Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey
Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, 1st Duke of Conegliano, 1st Baron of Conegliano, Peer of France, Marshal of France, was a prominent soldier in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. He became Governor of the Hôtel des Invalides. MONCEY is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 33, he was born on 31 July 1754 in Moncey, Doubs. His father was a lawyer from Besançon. In his boyhood he twice enlisted in the French army, but his father procured his discharge on both occasions, his desire was at last gratified in 1778. He was a captain. Moncey won great distinction in the campaigns of 1793 and 1794 during the War of the Pyrenees, rising from the commander of a battalion to the commander-in-chief of the Army of the Western Pyrenees in a few months, his successful operations were instrumental in compelling the Spanish government to make peace. After this he was employed in the highest commands until 1799, when the government, suspecting him of Royalist views, dismissed him.
From 1801-15 he was inspector general of the police. The coup d'état of 18 Brumaire in 1799 brought him back to the active list, in Napoleon's Italian campaign of 1800 he led a corps from Switzerland into Italy, surmounting all the difficulties of bringing horses and guns over the formidable Gotthard Pass. In 1801, Napoleon made him inspector-general of the French Gendarmerie, on the assumption of the imperial title created him a Marshal of France. In 1805 Moncey received the grand cordon of the legion of honor. In July 1808 he was made duke of Conegliano; the title was confirmed under the Bourbon Restoration, since he had no surviving son, the Marshal was granted permission to pass it to his son-in-law. The same year, the first of the Peninsular War, Moncey was sent to Spain in command of an army corps, he distinguished himself by his victorious advance on Valencia, but the effect of, destroyed by Dupont's defeat at the Battle of Bailén. Moncey took a leading part in the emperor's campaign on the Ebro and in the Second Siege of Saragossa in 1809.
He refused to serve in the invasion of Russia, therefore had no share in the campaign of the Grande Armée in 1812 and 1813. However, when France was invaded in 1814, Marshal Moncey reappeared in the field and fought the last battle for Paris on the heights of Montmartre and at the barrier of Clichy. In 1814 he was created a Peer of France as Baron of Conegliano, he remained neutral during Napoleon's return, the'Hundred Days', feeling himself bound to Louis XVIII by his engagements as a Peer of France, but after Waterloo he was punished for refusing to take part in the court martial of Marshal Ney by imprisonment and the loss of his marshalate and peerage. The King returned his title of Marshal in 1816, he re-entered the chamber of peers three years later, he continued his military career: his last active service was as commander of an army corps in the short war with Spain in 1823. From 1833 to 1842, he became Governor of the prestigious Hôtel des Invalides. Present at the return of Napoleon's body in December 1840, he said after the ceremony, "Now, let's go home to die".
He married Charlotte Prospère Remillet, by whom he had 3 children: Anne-Francoise, married to Louis-Charles Bourlon de Chevigné, permitted by the King to add "de Moncey" to his surname in 1819. Bon-Louis Jeanne-Francoise, married Alphonse-Auguste Duchesne de Gillevoisin de Conegliano, 2nd Baron de Gillevoisin and 2nd Duke of Conegliano and 2nd Baron of Conegliano, who inherited his father-in-law's titles; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Moncey, Bon Adrien Jeannot de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 693. Beckett, Ian F. W.. "Moncey: An Honest Man". In Chandler, David G. Napoleon's Marshals. New York, N. Y.: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-905930-5. Clerget, Charles. Tableaux des Armées Françaises pendant les Guerres de la Révolution. Paris: Librarie Militaire R. Chapelot et Cie. Retrieved 25 July 2015
French invasion of Russia
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 and in France as the Russian Campaign, began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army. Napoleon hoped to compel Tsar Alexander I of Russia to cease trading with British merchants through proxies in an effort to pressure the United Kingdom to sue for peace; the official political aim of the campaign was to liberate Poland from the threat of Russia. Napoleon named the campaign the Second Polish War to gain favor with the Poles and provide a political pretext for his actions. At the start of the invasion, the Grande Armée numbered 680,000 soldiers, it was the largest army known to have been assembled in the history of warfare up to that point. Through a series of long marches Napoleon pushed the army through Western Russia in an attempt to engage and destroy the Russian army, winning a number of minor engagements and a major battle at Smolensk in August.
Napoleon hoped the battle would win the war for him, but the Russian army slipped away and continued the retreat, leaving Smolensk to burn. As the Russian army fell back, scorched-earth tactics were employed, resulting in villages and crops being destroyed and forcing the French to rely on a supply system, incapable of feeding their large army in the field. On 7 September, the French caught up with the Russian army which had dug itself in on hillsides before a small town called Borodino, seventy miles west of Moscow; the battle that followed was the bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars, with 72,000 casualties, a narrow French victory. The Russian army withdrew the following day, leaving the French again without the decisive victory Napoleon sought. A week Napoleon entered Moscow, which the Russians had abandoned and burned; the loss of Moscow did not compel Alexander I to enter into negotiations, Napoleon stayed on in Moscow for a month, waiting for a peace offer that never came.
On 19 October and his army left Moscow and marched southwest toward Kaluga, where Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov was encamped with the Russian army. After an inconclusive battle at Maloyaroslavets, Napoleon began to retreat back to the Polish border. In the following weeks, the Grande Armée suffered from the onset of the Russian Winter. Lack of food and fodder for the horses, hypothermia from the bitter cold and persistent attacks upon isolated troops from Russian peasants and Cossacks led to great losses in men, a breakdown of discipline and cohesion in the army. More fighting at Vyazma and Krasnoi resulted in further losses for the French; when the remnants of Napoleon's main army crossed the Berezina River in late November, only 27,000 soldiers remained. Following the crossing of the Berezina, Napoleon left the army after much urging from his advisors and with the unanimous approval of his Marshals, he returned to Paris to protect his position as Emperor and to raise more forces to resist the advancing Russians.
The campaign ended after nearly six months on 14 December 1812, with the last French troops leaving Russian soil. The campaign was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars, it was the greatest and bloodiest of the Napoleonic campaigns, involving more than 1.5 million soldiers, with over 500,000 French and 400,000 Russian casualties. The reputation of Napoleon was shaken, French hegemony in Europe was weakened; the Grande Armée, made up of French and allied invasion forces, was reduced to a fraction of its initial strength. These events triggered a major shift in European politics. France's ally Prussia, soon followed by Austria, broke their imposed alliance with France and switched sides; this triggered the War of the Sixth Coalition. Although the Napoleonic Empire seemed to be at its height in 1810 and 1811, it had in fact declined somewhat from its apogee in 1806–1809. Although most of Western and Central Europe lay under his control—either directly or indirectly through various protectorates and countries defeated by his empire and under treaties favorable for France—Napoleon had embroiled his armies in the costly and drawn-out Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal.
France's economy, army morale, political support at home had noticeably declined. But most Napoleon himself was not in the same physical and mental state as in years past, he had become overweight and prone to various maladies. Despite his troubles in Spain, with the exception of British expeditionary forces to that country, no European power dared move against him; the Treaty of Schönbrunn, which ended the 1809 war between Austria and France, had a clause removing Western Galicia from Austria and annexing it to the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Russia viewed this as against its interests and as a potential launching-point for an invasion of Russia. In 1811 Russian staff developed a plan of offensive war, assuming a Russian assault on Warsaw and on Danzig. In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon in his own words termed this war the Second Polish War. Napoleon's "first" Polish war, the War of the Fourth Coalition to liberate Poland, he saw as such because one of the official declared goals of this war was the resurrection of the Polish state on territories of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Tsar Alexander found Russia in an economic bind as his country had little in the way of manufacturing, yet was rich in raw materials and relied on trade with Na
Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. In what is regarded as the greatest victory achieved by Napoleon, the Grande Armée of France defeated a larger Russian and Austrian army led by Emperor Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II; the battle occurred near the town of Austerlitz in the Austrian Empire. Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition to a rapid end, with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians in the month; the battle is cited as a tactical masterpiece, in the same league as other historic engagements like Cannae or Gaugamela. After eliminating an Austrian army during the Ulm Campaign, French forces seized Vienna in November 1805; the Austrians avoided further conflict until the arrival of the Russians bolstered Allied numbers. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, but ordered his forces to retreat so he could feign a grave weakness. Desperate to lure the Allies into battle, Napoleon gave every indication in the days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful state abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights near Austerlitz.
He deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time. Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right weakened the allied center on the Pratzen Heights, viciously attacked by the IV Corps of Marshal Soult. With the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process; the Allied disaster shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort. France and Austria agreed to an armistice and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after, on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers; the treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands in Italy and Bavaria to France, in Germany to Napoleon's German allies.
It imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Critically, victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, a collection of German states intended as a buffer zone between France and Central Europe; the Confederation rendered the Holy Roman Empire useless, so the latter collapsed in 1806 after Francis abdicated the imperial throne, keeping Francis I of Austria as his only official title. These achievements, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent. Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. Europe had been in turmoil since the start of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792. In 1797, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition, an alliance of Austria, Great Britain and various Italian states. A Second Coalition, led by Britain and Russia, including the Ottoman Empire and Naples, was formed in 1798, but by 1801, this too had been defeated, leaving Britain the only opponent of the new French Consulate.
In March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace, but many problems persisted between the two sides, making implementation of the treaty difficult. The British government resented having to return the Cape Colony and most of the Dutch West Indian islands to the Batavian Republic. Napoleon was angry; the tense situation only worsened when Napoleon sent an expeditionary force to crush the Haitian Revolution. In May 1803, Britain declared war on France. In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition. British Prime Minister William Pitt spent 1804 and 1805 in a flurry of diplomatic activity geared towards forming a new coalition against France, by April 1805, Britain and Russia had signed an alliance. Having been defeated twice in recent memory by France, being keen on revenge, Austria joined the coalition a few months later. Before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, called the Armée d'Angleterre around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France.
He intended to use this invasion force to strike at England, was so confident of success that he had commemorative medals struck to celebrate the conquest of the English. Although they never invaded, Napoleon's troops received careful and invaluable training for any possible military operation. Boredom among the troops set in, but Napoleon paid many visits and conducted lavish parades in order to boost morale; the men at Boulogne formed the core for what Napoleon would call La Grande Armée. At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men organized into seven corps, which were large field units that contained 36 to 40 cannon each and were capable of independent action until other corps could come to the rescue. A single corps could survive at least a day without support, giving the Grande Armée countless strategic and tactical options on every campaign. In addition to these forces, Napoleon created a cavalry reserve of
Battle of Teugen-Hausen
The Battle of Teugen-Hausen or the Battle of Thann was an engagement that occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle was fought on 19 April 1809 between the French III Corps led by Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout and the Austrian III Armeekorps commanded by Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen; the French won a hard-fought victory over their opponents. The site of the battle is a wooded height halfway between the villages of Teugn and Hausen in Lower Bavaria, part of modern-day Germany. On 19 April, clashes occurred at Arnhofen near Abensberg, Dünzling and Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm. Together with the Battle of Teugen-Hausen, the fighting marked the first day of a four-day campaign which culminated in the French victory at the Battle of Eckmühl. Austria's invasion of the Kingdom of Bavaria caught Emperor Napoleon I of France's Franco-German army by surprise. Though the advance of Archduke Charles' Austrian army was slow, mistakes by Napoleon's subordinate Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier placed Davout's corps in great peril.
As Davout withdrew southwest from Regensburg on the south bank of the Danube, Charles tried to intercept the French with three powerful attacking columns. The first Austrian column missed the French altogether, while Davout's cavalry held off the second column; the third column crashed head-on into one of Davout's infantry divisions in a meeting engagement. Generals of both armies led their troops with courage and skill as the troops fought over two ridges. French reinforcements pushed the Austrians off the southern ridge late in the afternoon and Charles ordered a retreat that night; this opened a clear path for Davout to join the main body of the French army on 20 April. On 8 February 1809, the Austrian Empire determined to make war on Napoleon. Led by Foreign Minister Johann Philipp Stadion, Count von Warthausen, the brilliant diplomat Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich, Empress Maria Ludovika, the war party pointed to the 1808 French disaster at the Battle of Bailén in Spain. However, Archduke Charles wished to put off the war in order to mobilize and find allies.
Archduke Charles, appointed Generalissimo after the debacle of the War of the Third Coalition in 1805, had tried for three years to improve the Austrian army. Historian David G. Chandler wrote, "Charles was the best man available to Austria" to lead her army, he expanded the number of regular soldiers to 340,000 and created a large body of 240,000 landwehr troops. He upgraded the artillery corps, adopted the corps organization, revised the infantry drillbook, incorporating more French-style tactical evolutions. Serious deficiencies remained, however, in Austrian staffwork, in the landwehr organization, among the non-German nationalities. At the start, only 15,000 of the best landwehr formations were added to the field army while the rest were relegated to garrison duty or the reserves; the Habsburgs did not wish to arm the population for fear of an insurrection and therefore the landwehr was never utilized. In Hungary, the nobles and people contributed as little as possible. Archduke Charles and the Hofkriegsrat sent 50,000 in two corps to Italy under General der Kavallerie Archduke John and 40,000 more in one corps to Galicia under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este.
Charles massed the remaining regular army in Bohemia and along the Danube for the main effort. Charles' 206,906-strong Hauptarmee was organized into two reserve corps; the I Armeekorps was led by General der Kavallerie Count Heinrich von Bellegarde and numbered 27,653 men. The II Armeekorps commanded by Feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrat counted 28,168 soldiers; the III Armeekorps consisted of 29,360 troops under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. The IV Armeekorps of Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg controlled 27,800 soldiers; the V Armeekorps numbered 32,266 men. The VI Armeekorps was made up of 35,693 troops under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller; the I Reserve Armeekorps was directed by General of Cavalry Johann I Joseph, Prince of Liechtenstein and counted 18,063 men. The II Reserve Armeekorps was directed by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Michael von Kienmayer and controlled 7,975 soldiers. Archduke Charles deployed six corps in Bohemia with only two corps south of the Danube.
This proved to be too ambitious for the Austrian high command, so four corps were transferred south of the Danube. Accordingly, the I and II Armeekorps remained in Bohemia. On 9 April 1809, Archduke Charles gave notice to the French ambassador at Munich and Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre that Austria and France were at war; the next morning, Charles' army began crossing the Inn River in an invasion of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Only Lefebvre's VII Corps of three Bavarian divisions were available to oppose the Austrian onslaught. For the Franco-Bavarians, it took six days for their enemies to reach the Isar River near Landshut. Napoleon did not expect the Austrians to declare war, but when it became obvious that war was imminent, he believed that hostilities would start after 15 April. From Paris, Napoleon ordered Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier to form the Grande Armée d'Allemagne from French and Allied units located on the Danube front. To Berthier he sent orders to concentrate at Regensburg if the Austrians invaded Bavaria after 15 April.
If, his enemies attacked before the deadline
III Cavalry Corps (Grande Armée)
The III Cavalry Corps was a French military formation that fought during the Napoleonic Wars. The corps was created in 1812 and reconstituted in 1813 and 1815. Emperor Napoleon first mobilized the corps for the French invasion of Russia. Commanded by General of Division Emmanuel Grouchy, two divisions of the corps fought at Borodino and Vyazma. A third division fought at the Berezina. During the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1813, General of Division Jean-Toussaint Arrighi de Casanova led the corps at Grossbeeren, Dennewitz and Hanau. During the Hundred Days in 1815, Napoleon reorganized the corps and appointed General of Division François Étienne de Kellermann to lead it. One brigade of the corps was engaged at both divisions fought at Waterloo; the III Cavalry Corps was first constituted for the French invasion of Russia and placed under the command of General of Division Emmanuel Grouchy. On 24 June 1812, corps numbered 9,676 men in 50 squadrons and was supported by 30 horse artillery pieces.
There were three divisions under Generals of Division Louis Pierre Aimé Chastel, Jean-Pierre Doumerc, Armand Lebrun de La Houssaye. Chastel led the 3rd Light Cavalry Division, Doumerc directed the 3rd Heavy Cavalry Division, Houssaye commanded the 6th Heavy Cavalry Division; the Imperial French army captured Emperor Napoleon entered the city on 28 June. Four days a freak storm with freezing rain blew all night long, causing the deaths of thousands of horses. Colonel Lubin Griois of Grouchy's corps artillery claimed that the storm killed one-fourth of his horses. Soon after, Grouchy was directed to place his cavalry under Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout in attempt to cut off General Pyotr Bagration's Russian Second Army. Though Davout reached Minsk ahead of Bagration, the Russian was able to slip out of the trap because King Jérôme Bonaparte failed to pursue with energy. Doumerc's 3rd Heavy Cavalry Division was detached from the corps to operate on the northern front where it was in action at the First Battle of Polotsk from 16 to 18 August 1812.
Engaged in the action were the 4th and 7th Cuirassier Regiments, each with four squadrons. During the battle, a Russian attack led by some Russian Guard cavalry squadrons pierced the French lines. General of Division Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr ordered the 3rd Swiss Regiment to attack while General of Brigade Frédéric de Berckheim led the 4th Cuirassiers in a cavalry charge; these thrusts turned back the Russian assault. Three cuirassier regiments from Doumerc's division fought in the Second Battle of Polotsk from 18 to 20 October. Meanwhile, the two main armies fought the Battle of Borodino on 7 September 1812. At Borodino, Grouchy's corps included the divisions of Houssaye. In the final successful French attack on the Great Redoubt, Grouchy's III Cavalry Corps was to the left, Prince Eugène de Beauharnais' IV Corps was in the center, the II and IV Cavalry Corps were on the right. While the right flank cavalry and infantry overran the fortification, Grouchy's cavalry galloped into the area behind the Great Redoubt only to find that there was a second line of Russian infantry deployed in squares 800 metres to the east.
A Russian cavalry countercharge was blunted but the French were unable to advance beyond the captured redoubt. Houssaye was badly wounded at Borodino and became a Russian prisoner when the hospitals at Vilnius were abandoned on 10 December. Units of the corps were engaged at the Battle of Tarutino on 18 October; these were the French 6th Chasseurs à Cheval, 6th Hussar, 23rd Dragoon Regiments and the Württemberg 3rd Jäger zu Pferde Regiment. By this time, battle losses and illness had shrunk Grouchy's corps to only 700 mounted men; the 7th and 30th Dragoon Regiments from the 6th Heavy Cavalry Division were engaged at the Battle of Vyazma on 3 November 1812. Doumerc's division joined the remnants of the main army in time to fight at the Battle of Berezina. From 26 to 28 November, Napoleon's retreating army streamed across the ice-choked Berezina River on makeshift bridges. On the 28th, a force of 30,000 Russians tried to advance up the west bank to cut Napoleon's line of retreat but was stopped in a desperate struggle by 14,000 Imperial troops.
During the contest, Marshal Michel Ney ordered Doumerc's cuirassiers to charge. The heavy cavalrymen hurled back the Russians, capturing 2,000 men; the III Cavalry Corps units involved were the 4th, 7th, 14th Cuirassier Regiments. Casualties were horrific during the retreat and included General of Brigade Denis Étienne Seron who vanished without a trace in November. In February 1812, the 8th Chasseurs à Cheval of Chastel's division left Italy 800 strong and a year there were only 75 survivors. In 1813 Napoleon managed to fill the ranks of his infantry by conscripting under-aged youths and his arsenals were able to cast more cannons to replace the one thousand guns that were lost, but the loss of over 200,000 trained horses in Russia crippled his ability to field an effective cavalry arm in the next campaign. After the disaster in Russia, Napoleon determined to recreate four bodies of cavalry for his army in Germany; these were the Imperial Guard cavalry, the I Cavalry Corps under General of Division Victor de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg, the II Cavalry Corps under General of Division Horace François Bastien Sébastiani, the III Cavalry Corps under General of Division Jean-Toussaint Arrighi de Casanova.
The last formation was to be created by taking one squadron from each cavalry regiment serving in Spain. On 1 May, the III Cavalry Corps was located at Hanau with 3,895 men fit for duty. On 15 April, the II Cavalry Corps counted 149 officers, 3,144 men, 3,581 horses. At the end of April the I Cavalry Corps had 17
The Neman, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, is a major Eastern European river. It rises in Belarus and flows through Lithuania before draining into the Curonian Lagoon, into the Baltic Sea at Rusnė Island, it begins at the confluence of two smaller tributaries, about 15 kilometers southwest of the town of Uzda in central Belarus, about 55 km southwest of Minsk. In its lower reaches it forms the border between Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast, it very forms part of the Belarus–Lithuania border. The largest river in Lithuania, the third-largest in Belarus, the Neman is navigable for most of its 900 km length; the Neman/Nemunas river basin formed during the Quaternary period, is located along the edge of the last glacial sheet, dating from about 25,000 to 22,000 years BC. Its depth varies from 1 meter in its upper courses to 5 meters in the lower basin. From west to east, the largest settlements are Sovetsk/Tilsit, Neman/Ragnit, Alytus, Druskininkai and Masty; the total length of the Nemunas/Neman is 914 km. It is the 4th longest river in the Baltic Sea basin.
Over its entire length, 436 km flows in 359 km in Lithuania. A 116 km stretch is the border between Russia's Kaliningrad oblast, its greatest depth is 5 m, at its widest it extends about 500 m. The Nemunas/Neman is a slow river. During floods, water discharge can increase up to more than 6,800 m3/s. Severe floods occur on the lower reaches of the river about every 12 – 15 years, which sometimes wash out bridges; the Nemunas/Neman is an old river. Its valley is now up to 60 meters 5 km broad, it has about 105 first-class tributaries, the largest being the rivers Neris, Šešupė. Fifteen of the tributaries are longer than 100 km. In the complete Nemunas/Neman basin, there are tributaries extending to the 11th order; the Nemunas basin in Lithuania drains more than 20,000 rivers and rivulets and covers 72% of Lithuania's territory. The total area of the Nemunas/Neman basin is 98,200 km2, 34,610 km2 of which are within Belarus, the Lithuanian portion of this basin is 46,695 km2. Valley of Neman in Grodno Region is the lowest point above sea level in Belarus at 80 to 90 m.
Ptolemy referred to Nemunas as Chronos. The river has lent its name to a Neolithic subculture. In German, the part of the river flowing in what earlier was Prussia has been called die Memel at least since about 1250, when Teutonic Knights built Memelburg castle and the town of Memel at the mouth of the Curonian Lagoon, naming it after the indigenous name of the river, Memel; the city of Memel, now in Lithuania, is known today as Klaipėda. On German road maps and in German lexika, only the 112-kilometer section within Prussia was named Memel; the border between the State of the Teutonic Order and Lithuania was fixed in 1422 by the Treaty of Lake Melno and remained stable for centuries. The Treaty of Tilsit between Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I was signed on a raft in the river in 1807. Napoleon's crossing at the outset of the 1812 French invasion of Russia is described in War and Peace. In 1919, the Treaty of Versailles made the river the border separating the Memel Territory from German East Prussia as of 1920.
At that time, Germany's Weimar Republic adopted the Deutschlandlied as its official national anthem. In the first stanza of the song, written in 1841, the river is mentioned as the eastern border of a Germany: Lithuanians refer to the Nemunas as "the father of rivers". Countless companies and organizations in Lithuania have "Nemunas" in their name, including a folklore ensemble, a weekly magazine about art and culture, a sanatorium, numerous guest houses and hotels. Lithuanian and Polish literature mention the Nemunas. One of the most famous poems by Maironis starts: Almost every Lithuanian can recite these words by heart. There are many other smaller rivers and rivulets in Lithuania with names that may have been derived from "Nemunas" — Nemunykštis, Nemunynas, Nemunėlis, Nemunaitis; the etymology of the name is disputed: some say that "Nemunas" is an old word meaning "a damp place", while others that it is "mute, soundless river". The name is derived from the Finnic word niemi "cape". Art critics praised its depiction in the paintings by Michał Kulesza.
Since the loops are located in Lithuania, they are referred to as "The Nemunas loops". In 1992 Nemunas Loops Regional Park was founded, its goal is to preserve the loops. Near Prienai, the Nemunas makes a 17-kilometer-long loop coming within 1.2 km of completing the loop. The Nemunas flows along the double bend between Balbieriškis and Birštonas for 48 km and moves in a northerly direction for only 4.5 km. The loops are not conventional river meanders; the f
General Dominique-Joseph René Vandamme, Count of Unseburg was a French military officer, who fought in the Napoleonic Wars. He was a dedicated career soldier with a reputation as an excellent corps commander; however he had a nasty disposition. Vandamme enlisted in the army in 1786 and rose through the ranks. At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1793 he was a Brigadier General, he served in this rank in the campaigns of 1794 in the Low Countries, 1795 on the Rhine and 1796 in Germany. He was suspended. Reinstated, he fought at the First Battle of Stockach on 25 March 1799, but disagreement with General Jean Moreau led to his being sent to occupation duties in Holland. At the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805 he led his division, alongside Gen. St. Hilaire's, as part of Marshal Soult's IV Corps in the charge that captured the Pratzen Heights. For his leadership he was awarded the Grand Eagle of the Legion of Honour. In 1806-7 his forces besieged Breslau, after taking it he ordered the fortifications to be levelled.
He was named Count of Unsebourg by Napoleon I after the Silesian campaign during the War of the Fourth Coalition. In the campaign of 1809, he led a small allied corps from Württemberg in the battles of Abensberg and Eckmühl. A brutal and violent soldier, renowned for insubordination and looting, Napoleon is said to have told him, "If I had two of you, the only solution would be to have one hang the other". Napoleon added that he would give Vandamme command of the vanguard were he to launch a campaign against Lucifer in Hell. In the campaign of 1813, Vandamme's I Corps attacked the Allied Bohemian Army as it tried to retreat after the Battle of Dresden. While his troops were engaged in the Battle of Kulm, a corps led by the Prussian General Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf fortuitously attacked the French from the rear. In the consequent disaster, Vandamme and 13,000 of his men were captured. In his captivity, he appears to have been treated with especial harshness, at the end of the war he was forbidden to enter Paris, sent to Cassel by Louis XVIII.
He was thus free of all obligations towards the Bourbons, when Napoleon returned, joined him without hesitation. The emperor made him a peer of France. In the campaign of 1815 Vandamme was in command of the III Corps, under the direction of Marshal Emmanuel Grouchy, he urged Grouchy to join Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, but Grouchy preferred to pursue the Prussian 3rd Corps under General Johann von Thielmann, winning the Battle of Wavre, but losing the war. After the restoration of Louis XVIII of France Vandamme was exiled to America and settled in Philadelphia amongst other French military exiles. General Vandamme was allowed to return to France by the ordinance of 1 December 1819, he was re-established in the service in the Ètat-major Général, until his final retirement on 1 January 1825. Afterwards he lived alternatively in Cassel and Ghent, occupying himself with the writing of his memoirs, he died in his native Cassel, aged 59. VANDAMME is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.
Berthezène, Souvenirs militaires de la République et de l'Empire, 2, Paris, p. 279 Gallaher, John G. Napoleon’s Enfant Terrible. General Dominique Vandamme, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0-8061-3875-6 Rosengarten, Joseph George, French colonists and exiles in the United States, Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott, pp. 166–167 Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Vandamme, Dominique René, Count". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. Gallaher, John G. Napoleon’s Enfant Terrible: General Dominique Vandamme. Excerpt Horne, How far from Austerlitz, Macmillan