Chennai is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural and educational centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India; the city together with the adjoining regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, the 36th-largest urban area by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign tourists, it was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent of health tourists visiting India, 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists; as such, it is termed "India's health capital". As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. Chennai had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011 and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016.
Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level city in the Global Cities Index, was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the 2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the "hottest" city by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and traditional values. National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature in its 2015 "Top 10 food cities" list. Chennai was named the ninth-best cosmopolitan city in the world by Lonely Planet. In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network list for its rich musical tradition; the Chennai Metropolitan Area is one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed "The Detroit of India", with more than one-third of India's automobile industry being based in the city. Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is known as a major film production centre. Chennai has been selected as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.
The name Chennai is of Telugu origin. It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the town in 1639; the first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company before the Chennakesava Perumal Temple was built in 1646 while some scholars argue for the contrary. The name Madras is of native origin, has been shown to be in use before the British presence in India. A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram. According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing-village north of Fort St George. However, it is uncertain.
The British military mapmakers believed Madras was Mundir-raj or Mundiraj,which was the name of a telugu community of rulers of nayakasThere are suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase Mãe de Deus or Madre de Dios, which means "mother of God", due to Portuguese influence on the port city referring to a Church of St. Mary. In 1996, the Government of Tamil Nadu changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time many Indian cities underwent a change of name. However, the name Madras continues in occasional use for the city, as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras, IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, Madras Christian College. Stone age implements have been found near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India, Pallavaram was a megalithic cultural establishment, pre-historic communities resided in the settlement; the region around Chennai has served as an important administrative and economic centre for many centuries.
During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named. From the 1st–12th century the region of present Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas; the Pallavas of Kanchi built the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras and Pandyas who ruled over the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that period. Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have been unearthed from the city and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire, which ruled the region during the medieval period; the Portuguese first arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves near Pulicat, north of Chennai. On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya.
Day was seeking to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful i
Radhakrishnan Parthiban is an Indian film actor, director and writer who works in Tamil cinema. He has directed more than 10 films. In 1984, he became K. Bhagyaraj's personal assistant and assistant director; the duo worked in over 40 films from 1984 to 1991. Parthiepan is known for having directed critically acclaimed films such as Pudhiya Paadhai and Housefull won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil. In most of his films, Parthiban is a hero who makes jokes and always has a touch of humor with actors and comedians, his performances as actor in successful films such as Bharathi Kannamma, Nee Varuvai Ena, Vetri Kodi Kattu, Aayirathil Oruvan and Melvilasom. On 25 December 2018, he was appointed as the new Vice President of the Tamil Film Producers Council replacing Gautham Menon and Prakash Raj who were jointly holding the position until 24 December 2018, he started as an Assistant Director in the film Vedikkai Manidhargal. He was given an opportunity to assist in dialogue in the name of R. Moorthy.
After this, he joined as an assistant of K. Bhagyaraj. At that time, he used to make around Rs 6000 a month by dubbing for various artists, he made his first film appearance in Raanuva Veeran. He played the role of a postman in his mentor's Dhavani Kanavugal. Apart from direction and acting, he produces films, he wrote a book named "Kirukkkalgal" – Thamizh Kavithai Thoguppu, released by M. Karunanidhi, he runs a charitable trust named "R. Parthiepan Manithaneya Mandram". In 1989, he made his directorial debut through Pudhiya Paadhai, starring himself as an inhuman ruffian who gets reformed by his rape victim; the film was released to critical acclaim and emerged a box office success, while winning several accolades, including the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil, Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Film and Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Story Writer. In early 1990, he acted in Pondatti Thevai, which failed at the box office. In the end of 1990, he appeared in lead roles in R. Sundarrajan's Thalattu Padava and in the devotional film Engal Swamy Ayyappan.
In 1991, he starred in S. P. Muthuraman's Thaiyalkaaran. In 1992, he starred in Unnai Vaazhthi Paadugiren, co-starring with Suman Mohini, he directed and acted in Sugamana Sumaigal, a clean family drama, which failed at the box office. In 1993, to recoup the financial losses, he acted in the commercial film Ulle Veliye. Ayyappa Prasad of The New Indian Express labelled the film as "flesh and bore". Despite negative reviews, the film has been declared a super hit at the box office, he directed and acted in 1994 in Sarigamapadani, co-starring with Roja and Sangita and the next year in Pullaikuttikkaaran, co-starring with Sangita and Urvashi. In 1996, he acted in the comedy film Tata Birla, his 1999 Tamil film Housefull won the same award. His notable films include Aravindan, Ullae Velliyae, Sugamana Sumaigal, Swarnamukhi, Kathal Kirukkan, etc, he performed as a perfect comedy pair with actor Vadivelu in the rib-tickling movies Barathi Kannama, Vetri Kodi Kattu, more. He won Tamil Nadu State Film Award for Best Actor for Bharathi Kannamma.
He played a man from a lower caste. Parthipan, the actor and producer, loves breaking the conventional rules set by commercial cinema, he has taken roles that other heroes would avoid, directed films that his critics found to be arty. The actor has remained uncompromising and stuck to his principles in spite of some not-so-memorable roles in the past. After the critically acclaimed and award-winning films such as Housefull and Azhagi and the trade have acknowledged the maker's undisputed talents. In 2001, he launched an ambitious directorial project titled Yelelo, with A. R. Rahman composing four songs for the film. Despite having a high-profile launch and completion of a few filming schedules, the venture was shelved, he launched 2 films titled Rowdy and Adi after the failure of Kudaikkul Mazhai. Both projects were abandoned; the film Aayirathil Oruvan, in which he portrayed a Chola King, won him the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor – Tamil. His released movie Kathai Thiraikathai Vasanam Iyakkam becomes Parthiepan's first directorial film in which he does not feature in the lead role.
The film, which has a tagline reading "a film without a story?", began production in late 2013 and released on 15 August 2014 and received positive reviews from all the sides and was a huge blockbuster hit in the box office. In 2015, He portrayed a cop in Massu Engira Masilamani and played a comedian villain in Naanum Rowdy Dhaan. Official website Parthepan on IMDb
Joshna Chinappa is an Indian professional squash player. She reached a career-high world ranking of World No. 10 in July 2016. Joshna was the first Indian to win the British Squash Championship title in 2003 in the under 19 category and was the youngest Indian women's national champion. Joshna Chinappa is the first beneficiary of Mittal Champions Trust. At the 2014 Commonwealth Games Chinappa along with Dipika Pallikal Karthik won the squash women’s doubles gold medal, making it India's first Commonwealth Games medal in the sport; the pair won a Silver medal at the event's 2018 Gold Coast edition losing to team New Zealand, Joelle King and Amanda Landers-Murphy. Chinappa trains at Chennai. In April 2018, Joshna upset Nicol David in the second round, in straight games, of the El Gouna World Series Event; this is one of Joshna Chinappa's more prominent upsets. In May 2012, Joshna defeated Sarah Jane Perry of England 9-11, 11-4, 11-8, 12-10, to win the Chennai Open. On 2 February 2014, she won the Winnipeg Winter Open trophy – her maiden WSA world title, by defeating Egypt`s Heba El Torky 11-13 11-8 11-5 3-11 12-10 in the final.
Asian Games, 2018 - Bronze, Silver Commonwealth Games,2018-Winner Asian Squash Title, 2017- Winner NSC Series No. 6 2009 – Winner British Junior Open, 2005 – Winner Asian Junior, 2005 – Winner World Junior Championships, Belgium, 2005 – Runner-up British Open Junior, 2004 – Runner-up SAF Games, Pakistan, 2004 – Gold Hong Kong event, 2004 – Runner-up Asian Championship, 2004 – Bronze Malaysian Junior, 2004 – Winner Indian National Junior, 2004 – Winner Indian National Senior, 2004 – Winner Joshna and Dipika are India's best and most talented female players of all time, as they were both ranked in the top 10 in the world. Joshna says, they are both competitive with each other, but get along well, as they are roommates for events, teammates in events such as the Commonwealth Games. Official Women's Squash World Ranking Joshna Chinappa at WISPA Joshna Chinappa at WSA Joshna Chinappa at Squash Info ISP Squash Site Article on Chinappa The Hindu article on training for the world juniors Joshna Adopted by Laxmi Mittal Joshna Chinappa won the third WISPA title of her career
Saurav Ghosal is a professional squash player from India and reached a career-high world ranking of World No. 10 in April 2019. He completed his schooling at Lakshmipat Singhania Academy in Kolkata. In 2013, Saurav became the first Indian to reach the Quarter finals of the World Squash Championship at Manchester, England. In 2004, he became the first Indian to win the coveted British Junior Open Under-19 Squash title, defeating Adel El Said of Egypt in the final at Sheffield, England. Saurav moved to Chennai after completing his school and was based at the ICL squash academy in Chennai and coached by Major Maniam and Cyrus Poncha in Chennai, India. Based in Leeds, he trains with Malcolm Willstrop at Pontefract Squash Club in West Yorkshire. Saurav is the current Indian national champion after he defeated Gaurav Nandrajog at the National Championships 2006 in New Delhi; as of May 2010, his PSA world rank is 27. In the top 100 in the world are two of his Indian Squash Colleagues Siddharth Suchde and Harinder Pal Sandhu.
Saurav won the bronze medal at the Asian Games 2006 Doha and was awarded the Arjuna Award by the President of India in August 2007 thus becoming the first Squash player from the country to get the award. He is a good friend of Shubhraneel Burman. Saurav started playing squash at the Kolkata Racquet Club, he did his schooling from Lakshmipat Singhania Academy, before moving to Chennai to join the ICL Squash Academy. Here he was coached by retired Major Cyrus Poncha. Ghosal has numerous firsts to his credit, the first Indian to be ranked junior World No one, the first to bag the junior National championship three years in a row and in December 2006, he won the country the first medal in squash in the Doha Asian Games, his first major title was the German Open in May 2002 and he won the Dutch Open two months later. In 2013, he became the first Indian squash player to reach the quarterfinals of the World Championship. In 2014, he won the silver medal in the 17th Asian Games at Incheon, he was the first Indian squash player.
He lost in the final to Abdullah Al-Muzayen of Kuwait. He however led the Indian Squash team to its first Gold Medal at Incheon. In the final he bounced back from a game down to eke out a 6-11 11-7 11-6 12-14 11-9 win over former world no. 7, Ong Beng Hee in a gruelling 88-minute clash to give India a healthy 2-0 lead Saurav married Diya Pallikal on 1 February 2017. Newspaper articles on Saurav's PSA Otters win Saurav's interview in DNA Articles on Saurav on Cyrus Poncha's squash Blog Saurav Ghosal at PSA Saurav Ghosal at Squash Info Rediff interview
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Squash is a ball sport played by two or four players in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players must alternate in striking the ball with their racquet and hit the ball onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court; the game was called squash rackets, a reference to the "squashable" soft ball used in the game. The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation is recognised by the International Olympic Committee, but the sport is not part of the Olympic Games, despite a number of applications. Supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program; the use of stringed rackets is shared with real tennis, which dates from the late sixteenth century, though is more directly descended from the game of rackets from England. In "rackets", instead of hitting over a net as in sports such as tennis, players hit a squeezable ball against walls. Squash was invented in Harrow School out of the older game rackets around 1830 before the game spread to other schools becoming an international sport.
The first courts built at this school were rather dangerous because they were near water pipes, buttresses and ledges. The school soon built four outside courts. Natural rubber was the material of choice for the ball. Students modified their rackets to have a smaller reach to play in these cramped conditions; the rackets have changed in a similar way to those used in tennis. Squash rackets used to be made out of laminated timber. In the 1980s, construction shifted to lighter materials with small additions of components like Kevlar and titanium. Natural "gut" strings were replaced with synthetic strings. In the 19th century the game increased in popularity with various schools and private citizens building squash courts, but with no set dimensions; the first squash court in North America appeared at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire in 1884. In 1904 in Philadelphia, the earliest national association of squash in the world was formed as the United States Squash rackets Association, now known as U.
S. Squash. In April 1907 the Tennis, rackets & Fives Association set up a sub committee to set standards for squash; the sport soon formed, combining the three sports together called “Squash”. In 1912, the RMS Titanic had a squash court in first class; the 1st-Class Squash Court was situated on G-Deck and the Spectators Viewing Gallery was on the deck above on F-Deck. To use the Court cost 50 cents in 1912. Passengers could use the court for 1 hour, it was not until 1923 that the Royal Automobile Club hosted a meeting to further discuss the rules and regulations and another five years elapsed before the Squash rackets Association was formed to set standards for squash in Great Britain. Standard rackets are governed by the rules of the game. Traditionally they were made with a small strung area using natural gut strings. After a rule change in the mid-1980s, they are now always made of composite materials or metals with synthetic strings. Modern rackets have maximum dimensions of 686 mm long and 215 mm wide, with a maximum strung area of 500 square centimetres.
The permitted maximum weight is 255 grams. Squash balls are between 39.5 and 40.5 mm in diameter, have a weight of 23 to 25 grams. They are made with two pieces of rubber compound, glued together to form a hollow sphere and buffed to a matte finish. Different balls are provided for varying temperature and atmospheric conditions and standards of play: more experienced players use slow balls that have less bounce than those used by less experienced players. Depending on its specific rubber composition, a squash ball has the property that it bounces more at higher temperatures. Squash balls must be hit dozens of times to warm them up at the beginning of a session. Small colored dots on the ball indicate its dynamic level, thus the standard of play for which it is suited; the recognized speed colors indicating the degree of dynamism are: Some ball manufacturers such as Dunlop use a different method of grading balls based on experience. They still have the equivalent dot rating, but are named to help choose a ball, appropriate for one's skill level.
The four different ball types are Intro, Progress and Pro. The "double-yellow dot" ball, introduced in 2000, is the competition standard, replacing the earlier "yellow-dot" ball. There is an "orange dot" ball for use at high altitudes. Players wear comfortable sports clothing. In competition, men wear shorts and a T-shirt, tank top or a polo shirt. Women wear a skirt or skort and a T-shirt or a tank top, or a sports dress; the National Institutes of Health recommends wearing goggles with polycarbonate lenses. Many squash venues mandate the use of eye protection and some association rules require that all juniors and doubles players must wear eye protection; the squash court is a playing surface surrounded by four walls. The court surface contains a front line separating the front and back of the court and a half court line, separating the left and right hand sides of the back portion of the court, creating three'boxes': the front half, the back left quarter and the back right quarter. Both the back two boxes
Cyrus Poncha is an Indian squash coach. Born in 1976 in Mumbai, he is based out of Chennai, coaches at the ICL-TNSRA Academy, he won the Dronacharya Award from the Government of India in 2005. He was adjudged Asian Squash Federation Junior Coach of the Year for 2004, 2009, 2012, 2014 and 2016