International Commerce Centre
The International Commerce Centre is a 118-storey, 484 m commercial skyscraper completed in 2010 in West Kowloon, Hong Kong. It is a part of the Union Square project on top of Kowloon Station, it was the 4th tallest building in the world when its construction was completed in 2010. Now, it is the world's 11th tallest building by height, world's ninth tallest building by number of floors, as well as the tallest building in Hong Kong and the 6th tallest building within China. Notable amenities include The Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong hotel and an observatory called Sky100; the ICC faces the second-tallest skyscraper in Hong Kong, the 2 International Finance Centre directly across Victoria Harbour in Central, Hong Kong Island. IFC was developed by Sun Hung Kai Properties, along with another major Hong Kong developer, Henderson Land. MTR Corporation Limited and Sun Hung Kai Properties, Hong Kong's metro operator and largest property developer were responsible for the development of this skyscraper. Known in development as Union Square Phase 7, its current name was announced in 2005.
The International Commerce Centre was completed in phases from 2007 to 2010. The tower opened in 2011, with the Ritz-Carlton opening in late March and the observatory in early April; the height had been scaled back from earlier plans due to regulations that did not allow buildings to be taller than the surrounding mountains. The original proposal for this building was called Kowloon Station Phase 7 and it was designed to be 574 m tall with 102 floors, it would have risen 162 m over the then-current tallest in Hong Kong, 2 International Finance Centre. The tower was designed by the American architectural firm Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates in association with Wong & Ouyang Ltd. Construction work was temporarily halted on 13 September 2009, due to an lift shaft accident that killed six workers; the building has 4 below ground. Due to prevalence of tetraphobia in Hong Kong, floors that would have included the number "4" were omitted. Therefore, it is marketed as a 118-storey building. In its basement is the Elements shopping mall, which opened in October 2007.
A five-star hotel, The Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong occupies floors 102 to 118. The world's highest swimming pool and bar can be found on the top 118th floor; the building contains an observation deck on the 100th floor called Sky100 which opened to the public in April 2011. The 101st floor is leased to a number of five-star restaurants; the rest of the building, except the lobby, contains class-A office space. The LED light show set a new Guinness World Record for the “largest light and sound show on a single building” using a total of 50,000 square metres on two facades of the International Commerce Centre; the ICC Light and Music Show is designed by lighting designer Hirohito Totsune who designed the lighting system of the Tokyo Skytree. Similar to the daily “A Symphony of Lights Show” in Victoria Harbour, the ICC Light and Music Show creates a theme and storyline using light and music elements. List of tallest buildings in Hong Kong List of tallest buildings in China List of tallest buildings in the world Official website Article about the International Commerce Centre in Building Journal, April 2011.
Elements shopping mall official website Wong & Ouyang Ltd. "More than half-a-century of architectural design experience in Hong Kong", section "International Commerce Centre and The Cullinan", pp. 31–33, September 2009 Geographic data related to International Commerce Centre at OpenStreetMap
Internationales Congress Centrum Berlin
The Internationales Congress Centrum Berlin, located in the Westend locality of the Berlin borough of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, is one of the largest conference centres in the world. It is used for theatrical productions and concerts. In April 2014 it was closed in order to remove asbestos contamination, remains closed as of December 2016. ICC Berlin opened in 1979, its architects were Ralf Schüler and Ursulina Schüler-Witte, it is 80 metres wide and 40 metres high. It is linked to the neighboring Messe Berlin fairgrounds; as Europe's biggest such centre, it is instrumental to Berlin being one of the top congress cities in the world. It is serviced by S-Bahn station Berlin Messe Nord/ICC. By its own reckoning, ICC Berlin is a landmark of post-war German architecture and has served as an inspiration for similar facilities around the globe; the current ICC is contaminated by asbestos. Its removal will cost much more than the planned 259 million Euro; the ICC features prominently in the 1980 disco musical The Apple, in which it appears as a futuristic concert venue.
Many of the film's exterior and interior scenes were filmed around the building. The 2009 movie The International was filmed in the interior of ICC Berlin. ICC Berlin descriptions
Edward B. Bunn S.J. Intercultural Center
The Edward B. Bunn S. J. Intercultural Center known as the Intercultural Center or ICC is a seven-story mixed use building on the main campus of Georgetown University named for Edward B. Bunn; the center was built in 1982 as the Photovoltaic Higher Education National Exemplar Facility in conjunction with a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy; the facility hosts numerous administrative offices, student facilities, conference spaces, but is best known for its contribution to solar power development. Among the occupants of the building are the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, the Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, several departments of Georgetown College. In 1980 Georgetown University applied to the Department of Energy for a grant to fund the construction of an intercultural center that would showcase the potential use building integration of photovoltaic panels to produce electrical power. While the Congressional funding for the solar panels came as a result of heightened awareness of energy issues following the 1973 oil embargo, the funding for the structure itself came as a result of Georgetown's goal of improving American education in foreign languages and international affairs, deemed deficient in the post-Vietnam era.
This was part of Georgetown's effort at the time to secure federal funding for model projects that could be replicated at other universities and institutions across the nation. Construction began in early 1980 and the building itself was completed in May 1982 at a cost of $23,000,000; the interior of the building consists of six floors of educational space and a seventh maintenance floor, altogether totaling 226,000 square feet. While at the time the center was considered futuristic, a "dark spaceship" on the historic campus, it has since become incorporated into the campus with its Red Square courtyard serving as a student gathering area. In its original plans it would have been the largest photovoltaic installation in the world and as completed was one of the largest constructed. At its peak it produced 360,000 kilowatt-hours per year of electrical power, however with age, its current generation is 200,000 kilowatt-hours per year, or 6% of the structure's needs. Additionally, the solar panels that were installed used a rough glass that reduced efficiency, but prevented glare from affecting airplanes operating out of nearby Reagan National Airport.
While it had been designed with the installation of solar panels in mind, they were not installed until late 1984 by the Solarex Corporation at a cost of $10,000,000. Solarex installed the 35,710 square feet of solar panels on the roof of the center facing south. Solarex was purchased by the Amoco oil company and sold in 1995 to the Enron energy company; the center has been recognized as being ahead of its time in the promotion of renewable energy sources and for continuing to operate as designed, decades after its construction
Imperial Camel Corps
The Imperial Camel Corps Brigade was a camel-mounted infantry brigade that the British Empire raised in December 1916 during the First World War for service in the Middle East. From a small beginning the unit grew to a brigade of four battalions, one battalion each from Great Britain and New Zealand and two battalions from Australia. Support troops included a mountain artillery battery, a machine gun squadron, Royal Engineers, a field ambulance, an administrative train; the ICC became part of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force and fought in several battles and engagements, in the Senussi Campaign, the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, in the Arab Revolt. The brigade suffered 246 men killed; the ICC was disbanded in May 1919 after the end of the war. The advantages of camels in a desert environment are well known, the British Army had raised the Somaliland Camel Corps in 1912; however the British Army forces serving in Egypt at the start of the First World War did not possess their own camel formation.
The first units of what became the Imperial Camel Corps were four company-sized formations that conducted long-range patrols around the Suez Canal and the Sinai Desert. The companies were raised in Egypt in January 1916 from Australians returning from the failed Gallipoli Campaign; the Indian princely state of Bikaner supplied the first camels as the Bikaner Camel Corps used camels. These camels were only used as draught animals and the lighter Egyptian camel became the mount chosen for carrying troops; the camels could cover an average distance of 3 miles an hour, or 6 miles an hour trotting, while carrying a soldier, his equipment, supplies. The camel companies consisted of a small headquarters and four sections, each of seven groups of four men; the establishment of a company was 130 men, all armed with Lee–Enfields, the standard British bolt action rifle of the time. However the move from patrol to a more active combat role in August 1916 led to a re-organisation; each company added a machine-gun section of fifteen men with three Lewis guns.
All this increased company strength to 184 men. The four companies were expected to operate as independent units that travelled by camel but dismounted to fight as infantrymen. Following the practise of cavalry and mounted infantry units, one man of each group of four held the camels when the team was in action, which reduced a team's firepower by a quarter; however it was soon discovered that camels were not as nervous as horses when faced with artillery and rifle fire, one man would look after twelve to sixteen camels once the troopers had dismounted. In March 1916 six new companies were raised from British yeomanry regiments. In June another four Australian companies were raised from reinforcements intended for the Australian Light Horse regiments. Reinforcements from New Zealand intended for the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade formed two companies, one created in August and the second in November; the Imperial Camel Brigade was formed on 19 December 1916, under the command of Brigadier General Clement Leslie Smith VC.
The brigade comprised three battalions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, plus supporting units. Each of the battalions had an authorised strength of 922 camels. A battalion comprised a headquarters; the 4th Battalion was raised in May 1917, but instead of increasing the brigade fighting strength, it was decided one battalion would always be resting and refitting, while three battalions served at the front. To complete the brigade structure and supply added firepower, the brigade received some other units: the 265th Machine Gun Squadron, with eight Vickers machine guns, the Hong Kong and Singapore Battery, armed with six BL 2.75 inch Mountain Guns. Despite their title, the battery was formed by men from the British Indian Army; the brigade had its own Royal Engineers, a signal section, the Australian Field Ambulance, the 97th Australian Dental Unit, which with only four men was the brigade's smallest unit. The brigade included the ICC Mobile Veterinary Section, the brigade's logistic units were the ICC Brigade Ammunition Column and the ICC Brigade Train, which carried enough supplies for five days.
The total brigade strength was around 4,800 camels. In March 1916, after two months of training, the first camel patrols left their depot at Abassi on the outskirts of Cairo to patrol the Libyan Desert. In 1915 the Senussi had attacked British and Egyptian outposts along the Suez canal and the Mediterranean coast; the resulting Senussi Campaign was over by but the patrols were to show the Senussi that the British were watching them, to protect the border areas. Around the same time long-range patrols, each of about thirty men, went into the south and south-east of the Sinai desert to detect any Ottoman incursion into the area; when the patrols discovered Ottoman outposts, the brigade organized a company-strength raid against the outposts. The ICC undertook similar patrols in the north to protect the rail and water lines, which were vital for any British attack; the Egyptian Expeditionary Force went over to the offensive in the Sinai Desert in August, winning the Battle of Romani. In support of these operations in December the brigade moved into the Sinai.
On 9 January 1917 the ICC was involved in another victory during the Battle of Rafa, which forced the Ottomans to withdraw the Sinai outposts towards Gaza. This reduced the need for independent camel patrols across the Sinai.
Immunocytochemistry is a common laboratory technique, used to anatomically visualize the localization of a specific protein or antigen in cells by use of a specific primary antibody that binds to it. The primary antibody allows visualization of the protein under a fluorescence microscope when it is bound by a secondary antibody that has a conjugated fluorophore. ICC allows researchers to evaluate whether or not cells in a particular sample express the antigen in question. In cases where an immunopositive signal is found, ICC allows researchers to determine which sub-cellular compartments are expressing the antigen. Immunocytochemistry differs from immunohistochemistry in that the former is performed on samples of intact cells that have had most, if not all, of their surrounding extracellular matrix removed; this includes individual cells that have been isolated from a block of solid tissue, cells grown within a culture, cells deposited from suspension, or cells taken from a smear. In contrast, immunohistochemical samples are sections of biological tissue, where each cell is surrounded by tissue architecture and other cells found in the intact tissue.
Immunocytochemistry is a technique used to assess the presence of a specific protein or antigen in cells by use of a specific antibody, which binds to it, thereby allowing visualization and examination under a microscope. It is a valuable tool for the determination of cellular contents from individual cells. Samples that can be analyzed include blood smears, swabs, cultured cells, cell suspensions. There are many ways to prepare cell samples for immunocytochemical analysis; each method has its own strengths and unique characteristics so the right method can be chosen for the desired sample and outcome. Cells to be stained can be attached to a solid support to allow easy handling in subsequent procedures; this can be achieved by several methods: adherent cells may be grown on microscope slides, coverslips, or an optically suitable plastic support. Suspension cells can be centrifuged onto glass slides, bound to solid support using chemical linkers, or in some cases handled in suspension. Concentrated cellular suspensions that exist in a low-viscosity medium make good candidates for smear preparations.
Dilute cell suspensions existing in a dilute medium are best suited for the preparation of cytospins through cytocentrifugation. Cell suspensions that exist in a high-viscosity medium, are best suited to be tested as swab preparations; the constant among these preparations is. For any intercellular reaction to take place, immunoglobulin must first traverse the cell membrane, intact in these preparations. Reactions taking place in the nucleus can be more difficult, the extracellular fluids can create unique obstacles in the performance of immunocytochemistry. In this situation, permeabilizing cells using detergent or choosing organic fixatives becomes necessary. Antibodies are an important tool for demonstrating both the presence and the subcellular localization of an antigen. Cell staining is a versatile technique and, if the antigen is localized, can detect as few as a thousand antigen molecules in a cell. In some circumstances, cell staining may be used to determine the approximate concentration of an antigen by an image analyzer.
There are many methods to obtain immunological detection on tissues, including those tied directly to primary antibodies or antisera. A direct method involves the use of a detectable tag directly to the antibody, allowed to bind to the antigen in a cell. Alternatively, there are many indirect methods. In one such method, the antigen is bound by a primary antibody, amplified by use of a secondary antibody which binds to the primary antibody. Next, a tertiary reagent containing an enzymatic moiety is applied and binds to the secondary antibody; when the quaternary reagent, or substrate, is applied, the enzymatic end of the tertiary reagent converts the substrate into a pigment reaction product, which produces a color in the same location that the original primary antibody recognized that antigen of interest. Some examples of substrates used are AEC, or DAB. Use of one of these reagents after exposure to the necessary enzyme produces a positive immunoreaction product. Immunocytochemical visualization of specific antigens of interest can be used when a less specific stain like H&E cannot be used for a diagnosis to be made or to provide additional predictive information regarding treatment.
Alternatively the secondary antibody may be covalently linked to a fluorophore, detected in a fluorescence or confocal microscope. The location of fluorescence will vary according to the target molecule, external for membrane proteins, internal for cytoplasmic proteins. In this way immunofluorescence is a powerful technique when combined with confocal microscopy for studying the location of proteins and dynamic processes. Immunocytochemistry Staining Protocol Immunohistochemistry of Whole-Mount Mouse Embryos