International Alliance for Responsible Drinking
The International Alliance for Responsible Drinking, headquartered in Washington D. C. is a not-for-profit organization formed to address the global public health issue of harmful drinking. IARD promotes responsible drinking worldwide, acknowledges that this can only be achieved by a collective effort shared by governments, retailers and civil society, it is supported by the world’s leading beer and spirits producers. These include Asahi Group Holdings, Ltd.. Bacardi Limited, Beam Suntory, Brown-Forman Corporation, Diageo, Kirin Holdings Company, Molson Coors, Pernod Ricard. Together, the 11 CEO signatories and their companies are part of the Producers' Commitments to reduce harmful drinking. IARD was launched in January 2015 and builds on two decades of research, policy analysis and programs by the International Center for Alcohol Policies, as well as the efforts of the Global Alcohol Producers Group. IARD is the secretariat to the Beer and Spirits Producers’ Commitments to Reduce Harmful Drinking.
IARD’s formation was driven by the companies’ keenness to increase momentum around the Commitments and, in general, to step up action to meet the target on harmful drinking agreed by the worlds’ governments
Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler
The Northrop Grumman EA-6B Prowler is a twin-engine, four-seat, mid-wing electronic-warfare aircraft derived from the A-6 Intruder airframe. The EA-6A was the initial electronic warfare version of the A-6 used by the United States Marine Corps and United States Navy. Development on the more advanced EA-6B began in 1966. An EA-6B aircrew consists of one pilot and three Electronic Countermeasures Officers, though it is not uncommon for only two ECMOs to be used on missions, it is capable of firing anti-radiation missiles, such as the AGM-88 HARM missile. The Prowler was in service with the U. S. Armed Forces from 1971 until 2019, it has carried out numerous missions for jamming enemy radar systems, in gathering radio intelligence on those and other enemy air defense systems. From the 1998 retirement of the United States Air Force EF-111 Raven electronic warfare aircraft, the EA-6B was the only dedicated electronic warfare plane available for missions by the U. S. Navy, the U. S. Marine Corps, the U.
S. Air Force until the fielding of the Navy's EA-18G Growler in 2009. Following its last deployment in late 2014, the EA-6B was withdrawn from U. S. Navy service in June 2015, followed by the USMC in March 2019; the EA-6A "Electric Intruder" was developed for the U. S. Marine Corps during the 1960s to replace its EF-10B Skyknights; the EA-6A was a direct conversion of the standard A-6 Intruder airframe, with two seats, equipped with electronic warfare equipment. The EA-6A was used by three Marine Corps squadrons during the Vietnam War. A total of 27 EA-6As were produced, with 15 of these being newly manufactured ones. Most of these EA-6As were retired from service in the 1970s with the last few being used by the Navy with two electronic attack "aggressor" squadrons, with all examples retired in the 1990s; the EA-6A was an interim warplane until the more-advanced EA-6B could be designed and built. The redesigned and more advanced EA-6B was developed beginning in 1966 as a replacement for EKA-3B Skywarriors for the U.
S. Navy; the forward fuselage was lengthened to create a rear area for a larger four-seat cockpit, an antenna fairing was added to the tip of its vertical stabilizer. Grumman was awarded a $12.7 million contract to develop an EA-6B prototype on 14 November 1966. The Prowler first flew on 25 May 1968, it entered service on aircraft carriers in July 1971. Three prototype EA-6Bs were converted from A-6As, five EA-6Bs were developmental airplanes. A total of 170 EA-6B production aircraft were manufactured from 1966 through 1991; the EA-6B Prowler is powered by two Pratt & Whitney J52 turbojet engines, it is capable of high subsonic speeds. Due to its extensive electronic warfare operations, the aircraft's age, the EA-6B is a high-maintenance aircraft, has undergone many frequent equipment upgrades. Although designed as an electronic warfare and command-and-control aircraft for air strike missions, the EA-6B is capable of attacking some surface targets on its own, in particular enemy radar sites and surface-to-air missile launchers.
In addition, the EA-6B is capable of gathering electronic signals intelligence. The EA-6B Prowler has been continually upgraded over the years; the first such upgrade was named "expanded capability" beginning in 1973. Came "improved capability" in 1976 and ICAP II in 1980; the ICAP II upgrade provided the EA-6B with the capability of firing Shrike missiles and AGM-88 HARM missiles. The Advanced Capability EA-6B Prowler was a development program initiated to improve the flying qualities of the EA-6B and to upgrade the avionics and electronic warfare systems; the intention was to modify all EA-6Bs into the ADVCAP configuration, however the program was removed from the Fiscal Year 1995 budget due to financial pressure from competing Department of Defense acquisition programs. The ADVCAP development program was initiated in the late 1980s and was broken into three distinct phases: Full-Scale Development, Vehicle Enhancement Program and the Avionics Improvement Program. FSD served to evaluate the new AN/ALQ-149 Electronic Warfare System.
The program utilized a modified EA-6B to house the new system. The VEP added numerous changes to the aircraft to address deficiencies with the original EA-6B flying qualities lateral-directional problems that hampered recovery from out-of-control flight. Bureau Number 158542 was used. Changes included: Leading edge strakes Fin pod extension Ailerons Re-contoured leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps Two additional wing stations on the outer wing panel New J52-P-409 engines New digital Standard Automatic Flight Control System The added modifications increased the aircraft gross weight 2,000 lb and shifted the center of gravity 3% MAC aft of the baseline EA-6B. In previous models, when operating at sustained high angles of attack, fuel migration would cause additional shifts in CG with the result that the aircraft had negative longitudinal static stability. Results of flight tests of the new configuration showed improved flying qualities and the rearward shift of the CG had minimal impact.
The AIP prototype represented the final ADVCAP configuration, incorporating all of the FSD and VEP modifications plus a new avionics suite which added multi-function displays to all crew positions, a head-up display for the pilot, dual Global Positioning/Inertial navigation systems. The initial joint test phase between the c