Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam, to the southeast, The Hague, to the northwest. Together with them, it is part of both Rotterdam -- the Randstad. Delft is a popular tourist attraction in the country, it is home to Delft University of Technology, regarded as center of technological research and development in the Netherlands, Delft Blue pottery and the reigning House of Orange-Nassau. Delft played a influential role in the Dutch Golden Age. Delft has a special place in the history of microbiology. In terms of science and technology, thanks to the pioneering contributions of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek and Martinus Beijerinck, Delft can be considered to be the true birthplace of microbiology, with its several sub-disciplines such as bacteriology and virology; the city of Delft came into being beside a canal, the'Delf', which comes from the word delven, meaning delving or digging, led to the name Delft. It started around the 11th century as a landlord court.
From a rural village in the early Middle Ages, Delft developed into a city, that in the 13th century received its charter.. The town's association with the House of Orange started when William of Orange, nicknamed William the Silent, took up residence in 1572. At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation, known as the Eighty Years' War. By Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. An attack by Spanish forces in October of that year was repelled. After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in 1581, Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange; when William was shot dead in 1584 by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish. Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk, starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day.
The Delft Explosion known in history as the Delft Thunderclap, occurred on 12 October 1654 when a gunpowder store exploded, destroying much of the city. Over a hundred people were killed and thousands were wounded. About 30 tonnes of gunpowder were stored in barrels in a magazine in a former Clarissen convent in the Doelenkwartier district. Cornelis Soetens, the keeper of the magazine, opened the store to check a sample of the powder and a huge explosion followed. Luckily, many citizens were away, visiting a fair in The Hague. Today, the explosion is remembered for killing Rembrandt's most promising pupil, Carel Fabritius, destroying all his works. Delft artist Egbert van der Poel painted several pictures of Delft showing the devastation; the city centre retains a large number of monumental buildings, while in many streets there are canals of which the banks are connected by typical bridges, altogether making this city a notable tourist destination. Historical buildings and other sights of interest include: Oude Kerk.
Buried here: Piet Hein, Johannes Vermeer, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. Nieuwe Kerk, constructed between 1381 and 1496, it contains the Dutch royal family's burial vault which, between funerals, is sealed with a 5,000 kg cover stone. A statue of Hugo Grotius created by Franciscus Leonardus Stracké in 1886, located on the Markt near the Nieuwe Kerk; the Prinsenhof, now a museum. City Hall on the Markt; the Oostpoort, built around 1400. This is the only remaining gate of the old city walls; the Gemeenlandshuis Delfland, or Huyterhuis, built in 1505, which has housed the Delfland regional water authority since 1645. The Vermeer Centre in the re-built Guild house of St. Luke; the historical "Waag" building. Windmill De Roos, a tower mill built c.1760. Restored to working order in 2013. Another windmill that stood in Delft, Het Fortuyn, was dismantled in 1917 and re-erected at the Netherlands Open Air Museum, Gelderland in 1920. Delft is well known for the Delft pottery ceramic products which were styled on the imported Chinese porcelain of the 17th century.
The city had an early start in this area. It can still be seen at the pottery factories De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles and De Delftse Pauw; the painter Johannes Vermeer was born in Delft. Vermeer used Delft streets and home interiors as the background in his paintings. Several other famous painters lived and worked in Delft at that time, such as Pieter de Hoogh, Carel Fabritius, Nicolaes Maes, Gerard Houckgeest and Hendrick Cornelisz. Van Vliet, they were all members of the Delft School. The Delft School is known for its images of domestic life, views of households, church interiors, courtyards and the streets of Delft; the painters produced pictures showing historic events, portraits for patrons and the court as well as decorative pieces of art. Delft supports creative arts companies. From 2001 the Bacinol, a building, disused since 1951, began to house small companies in the creative arts sector. However, demolition of the building started in December 2009, making way for the construction of the new railway tunnel in Delft.
The occupants of the building, as well as the name'Bacinol', moved to another building in the city. The name Bacinol relates to Dutch penicillin research during WWII. Delft Univers
Coastal engineering is a branch of civil engineering concerned with the specific demands posed by constructing at or near the coast, as well as the development of the coast itself. The hydrodynamic impact of waves, storm surges and tsunamis and the harsh environment of salt seawater are typical challenges for the coastal engineer – as are the morphodynamic changes of the coastal topography, caused both by the autonomous development of the system and man-made changes; the areas of interest in coastal engineering include the coasts of the oceans, marginal seas and big lakes. Besides the design and maintenance of coastal structures, coastal engineers are interdisciplinary involved in integrated coastal zone management because of their specific knowledge of the hydro- and morphodynamics of the coastal system; this may include providing input and technology for e.g. environmental impact assessment, port development, strategies for coastal defense, land reclamation, offshore wind farms and other energy-production facilities, etc.
The coastal environment produces challenges specific for this branch of engineering: waves, storm surges, tsunamis, sea level changes, sea water and the marine ecosystem. Most in coastal engineering projects there is a need for metocean conditions: local wind and wave climate, as well as statistics for and information on other hydrodynamic quantities of interest. Bathymetry and morphological changes are of direct interest. In case of studies of sediment transport and morphological changes, relevant properties of the sea bed sediments and ecosystem properties are needed; the occurrence of wave phenomena – like sea waves, swell and tsunamis – require engineering knowledge of their physics, as well as models: both numerical models and physical models. The practices in present-day coastal engineering are more-and-more based on models verified and validated by experimental data. Apart from the wave transformations themselves, for the waves coming from deep water into the shallow coastal waters and surf zone, the effects of the waves are important.
These effects include: the wave loading on coastal structures like breakwaters, jetties, sea walls and dikes wave-induced currents, like the longshore current in the surf zone, rip currents and Stokes drift, affecting sediment transport and morphodynamics wave agitation in harbors, which may result in harbor downtime wave overtopping over seawalls and dikes, which may e.g. threaten the stability of a dike
Environmental engineering is a professional engineering discipline that takes from broad scientific topics like chemistry, ecology, hydraulics, hydrology and mathematics to create solutions that will protect human health and improve the quality of the environment. Environmental engineering is a sub-discipline of civil chemical engineering. Environmental engineering is the application of scientific and engineering principles to improve and maintain the environment to: protect human health, protect nature's beneficial ecosystems, improve environmental-related enhancement of the quality of human life. Environmental engineers devise solutions for waste water management and air pollution control, waste disposal, public health, they design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems, design plans to prevent waterborne diseases and improve sanitation in urban and recreational areas. They evaluate hazardous-waste management systems to evaluate the severity of such hazards, advise on treatment and containment, develop regulations to prevent mishaps.
They implement environmental engineering law, as in assessing the environmental impact of proposed construction projects. Environmental engineers study the effect of technological advances on the environment, addressing local and worldwide environmental issues such as acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources. Most jurisdictions impose licensing and registration requirements for qualified environmental engineers. Environmental engineering is a new name for work, done since early civilizations, as people learned to modify the environment to meet needs; as people recognized that their health was related to the quality of their environment, they built systems to improve it. The ancient Indus Valley Civilization had advanced control over their water resources; the public work structures found at various sites in the area include wells, public baths, storage tanks, a drinking water system, a city-wide sewage collection system.
They had an early canal irrigation system enabling large-scale agriculture. From 4000 to 2000 B. C. E. Many civilizations had drainage systems and some had sanitation facilities, including the Mesopotamian Empire, Mohenjo-Daro, Egypt and the Orkney Islands in Scotland; the Greeks had aqueducts and sewer systems that used rain and wastewater to irrigate and fertilize fields. The first aqueduct in Rome was constructed in 312 B. C. E. and from there, they continued to construct aqueducts for irrigation and safe urban water supply during droughts. They built an underground sewer system as early as the 7th century B. C. E. that fed into the Tiber River, draining marshes to create farmland as well as removing sewage from the city. Little change was seen from the fall of Rome until the 19th century, where improvements saw increasing efforts focused on public health. Modern environmental engineering began in London in the mid-19th century when Joseph Bazalgette designed the first major sewerage system following the Great Stink.
The city's sewer system conveyed raw sewage to the River Thames, which supplied the majority of the city's drinking water, leading to an outbreak of cholera. The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries reduced waterborne diseases from leading causes of death to rarities; the field emerged as a separate academic discipline during the middle of the 20th century in response to widespread public concern about water and air pollution and other environmental degradation. As society and technology grew more complex, they produced unintended effects on the natural environment. One example is the widespread application of the pesticide DDT to control agricultural pests in the years following World War II. While the agricultural benefits were outstanding and crop yields increased reducing world hunger, malaria was controlled better than before, the pesticide brought numerous bird species to the edge of extinction due to its impact on their reproductive cycle.
The story of DDT as vividly told in Rachel Carson's Silent Spring is considered to be the birth of the modern environmental movement, which led to the modern field of "environmental engineering." Many universities offer environmental engineering programs through either the department of civil engineering or chemical engineering. Environmental engineers in a civil engineering program focus on hydrology, water resources management and water and wastewater treatment plant design. Environmental engineers in a chemical engineering program tend to focus on environmental chemistry, advanced air and water treatment technologies, separation processes; some subdivisions of environmental engineering include natural resources engineering and agricultural engineering. Courses for students fall into a few broad classes: Mechanical engineering courses oriented towards designing machines and mechanical systems for environmental use such as water and wastewater treatment facilities, pumping stations, garbage segregation plants, other mechanical facilities.
Environmental engineering or environmental systems courses oriented towards a civil engineering approach in which structures and the landscape are constructed to blend with or protect the environment. Environmental chemistry, sustainable chemistry or environmental chemical engineering courses oriented towards understanding the effects of chemicals in the environment, including any mining processes and biochemical processes. Environmental technology courses oriented towards producing electronic or electrical graduates capable of develo
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive use of gravity as the motive force to cause the movement of the fluids; this area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, channels and levees, to both sanitary and environmental engineering. Hydraulic engineering is the application of the principles of fluid mechanics to problems dealing with the collection, control, regulation and use of water. Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out; the hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial boundary, the occurrence of scour and deposition. "The hydraulic engineer develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such as spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways and related structures for irrigation projects, cooling-water facilities for thermal power plants."
A few examples of the fundamental principles of hydraulic engineering include fluid mechanics, fluid flow, behavior of real fluids, pipelines, open channel hydraulics, mechanics of sediment transport, physical modeling, hydraulic machines, drainage hydraulics. Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering defines hydrostatics as the study of fluids at rest. In a fluid at rest, there exists a force, known as pressure, that acts upon the fluid's surroundings; this pressure, measured in N/m2, is not constant throughout the body of fluid. Pressure, p, in a given body of fluid, increases with an increase in depth. Where the upward force on a body acts on the base and can be found by the equation: p = ρ g y where, ρ = density of water g = specific gravity y = depth of the body of liquidRearranging this equation gives you the pressure head p/ρg = y. Four basic devices for pressure measurement are a piezometer, differential manometer, Bourdon gauge, as well as an inclined manometer; as Prasuhn states: On undisturbed submerged bodies, pressure acts along all surfaces of a body in a liquid, causing equal perpendicular forces in the body to act against the pressure of the liquid.
This reaction is known as equilibrium. More advanced applications of pressure are that on plane surfaces, curved surfaces and quadrant gates, just to name a few; the main difference between an ideal fluid and a real fluid is that for ideal flow p1 = p2 and for real flow p1 > p2. Ideal fluid has no viscosity. Real fluid has viscosity. Ideal fluid is only an imaginary fluid as all fluids. A viscous fluid will deform continuously under to a shear force by the pascles law, whereas an ideal fluid doesn't deform; the various effects of disturbance on a viscous flow are stable and unstable. For an ideal fluid, Bernoulli's equation holds along streamlines. P/ρg + u²/2g = p1/ρg + u1²/2g = p2/ρg + u2²/2g Assuming a flow is bounded on one side only, that a rectilinear flow passing over a stationary flat plate which lies parallel to the flow, the flow just upstream of the plate has a uniform velocity; as the flow comes into contact with the plate, the layer of fluid actually'adheres' to a solid surface. There is a considerable shearing action between the layer of fluid on the plate surface and the second layer of fluid.
The second layer is therefore forced to decelerate, creating a shearing action with the third layer of fluid, so on. As the fluid passes further along the plate, the zone in which shearing action occurs tends to spread further outwards; this zone is known as the'boundary layer'. The flow outside the boundary layer is free of shear and viscous-related forces so it is assumed to act like an ideal fluid; the intermolecular cohesive forces in a fluid are not great enough to hold fluid together. Hence a fluid will flow under the action of the slightest stress and flow will continue as long as the stress is present; the flow inside the layer can be either turbulent, depending on Reynolds number. Common topics of design for hydraulic engineers include hydraulic structures such as dams, water distribution networks, water collection networks, sewage collection networks, storm water management, sediment transport, various other topics related to transportation engineering and geotechnical engineering. Equations developed from the principles of fluid dynamics and fluid mechanics are utilized by other engineering disciplines such as mechanical and traffic engineers.
Related branches include hydrology and rheology while related applications include hydraulic modeling, flood mapping, catchment flood management plans, shoreline management plans, estuarine strategies, coastal protection, flood alleviation. Earliest uses of hydraulic engineering were to irrigate crops and dates back to the Middle East and Africa. Controlling the movement and supply of water for growing food has been used for many thousands of years. One of the earliest hydraulic machines, the water clock was used in the early 2nd millennium BC. Other early examples of using gravity to move water include the Qanat system in ancient Persia and the similar Turpan water system in ancient China as well as irrigation canals in Peru. In ancient China, hydraulic engineering was developed, engineers constructed massive canals with levees and dams to channel the flow of water for irrigation, as well as locks to allow ships to pass through. Sunshu Ao is considered the first Chinese hydraulic engineer. Another important Hyd
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
Sustainable Development Goals
The Sustainable Development Goals are a collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 for the year 2030. The SDGs are the 2030 Agenda; the Sustainable Development Goals are: 1) No Poverty, 2) Zero Hunger, 3) Good Health and Well-being, 4) Quality Education, 5) Gender Equality, 6) Clean Water and Sanitation, 7) Affordable and Clean Energy, 8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, 9) Industry and Infrastructure, 10) Reducing Inequality, 11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, 12) Responsible Consumption and Production, 13) Climate Action, 14) Life Below Water, 15) Life On Land, 16) Peace and Strong Institutions, 17) Partnerships for the Goals. The goals are broad based and interdependent; the 17 Sustainable Development Goal's each. Key to making the SDGs successful is to make the data on the 17 goals understandable. To track progress towards the goals and see where the world stands the University of Oxford publishes the SDG-Tracker. In 1972, governments met in Stockholm, for the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, to consider the rights of the family to a healthy and productive environment.
In 1983, the United Nations created the World Commission on Environment and Development, which defined sustainable development as "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". In 1992, the first United Nations Conference on Environment and Development or Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, where the first agenda for Environment and Development known as Agenda 21, was developed and adopted. In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development known as Rio+20, was held as a 20-year follow up to UNCED. Colombia proposed the idea of the SDGs at a preparation event for Rio+20 held in Indonesia in July 2011. In September 2011, this idea was picked up by the United Nations Department of Public Information 64th NGO Conference in Bonn, Germany; the outcome document proposed associated targets. In the run-up to Rio+20 there was much discussion about the idea of the SDGs. At the Rio+20 Conference, a resolution known as "The Future We Want" was reached by member states.
Among the key themes agreed on were poverty eradication, energy and sanitation, human settlement. The Rio+20 outcome document mentioned that "at the outset, the OWG will decide on its methods of work, including developing modalities to ensure the full involvement of relevant stakeholders and expertise from civil society, the scientific community and the United Nations system in its work, in order to provide a diversity of perspectives and experience". In January 2013, the 30-member UN General Assembly Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals was established to identify specific goals for the SDGs; the Open Working Group was tasked with preparing a proposal on the SDGs for consideration during the 68th session of the General Assembly, September 2013 – September 2014. On 19 July 2014, the OWG forwarded a proposal for the SDGs to the Assembly. After 13 sessions, the OWG submitted their proposal of 17 SDGs and 169 targets to the 68th session of the General Assembly in September 2014.
On 5 December 2014, the UN General Assembly accepted the Secretary General's Synthesis Report, which stated that the agenda for the post-2015 SDG process would be based on the OWG proposals. Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Secretary-General from 2007 to 2016, has stated in a November 2016 press conference that: "We don’t have plan B because there is no planet B!." This thought has guided the development of the Sustainable Development Goals. The Post-2015 Development Agenda was a process from 2012 to 2015 led by the United Nations to define the future global development framework that would succeed the Millennium Development Goals; the SDGs were developed to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015. The gaps and shortcomings of MDG Goal 8 led to identifying a problematic "donor-recipient" relationship. Instead, the new SDGs favor collective action by all countries; the UN-led process involved global civil society. The resolution is a broad intergovernmental agreement; the SDGs build on the principles agreed upon in Resolution A/RES/66/288, entitled "The Future We Want".
This was a non-binding document released as a result of Rio+20 Conference held in 2012. Negotiations on the Post-2015 Development Agenda began in January 2015 and ended in August 2015; the negotiations ran in parallel to United Nations negotiations on financing for development, which determined the financial means of implementing the Post-2015 Development Agenda. A final document was adopted at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015 in New York. On 25 September 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the 2030 Development Agenda titled "Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development"; this agenda has 92 paragraphs. Paragraph 51 outlines the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the associated 169 targets and 232 indicators. There are 169 targets for the 17 goals; each target has between 3 indicators used to measure progress toward reaching the targets. In total, there are 232 approved indicators; the United Nations Development Programme has been asked to provide easy to understand lists of targets and facts