ID3 is a metadata container most used in conjunction with the MP3 audio file format. It allows information such as the title, album, track number, other information about the file to be stored in the file itself. ID3 is specified by Apple as a timed metadata in HTTP Live Streaming, carried as a PID in the main transport stream or in separate audio TS. There are two unrelated versions of ID3: ID3v1 and ID3v2. ID3v1 takes the form of a 128-byte segment at the end of an MP3 file containing a fixed set of data fields. ID3v1.1 is a slight modification which adds a "track number" field at the expense of a slight shortening of the "comment" field. ID3v2 is structurally different from ID3v1, consisting of an extensible set of "frames" located at the start of the file, each with a frame identifier and one piece of data. 83 types of frames are declared in the ID3v2.4 specification, applications can define their own types. There are standard frames for containing cover art, BPM, copyright and license and arbitrary text and URL data, as well as other things.
Three versions of ID3v2 have been documented, each of. ID3 is a de facto standard for metadata in MP3 files, it competes with the APE tag in this arena. Lyrics3v1 and Lyrics3v2 were tag standards implemented for adding lyrics to mp3 files; the difference with ID3v2 is that Lyrics3 is always after the ID3v1 tag. The MP3 standard did not include a method for storing file metadata. In 1996 Eric Kemp had the idea to add a small chunk of data to the audio file, thus solving the problem; the method, now known as ID3v1 became the de facto standard for storing metadata in MP3s. The ID3v1 tag occupies 128 bytes; the tag was placed at the end of the file to maintain compatibility with older media players. Some players would play a small burst of static when they read the tag, but most ignored it, all modern players will skip it; this tag allows 30 bytes each for the title, album, a "comment", four bytes for the year, a byte to identify the genre of the song from a predefined list of 80 values. One improvement to ID3v1 was made by Michael Mutschler in 1997.
Since the comment field was too small to write anything useful, he decided to trim it by two bytes and use those two bytes to store the track number. Such tags are referred to as ID3v1.1. Strings are either space- or zero-padded. Unset string entries are filled using an empty string. ID3v1 is 128 bytes long. ID3v1 pre-defines a set of genres denoted by numerical codes. Winamp extended the list by adding more genres in its own music player, which were adopted by others. However, support for the extended Winamp list is not universal. In some cases, only the genres up to 125 are supported; the Enhanced tag is an extra data block before an ID3v1 tag, which extends the title and album fields to 60 bytes each, offers a freetext genre, a one-byte speed and the start and stop time of the music in the MP3 file, e.g. for fading in. If none of the fields are used, it will be automatically omitted; some programs supporting ID3v1 tags can read the extended tag, but writing may leave stale values in the extended block.
The extended block is not an official standard and is only supported by few programs, not including XMMS or Winamp. The Enhanced tag is sometimes referred to as the "extended" tag; the Enhanced tag is 227 bytes long, placed before the ID3v1 tag. ID3v1.2 purpose is to add small improvements to ID3v1.1 informal standard without breaking the ID3v1 informal standard The ID3v1.2 tag will not cause any issues in legacy decoders/players Genres 142–147 were added in the 1 June 1998 release of Winamp 1.91. In 1998, a new specification called. Although it bears the name ID3, its structure is different from ID3v1. ID3v2 tags are of variable size, occur at the start of the file, which aids streaming media as the metadata is available as soon as the file starts streaming instead of requiring the entire file to be read first as is the case with ID3v1. ID3v2 tags consist of a number of frames. For example, the TIT2 frame contains the title, the WOAR frame contains the URL of the artist's website. Frames can be up to 16MB in length, while total tag size is limited to 256MB.
The internationalization problem was solved by allowing the encoding of strings not only in ISO-8859-1, but in Unicode. Textual frames are marked with an encoding byte. $00 – ISO-8859-1. $01 – UCS-2 encoded Unicode with BOM, in ID3v2.2 and ID3v2.3. $02 – UTF-16BE encoded Unicode without BOM, in ID3v2.4. $03 – UTF-8 encoded Unicode, in ID3v2.4. However, mojibake is still common. In particular, some Japanese editors are known to use Shift JIS encoding, which has disastrous effects: it will not work with any standard-compliant software regardless of local settings, will not work outside Japan, will not work on all Japanese computers with a non-compliant reader. There are 83 t
10 Rules for Sleeping Around is a 2013 American screwball romantic sex comedy film written and directed by Leslie Greif and starring Jesse Bradford, Chris Marquette, Tammin Sursok, Virginia Williams and Reid Ewing. The film is about two couples. By following ten simple rules, 20-somethings Vince and Cameron spice up their relationship by sleeping around, but when their straitlaced friends get engaged, their relationship gets turned upside down. To put the rules to the test, they will go on the road to the Hamptons to crash the biggest party of the year where love triangles collide and off-the-wall mayhem ensues 10 Rules for Sleeping Around was first released via DVD in the Netherlands on August 13, 2013, before arriving in the United States, on April 4, 2014. On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 0% rating based on 7 reviews, it has a 1 out of 100 rating based on 5 critics on review aggregator website Metacritic. It is one of ten films to hold this rating of 1; the Hollywood Reporter calls the film "a numbingly unfunny sex farce."
1NFLUX Magazine's review was more positive, giving the film a C+. 10 Rules for Sleeping Around on IMDb 10 Rules for Sleeping Around at Box Office Mojo 10 Rules for Sleeping Around at Rotten Tomatoes 10 Rules for Sleeping Around at Metacritic
Monmore Green Stadium is a greyhound racing and speedway stadium located in Wolverhampton. The stadium has a restaurant and a number of bars; the venue is operated by the Ladbrokes Coral group. Motorcycle speedway is raced there on Monday nights with the Wolverhampton Wolves competing in the top division of the sport, the Elite League where the team is captained by Speedway Grand Prix rider, Sweden's Fredrik Lindgren. Other riders who have ridden for the Wolves over the years include Britain's twice Speedway World Champion Tai Woffinden, multiple World Champions Ole Olsen and Hans Nielsen from Denmark, 1993 World Champion Sam Ermolenko of the United States and assorted others including England's Andy Grahame, Australians Jim Airey and Mark Fiora and America's 1982 World Pairs Champions Dennis Sigalos and Bobby Schwartz. On some alternate Monday nights, National League team Cradley Heathens race at Monmore Green; the speedway track at Monmore Green is 264 metres long and the current 4 lap track record is held by Australian Darcy Ward with a time of 53.45 set on 10 August 2015.
Matinée races take place on Monday, Tuesday and Fridays with evening race meetings on Thursday and Saturday nights. The track hosts several major races including the Ladbrokes Gold Cup, Ladbrokes Puppy Derby, Ladbrokes Festival 630's, Ladbrokes Summer Cup and from 2015 the prestigious puppy competition the Trafalgar Cup; the track features prominently in the song "Monmore, Hare's Running" on the 1997 album Voyage to the Bottom of the Road by the band Half Man Half Biscuit. Monmore opened in 1928 south-east of Wolverhampton and south of the Sutherland Road between the Great Western Railway line and East Park; the official opening night was Wednesday 11 January 1928 organised by a company called the Midland Greyhound Racing Association. A 10,000 strong crowd witnessed the seven races including two hurdle events and the first greyhound to win a race was Arrow Tranby winning one of the 500 yards races in a time of 32.08 secs at odds of 6-1 when winning the Shirley Stakes. In 1935 the large resident Monmore kennels were split into two sections and served Willenhall Greyhound Stadium.
Unlike many tracks Monmore remained open during the majority of the war and introduced the Midland Puppy Championship in 1943, which would become the Midland Puppy Derby and the Ladbrokes Puppy Derby. The company ran a policy of having joint Racing Managers covering both Willenhall. In the fifties Peter Cartwright left his position as Racing Manager to join the National Greyhound Racing Club and was replaced by Bob Harwood. Further competitions were introduced at the track that included the Midland St Leger, Midland Classic Potential, Pride of the Midlands and Staffordshire Knot. In 1963 a devastating fire swept through the main grandstand resulting in the closure of the track for a considerable period whilst repairs were made; the annual Midland Puppy Championship had to be switched to Willenhall. The fire instigated a major change with the grandstand undergoing significant investment in the mid-sixties to include an ultra-modern glass fronted restaurant with tiered viewing and waitress service.
It brought the facilities up to date and attracted outside interest from the Totalisators and Greyhound Holdings. In 1970 TGH purchased Willenhall and Monmore from the Midland Greyhound Racing Co Ltd to add to the existing tracks of Crayford & Bexleyheath, Gosforth and Brough Park that they owned. Four years in 1974 Ladbrokes bought out TGH and added another racetrack Perry Barr. Arthur Aldridge became Racing Director for Ladbrokes and following the 1981 decimation of horse racing fixtures due to bad weather the track held BAGS fixtures for the first time; the tracks resident kennels were demolished in the late eighties making way for the contract trainer system and Jim Woods arrived from Nottingham Greyhound Stadium to take over as Racing Manager with Bob Harwood General Manager. The stadium hosted the Golden Jacket classic race in 1986 before it moved to Crayford Stadium and a pre-war event the Midland Gold Cup returned in 1994; the stadium underwent changes in 1996 including a change of hare system from a Sumner to a Swaffham.
2011 was a successful year for the track when they won the BAGS National Track Championship and trainer Chris Allsopp became champion trainer. In 2013 Jim Woods retired after a 31-year career handing the reigns to Tony Williamson; the prestigious Trafalgar Cup competition was held for the first time in 2015. In 2018 the stadium signed a deal with SIS to race every Monday, Tuesday and Friday afternoon and every Thursday and Saturday evening. Leading trainer Kevin Hutton joined the track in August 2018. Ladbrokes Gold CupLadbrokes Puppy DerbyTrafalgar Cup Ladbrokes Gold Cup Festival 630 Ladbrokes Spring Festival 630Ladbrokes Summer Stayers Classic Current Previous Previous Official site British Greyhound Racing Board
Broken Obelisk is a sculpture designed by Barnett Newman between 1963 and 1967. Fabricated from three tons of Cor-Ten steel, which acquires a rust-colored patina, it is the largest and best known of his six sculptures. In total, four multiples of the sculpture exist. Recent articles regarding this sculpture contradict one another with regard to the individual histories of its first three multiples; the following entry attempts to resolve these contradictions, but further research of primary sources is required to track the history of each one more accurately. The first two multiples of the sculpture were fabricated by Lippincott, Inc. in North Haven, Connecticut in 1966–67. The sculpture first appeared on display outside the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. and in front of the Seagram Building in New York City. Broken Obelisk generated some controversy in Washington, as it appeared to be a reference to a broken upside-down Washington Monument at a time of civil unrest; when Corcoran director James Harithas resigned in 1969, Barnett Newman had the sculpture removed.
A third multiple, which included some internal, structural improvements, was completed in 1969 by Lippincott, Inc. which became part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. For a short period of time in 1969–70, the first three multiples of this sculpture sat side by side at the Lippincott, Inc. foundry in North Haven. One was secured by John de Menil with a matching grant from the National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities and was installed on the grounds of the Rothko Chapel in Houston in 1970, surrounded by a reflecting pool; as a condition set by de Menil, the sculpture in Houston is dedicated to Martin Luther King, Jr. Virginia Wright secured another multiple, installed in Red Square on the campus of the University of Washington in Seattle in 1971. With the permission of the Barnett Newman Foundation, a fourth multiple was commissioned in 2003 and completed in 2005–06 by Lippincott and Roberts; this last of the four multiples was installed in front of the Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin in 2007–08 and acquired by Storm King Art Center.
In the summer of 2014, all four multiples were on display in the United States at the following locations: Rothko Chapel, Houston. Art critic Robert Hughes, writing on Broken Obelisk in 1971, said: Newman's pursuit of the sublime lay less in nature than in culture; this enabled him to pick ancient, man-made forms and return them to pristine significance without a trace of piracy. One index of that ability was his sculpture. Broken Obelisk the best American sculpture of its time, is Newman's meditation on ancient Egypt: a steel pyramid, from whose apex an inverted obelisk rises like a beam of light. Here, Newman bypassed the Western associations of pyramids and broken columns with death, produced a life-affirming image of transcendence; that unruffled self-sufficiency, beyond style, gave Newman's work its mysterious didactic value. It is not'expressive'. Images of Broken Obelisk by Barnett Newman Broken Obelisk - Barnett Newman, Outdoor Sculpture Gallery, Nassau County Museum of Art Broken Obelisk on the East Terrace at the Philadelphia Museum of Art Broken Obelisk at MoMA in New York City Broken Obelisk: A Conservation Case Study
Muziris was an ancient harbour - possible seaport and urban centre - on the Malabar Coast that dates from at least the 1st century BC, if not earlier. Muziris, or Muchiri, found a number of classical sources. Muziris was a key to the interactions between South India and Persia, the Middle East, North Africa, the Mediterranean region; the important known commodities "exported" from Muziris were spices, semi-precious stones, diamonds, ivory, Chinese silk, Gangetic spikenard and tortoise shells. The Roman navigators brought gold coins, thin clothing, figured linens, multicoloured textiles, sulfide of antimony, tin, coral, raw glass, wine and orpiment; the locations of unearthed coin-hoards suggest an inland trade link from Muziris via the Palghat Gap and along the Kaveri Valley to the east coast of India. Though the Roman trade declined from the 5th century AD, the former Muziris attracted the attention of other nationalities the Persians, the Chinese and the Arabs until the devastating floods of Periyar in the 14th century.
The exact location of Muziris is unknown to archaeologists. It is speculated to be situated around present day Kodungallur, a town near Cochin. Kodungallur in central Kerala figures prominently in the ancient history of southern India as a vibrant urban hub of the Chera rulers. A series of excavations were conducted at the village of Pattanam near Cochin by Kerala Council for Historical Research in 2006-07 and it was announced that the lost "port" of Muziris was found; some historians and archaeologists criticised this and started a healthy debate among historians of south India. The derivation of the name "Muziris" is said to be from the native Tamil name of the port, "Muciri". In the region, Periyar river branched into two like a cleft lip and thus gave it the name "Muciri." It is referred to as Muciri in Sangam poems, Muracippattanam in the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, as Muyirikkottu in a copper plate of an 11th-century Chera ruler. A tantalizing description of Muziris is in Akanaṉūṟu, an anthology of early Tamil bardic poems in Eṭṭuttokai the city where the beautiful vessels, the masterpieces of the Yavanas, stir white foam on the Culli, river of the Chera, arriving with gold and departing with pepper-when that Muciri, brimming with prosperity, was besieged by the din of war.
The Purananuru described Muziris as a bustling port city where interior goods were exchanged for imported gold. It seems the Chera chiefs regarded their contacts with the Roman traders as a form of gift exchange rather than straightforward commercial dealings. With its streets, its houses, its covered fishing boats, where they sell fish, where they pile up rice-with the shifting and mingling crowd of a boisterous river-bank were the sacks of pepper are heaped up-with its gold deliveries, carried by the ocean-going ships and brought to the river bank by local boats, the city of the gold-collared Kuttuvan, the city that bestows wealth to its visitors indiscriminately, the merchants of the mountains, the merchants of the sea, the city where liquor abounds, this Muciri, were the rumbling ocean roars, is give to me like a marvel, a treasure.. Akananuru describes Pandya attacks on the Chera port of Muciri; this episode is impossible to date, but the attack seems to have succeeded in diverting Roman trade from Muziris.
It is suffering like that experienced by the warriors who were mortally wounded and slain by the war elephants. Suffering, seen when the Pandya prince came to besiege the port of Muciri on his flag-bearing chariot with decorated horses. Riding on his great and superior war elephant the Pandya prince has conquered in battle, he has seized the sacred images after winning the battle for rich Muciri. The author of the Greek travel book Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives an elaborate description of the Chera Kingdom....then come Naura and Tyndis, the first markets of Lymrike, Muziris and Nelkynda, which are now of leading importance. Tyndis is of the Kingdom of Cerobothra. Muziris, in the same Kingdom, abounds in ships sent there with cargoes from Arabia, by the Greeks. There is exported pepper, produced in only one region near these markets, a district called Cottonara; the Periplus reveals. The author explains that this large settlement owed its prosperity to foreign commerce, including shipping arriving from northern India and the Roman empire.
Black pepper from the hills was brought to the port by the local producers and stacked high in warehouses to await the arrival of Roman merchants. As the shallows at Muziris prevented deep-hulled vessels from sailing upriver to the port, Roman freighters were forced to shelter at the edge of the lagoon while their cargoes were transferred upstream on smaller craft; the Periplus records that special consignments of grain were sent to places like Muziris and scholars suggest that these deliveries were intended for resident Romans who needed something to supplement the local diet of rice. Pliny the Elder gives a description of voyages to India in the 1st ce
The Doctrine of Chances was the first textbook on probability theory, written by 18th-century French mathematician Abraham de Moivre and first published in 1718. De Moivre wrote in English because he resided in England at the time, having fled France to escape the persecution of Huguenots; the book's title came to be synonymous with probability theory, accordingly the phrase was used in Thomas Bayes' famous posthumous paper An Essay towards solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances, wherein a version of Bayes' theorem was first introduced. The full title of the first edition was The doctrine of chances: or, a method for calculating the probabilities of events in play. Published in 1738 by Woodfall and running for 258 pages, the second edition of de Moivre's book introduced the concept of normal distributions as approximations to binomial distributions. In effect de Moivre proved a special case of the central limit theorem. Sometimes his result is called the theorem of de Moivre–Laplace. A third edition was published posthumously in 1756 by A. Millar, ran for 348 pages.
Hald, Anders, "De Moivre and the Doctrine of Chances, 1718, 1738, 1756", History of Probability and Statistics and Their Applications before 1750, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, Wiley Interscience, p. 397. The third edition of The Doctrine of Chances. Full text of “The Doctrine of Chances”, 1st edition.