianity needs a clear voice, to speak with conviction and love, to state its true position and its relevance to the world crisis. A generation has grown up unaware of the basic truths of the Christian faith taught in the Scriptures and expressed in the creeds of the historic evangelical churches." Its first editor was Carl F. H. Henry. Notable contributors in its first two decades included F. F. Bruce, Edward John Carnell, Frank Gaebelein, Walter Martin, John Warwick Montgomery, Harold Lindsell. Lindsell succeeded Henry as editor and during his editorial administration much attention centered on debates about biblical inerrancy. Editorial leadership came from Kenneth Kantzer, Terry Muck, David Neff; the current editor is Mark Galli, the publication now includes print and various ancillary products. Andy Olsen is managing editor of the print edition, Richard Clark is managing editor of online journalism. Contents of print and online include feature stories, news ranging from cultural issues from a Christian viewpoint to the global church, opinion and investigative reporting.
In Billy Graham’s 1997 autobiography, Just As I Am, he writes of his vision and history with Christianity Today and his early meeting with oil company executive, John Howard Pew, to establish the publication. Harold Myra, who became president and chief executive of the magazine in 1975, believed that a "family" of magazines would disperse overhead expenses and give more stability to the organization. At the same time, he rejected expansion for expansion's sake, writing: "our main concern was to make Christianity Today, the flagship publication effective in three basic areas: editorial, advertising. Anything which would drain off energies from the prime task was unthinkable." Christianity Today founded or acquired periodicals during the 1980s and 90s, beginning with Leadership, a quarterly journal for clergy, in 1980. In 2005, Christianity Today International published 12 magazines, but following the financial downturn of 2008 it was forced to shutter several publications. By 2017 that had further winnowed to three.
The first "sister publication" added to the Christianity Today publishing group was Leadership: A Practical Journal for Church Leaders, launched in 1980. The subtitle defined the journal's mission: it was a quarterly publication, aimed at clergy, focusing on the practical concerns of ministry and church leadership; the first issue of Leadership sold out its initial press run of 50,000 copies, the publication was in the black after a single issue. The journal continued in print for 36 years. After volume 37, issue 1, Christianity Today discontinued the print publication, replacing it with expanded content in Christianity Today for pastors and church leaders and occasional print supplements, as well as a new website, CTPastors.com. In 1982, Christianity Today purchased the magazine Campus Life, aimed at a high school audience, from its parent organization, Youth For Christ; the name of the magazine was changed to Ignite Your Faith in 2006. It ceased publication in 2009. Partnership was launched in 1984 as a magazine for wives of clergy.
In 1987 it was renamed Marriage Partnership and expanded its focus to marriage in general, not just clergy marriages. The magazine ceased publication in 2009. Today's Christian Woman was founded in 1978 and acquired by Christianity Today from the Fleming H. Revell Co. in 1985. It discontinued print publication in 2009 and was replaced with a "digizine" called Kyria, online only but still required a paid subscription to access, although at a lower price than the print magazine. In 2012 the name of the digital publication was changed back to Today's Christian Woman, in 2016 it stopped being issued as a scheduled digital periodical. Christian History was a journal of the history of Christianity, first issued in January 1982 by the Christian History Institute; each issue had multiple articles covering a single theme. Published annually, it became a quarterly publication. Christianity Today took over ownership of the magazine beginning with issue number 22 in 1989. In 2011 the Christian History Institute resumed quarterly publication of the magazine.
Christian History archives can still be found on ChristianityToday.com under its special section. Christian Reader, a digest magazine in the vein of Reader's Digest, was founded in 1963 by Tyndale House Publishers founder Ken Taylor. Christianity Today purchased the magazine in 1992; the name was changed to Today's Christian in 2004. In 2008, Christiani
Lower Manhattan known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census. Lower Manhattan is defined most as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, on the south by New York Harbor; when referring to the Lower Manhattan business district and its immediate environs, the northern border is designated by thoroughfares about a mile-and-a-half south of 14th Street and a mile north of the island's southern tip: around Chambers Street from near the Hudson east to the Brooklyn Bridge entrances and overpass.
Two other major arteries are sometimes identified as the northern border of "Lower" or "Downtown Manhattan": Canal Street half a mile north of Chambers Street, 23rd Street half a mile north of 14th Street. The Lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street, it includes the World Trade Center site. At the island's southern tip is Battery Park. South of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area; the neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers Street on the west side. North of Chambers Street and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New York's oldest Chinatown neighborhood. Many court buildings and other government offices are located in this area; the Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal Street. North of Canal Street and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy and the East Village. Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, as well as Gramercy, with the large residential development known as Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town situated on the eastern flank of this zone.
The area that would encompass modern day New York City was inhabited by the Lenape people. These groups of culturally and linguistically identical Native Americans traditionally spoke an Algonquian language now referred to as Unami. European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading post in Lower Manhattan called New Amsterdam in 1626; the first fort was built at The Battery to protect New Netherland. Soon thereafter, most in 1626, construction of Fort Amsterdam began; the Dutch West Indies Company imported African slaves to serve as laborers. Early directors included Peter Minuit. Willem Kieft became director in 1638 but five years was embroiled in Kieft's War against the Native Americans; the Pavonia Massacre, across the Hudson River in present-day Jersey City resulted in the death of 80 natives in February 1643. Following the massacre, Algonquian tribes nearly defeated the Dutch; the Dutch Republic sent additional forces to the aid of Kieft, leading to the overwhelming defeat of the Native Americans and a peace treaty on August 29, 1645.
On May 27, 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as director general upon his arrival. The colony was granted self-government in 1652, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653; the first mayors of New Amsterdam, Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier, were appointed in that year. In 1664, the English conquered the area and renamed it "New York" after the Duke of York and the city of York in Yorkshire. At that time, people of African descent made up 20% of the population of the city, with European settlers numbering 1,500, people of African descent numbering 375. While it has been claimed that African slaves comprised 40% of the small population of the city at that time, this claim has not been substantiated. During the mid 1600s, farms of free blacks covered 130 acres where Washington Square Park developed; the Dutch regained the city in 1673, renaming the city "New Orange", before permanently ceding the colony of New Netherland to the English for what is now Suriname in November 1674.
The new English rulers of the Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland renamed the settlement back to New York. As the colony grew and prospered, sentiment grew for greater autonomy. In the context of the Glorious Revolution in England, Jacob Leisler led Leisler's Rebellion and controlled the city and surrounding areas from 1689–1691, before being arrested and executed. By 1700, the Lenape population of New York had diminished to 200. By 1703, 42% of households in New York had slaves, a higher percentage than in Philadelphia or Boston; the 1735 libel trial of John Peter Zenger in the city was a seminal influence on freedom of the press in North America. It would be a standard for the basic articles of freedom in the United States Declaration of Independence. By the 1740s, with expansion of settlers, 20% of the population of New York were slaves, totaling about 2,500 people. After a series of fires in 1741, the city became panicked that blacks