Biên Hòa is a city in Đồng Nai Province, about 30 kilometres east of Hồ Chí Minh City, to which Biên Hòa is linked by Vietnam Highway 1. In 1989 the estimated population was 273,879. In 1999, the population was 435,400. 701,194 in 2009. In December 2012, the population of the city crossed the one million mark; the area around Biên Hòa was part of small kingdom prior to being annexed by Chenla. It was fishing region; the capture of Biên Hòa on December 16, 1861 was an important allied victory in the Cochinchina Campaign. This campaign, fought between the French and the Spanish on the one side and the Vietnamese on the other, began as a limited punitive expedition and ended as a French war of conquest; the war concluded with the establishment of the French colony of Cochinchina, a development that inaugurated nearly a century of French colonial dominance in Vietnam. Biên Hòa grew into a major suburb of Saigon. Following the First Indochina War, tens of thousands of refugees from the northern and central regions of Vietnam—a large portion of whom were Roman Catholics — resettled in Biên Hòa as part of Operation Passage to Freedom.
During the Vietnam War, the United States Air Force operated Bien Hoa Air Base near the city. Mortar attacks on U. S. and ARVN targets were staged from residential districts in Biên Hòa. Two of the better-known attacks took place during Tet of 1968 as well as 1969. Like most other areas of Vietnam, post-war Biên Hòa suffered a period of severe economic decline between 1975 and the second half of the 1980s. In part, because of its high concentration of former refugees and their descendants who had fled the Communist government of North Vietnam in the mid-1950s, Biên Hòa was the site of small-scale resistance to the Communist government in the months following the fall of the Republic of Vietnam. In the 1980s, the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam initiated the economic reform policy of Đổi Mới and Biên Hòa experienced an economic resurgence. Biên Hòa and the surrounding areas received large amounts of foreign investment capital, the area industrialized; as of 2005, Biên Hòa is now an industrial center of southern Vietnam, many factories and warehouses operate in the area surrounding the city.
Bien Hoa Sugar is located near the city. With regard to entertainment, the city includes several amusement parks and restaurants lining the Đồng Nai River. Construction has increased and the real estate market has experienced a series of boom cycles since the mid-1990s. Biên Hòa is the location of the Biên Hòa Military Cemetery, a large national cemetery for fallen soldiers and military officials of the former Republic of Vietnam; the cemetery today is now neglected by the current communist regime, many sections of the cemetery are either vandalized, or demolished for the construction of various building projects. Most of the time there was no proper reburial for the skeletal remains, this caused an outcry by Overseas Vietnamese, most of whom came from the South; the Vietnamese America Foundation, its program called "The Returning Casualty" are attempting to restore the cemetery and excavate a nearby mass grave. Bien Hoa is the central of Industry in South Viet Nam. About 6 industrial Zone Bien Hoa I Industrial Zone 335 ha Bien Hoa II Industrial Zone 365 ha Amata industrial park 674 ha The Long Binh Industrial Zone Development Agtex Long Binh Industrial Park - AGTEX 28: 43 ha Tam Phuoc Industrial Park 323 ha Hồ Chí Minh Bridge leads out of the south of the city.
Biên Hòa Railway Station on the North–South Railway is available. Vinh Trấn Biên Literature Temple Bien Hoa Air Base Đồng Nai Bridge HOABINHMINH
Cam Ranh Base
Cam Ranh Air Base is located on Cam Ranh Bay in Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam. It was one of several air bases built and used by the United States Air Force during the Vietnam War. Cam Ranh Air Base was part of the large Cam Ranh Bay logistics facility built by the United States, it was the major military seaport used by the United States for the offloading of supplies, military equipment and as a major Naval base. Army, Marine Corps and Air Force units all had compounds and units assigned to the Cam Ranh Bay facility from its opening in 1965 until its closure in 1972 as part of the drawdown of United States military forces in South Vietnam. Between 1979 and 2002, the facility was used by the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy. At the end of 2013, Russia resumed the use of the base in 2014 by its Air Force. On 19 May 2004, after major reconstruction, Cam Ranh Airport received its first commercial flight; as Vietnam considers the facility to be important to its defense, a small garrison of troops are stationed there.
In April 1965 CINCPAC instructed an engineering survey for a new airfield at Cam Ranh Bay. In mid-1965, the American construction consortium RMK-BRJ was directed by the Navy Officer in Charge of Construction RVN to construct a new airfield at Cam Ranh Bay, starting with a temporary 10,000-foot runway consisting of 2.2 million square feet of AM-2 aluminum matting to accommodate jet fighter-bombers. By September, RMK-BRJ had employed 1,800 Vietnamese workers for the work, over half of whom were women; the runway was completed in 50 days, with Admiral U. S. G. Sharp, CINCPAC, laying the last AM-2 plank on 16 October 1965; the airfield was opened for U. S. Air Force operations on 1 November 1965. A 1.3 million square feet cargo apron using pierced steel planking, airport facilities and utilities, mess halls, 25,000 square feet of living quarters were prepared for use by the USAF. By the end of 1966, RMK-BRJ and OICC RVN completed construction of an additional 10,000-foot concrete runway and taxiway at the air base.
Once the concrete runway was built, the original AM-2 runway was to be removed and replaced with a new concrete runway. In addition between June and September US Army engineers built fuel storage areas and 30 miles of roads and lengthened the pier before handing over the work to RMK-BMJ. In July 1965 it was planned that 3 fighter squadrons would be deployed to Cam Ranh Air Base once it was completed in October. On 28 October 1965 an advance party of the 43rd Tactical Fighter Squadron arrived at the base, the squadron equipped with F-4C Phantom II fighter-bombers arrived on 1 November and began flying missions over South Vietnam the following day. On 8 November 1965 the 12th Tactical Fighter Wing was assigned to the base, being deployed from MacDill Air Force Base, Florida; the 12th TFW was the first permanently assigned F-4 Phantom II wing assigned to Southeast Asia. Operational squadrons of the wing at Cam Ranh were: 557th Tactical Fighter Squadron 1 December 1965 – 31 March 1970 558th Tactical Fighter Squadron 8 November 1965 – 31 March 1970 43rd Tactical Fighter Squadron 8 November 1965 – 4 January 1966: Replaced by: 559th Tactical Fighter Squadron 1 January 1966 – 31 March 1970 391st Tactical Fighter Squadron 26 January 1966 – 22 July 1968 diverted from the still incomplete Phan Rang Air BaseFrom Cam Ranh AB the wing carried out close air support and combat air patrol activities over South Vietnam, North Vietnam and Laos.
On 26 October 1966 and on 23 December 1967, US President Lyndon B. Johnson landed at the base on his only Presidential visit to South Vietnam, meeting US military personnel. On 31 March 1970, as part of the Vietnamization process the 12th TFW was reassigned to Phù Cát Air Base. Heavy rainfall and strong onshore winds from December 1965 to March 1966 undermined the sand base of the original aluminum mat runway and taxiways at the base, necessitating constant maintenance to smooth out bumps and replace damaged matting. By December 1966 Cam Ranh AB reached over 27,000 aircraft movements a month. Living conditions at the base remained spartan with cramped quarters and shortages of water and electricity; the air base was used as a strategic and tactical airlift facility. Cargo and personnel would arrive from the United States into the logistics facilities at Cam Ranh Bay by ship and by large Military Air Transport Service/Military Airlift Command airlifters, be transferred to tactical airlift for movement within South Vietnam.
Outgoing cargo and personnel would be processed though the large aerial port facility. In November 1965 315th Air Division C-130E squadrons based in Japan, Okinawa and the Philippines began "shuttle" missions out of the airfield. C-130s from Tan Son Nhut Air Base and Nha Trang Air Base made pickups at Cam Ranh. In May 1966 C-130As used for flareship operations at Da Nang Air Base began operations from Cam Ranh and by November 1966 13 C-130As were based there. On 1 December 1965 the 14th Aerial Port Squadron was activated at the base to manage the airfield. In 1966 a new ramp was constructed on the west side of the airfield to handle airlift operations. Cam Ranh remained as the Air Force's primary airlift base in South Vietnam. MAC aircraft operated into Cam Ranh; the 6485th Operations Squadron based at Tachikawa Airfield stationed 4 C-118 Liftmasters on rotation at the base for casualty evacuation. On 8 July 1966 the 903d Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron was established at Tan Son Nhut AB and it maintained a detachment at Cam Ranh.
In November 1966 the first MAC C-141 Starli
Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces were the elite military units of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Following the establishment of the Republic of Vietnam in October 1955, the Special Forces were formed at Nha Trang in February 1956. During the rule of Ngô Đình Diệm, the Special Forces were run by his brother, until both were assassinated in November 1963 in a coup; the Special Forces were disbanded in 1975 when South Vietnam ceased to exist after the Fall of Saigon. The Special Forces came into being at Nha Trang in February 1956 under the designation of the First Observation Battalion/Group. By 1960, most Special Forces units were involved in the FOG program. At Long Thành, they were trained in intelligence gathering and psychological operations; the main duties of the Special Forces entailed the recruitment and training of one-to-four man teams in intelligence and psychological warfare missions. The success of these missions was poor. Although minor sabotage and unrest was fomented, Hanoi declared that all agents were to be killed or captured.
Those who were captured were executed. In 1961, the Special Forces and the Army of the Republic of Vietnam 1st Infantry Division, based in the northernmost area of South Vietnam, conducted a joint operation against Communist infiltrators in northern Quảng Trị Province. In the autumn of 1961, Special Forces units began Operation Eagle at Bình Hưng with a night parachute assault. In September 1962, United States Special Forces personnel assumed responsibility of the CIA's border surveillance and Civilian Irregular Defense Group programs and began working with the ARVN Special Forces; the Special Forces continued to expand and began to operate with the CIDG. During the rule of President Ngô Đình Diệm, the Special Forces were used for repressing dissidents. Despite the fact that South Vietnam was struggling against the communist insurgency of the Viet Cong in the rural areas, the Special Forces were kept in the capital Saigon, where they were used to prevent coups or harass regime opponents. Under Diệm, the Special Forces were headed by Colonel Lê Quang Tung, trained by the Central Intelligence Agency in the United States and commanded some 1,840 men under the direction of Nhu.
Tung's most notable military activity was leading a group run by the CIA, in which ARVN personnel of northern origin were sent into North Vietnam, posing as locals, in order to gather intelligence as well as sabotaging communist infrastructure and communications. They were trained in bases at Nha Trang, Đà Nẵng and sometimes offshore in Taiwan and Okinawa. Of the eighty groups of operatives, numbering six or seven per group, that were deployed in 1963 via parachute drops or night time sampan journeys, nearly all were captured or killed; those who were captured were used for propaganda by the Communists. Tung was criticised for his management of the operations. In 1963, South Vietnam faced civil unrest in the face of Buddhist protests against discrimination by the Catholic-oriented Diệm regime. In the wake of the shootings of nine Buddhist protesters on the birthday of Gautama Buddha for defying a ban on the Buddhist flag, mass protests calling for religious equality erupted around the country.
With opposition to Diệm growing, Nhu plotted an attack against Xá Lợi Pagoda, the largest Buddhist centre in Saigon, where the movement was organizing its activities. Tung's special forces under Nhu's orders were responsible for the raid on 21 August 1963, in which 1,400 monks were arrested and hundreds were estimated to have been killed, as well as extensive property damage; these attacks were replicated across the country in a synchronised manner. Following the attacks, U. S. officials threatened to withhold aid to the Special Forces unless they were used in fighting communists, rather than attacking dissidents. Another infamous religious assault on the Buddhist community was carried out by Tung's men in 1963. In a small pond near Đà Nẵng, a hugely oversized carp was found swimming. Local Buddhists began to believe; as pilgrimages to the pond grew larger and more frequent, so did disquiet among the district chief and his officials, who answered to Ngô Đình Cẩn, another younger brother of Diệm.
The pond was mined. After raking the pond with machine gun fire, the fish still lived. To deal with the problem, Tung's forces were called in; the pond was grenaded. The incident generated more publicity as newspapers across the world ran stories about the miraculous fish. South Vietnamese army helicopters began landing at the site, with ARVN paratroopers filling their bottles with water which they believed had magical powers. Tung was reported to have been planning an operation at the request of Nhu to stage a government organised student demonstration outside the US Embassy, Saigon. In this plan and his operatives would assassinate U. S. ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. other key officials and Buddhist leader Thích Trí Quang, given asylum after being targeted in the pagoda raids. On 1 November 1963, a coup was launched by the ARVN against Diệm. Knowing Tung was a loyalist who would order his Special Forces to defend Diệm, the generals invited him to ARVN Joint General Staff headquarters on the pretext of a routine meeting.
He was arrested and executed along with his deputy and younger brother, Lê Quang Triệu. Diệm and Nhu were executed after being captured at the end of the successful coup and the ARVN's leadership changed. In 1964, the U. S. Army's 5th Special Forces Group was assigne
Republic of Vietnam Marine Division
The Republic of Vietnam Marine Division was part of the armed forces of South Vietnam. It was established by Ngo Dinh Diem in 1954 when he was Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, which became the Republic of Vietnam in 1955; the longest-serving commander was Lieutenant General Le Nguyen Khang. In 1969, the VNMC had a strength of 9,300, 15,000 by 1973. and 20,000 by 1975. The Marine Division trace their origins to French-trained Commandos Marine divisions recruited and placed under the command of the French Navy but incorporated in 1960. From 1970 onwards, the South Vietnamese marines and Airborne Division grew supplanting the independent, Central Highlands based Vietnamese Rangers as the most popular elite units for volunteers. Along with the Airborne the Marine Division formed the General Reserve with the strategic transformation under Vietnamization, with elite and highly-mobile units meant to be deployed in People's Army of Vietnam attacking points and incursions. By the level of training had improved and U.
S. General Creighton Abrams who oversaw Vietnamization stated that South Vietnam's Airborne and Marines had no comparable units to match it in the PAVN; this division had earned a total of 9 U. S. presidential citations, with the 2nd Battalion "Crazy Buffaloes" earning two. The Vietnamese Marine Corps had its origins during French rule of Indochina; the 1949 Franco-Vietnamese Agreement stated that the Vietnamese Armed Forces were to include naval forces whose organization and training would be provided by the French Navy. In March 1952, the Navy of Vietnam was established. In 1953, the French and Vietnamese governments agreed to increase the size of Vietnamese National Army, so an increase in the size of the Vietnamese Navy was deemed necessary; as they debated whether the Army or Navy would control the river flotillas, French Vice Admiral Philippe Auboyneau proposed for the first time the organisation of a Vietnamese Marine Corps. When the French withdrew from Vietnam in 1954, the Vietnamese Marine Corps was a component of the Vietnamese Navy.
The Marine Corps consisted of a headquarters, four river companies, one battalion landing force. On October 13, 1954, Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem signed a government decree formally creating within the naval establishment a section of infantry of brigade strength to be designated as the Marine Corps. One of the most notable battles during the early phase of the war was the Battle of Binh Gia, which witnessed for the first time several helicopter transports downed by AA and ground-fire with the 4th Marine Battalion suffering 60% casualties. A few months with the onset of U. S intervention, the 1st and 3rd Battalion participated against a now Soviet and Chinese supplied 9th Viet Cong Division, were tasked with the Battle of Ba Gia. Upon capturing the hamlet the 9th Division sprung an ambush, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. Following the departure of U. S. Marine forces, the South Vietnamese marines were assigned responsibility in defending the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone; the most significant urban-battle in the war was experienced by the South Vietnamese marines during the Easter Offensive.
A massive armored pushed across the DMZ and nearly destroyed this unit alongside I Corps in the city of Quảng Trị. Two months this South Vietnamese marines spearheaded the re-taking of Quảng Trị, with 3,658 KIA in the process; this would be the single longest, bloody battle in the entire war. Prior to the signing of the Paris Peace Accords, the Marine Division attempted to retake the Cửa Việt Base abandoned by U. S. Marines in 1969 in the Battle of Cửa Việt; the PAVN units deployed the experimental 9M14 Malyutka man-portable guided anti-tanks, with the division losing 26 M48 Pattons in the counter-attack. Learning from the Easter Offensive failure, PAVN tanks rolled across not only across the DMZ, but well-disguised series of armoured attacks across the Central Highlands were launched during the Hue–Da Nang Campaign encircling and destroying most of the I Corps that many Marine Division battalions was assigned to. Remnants of the division, drastically short on supplies, held out and made a final stand near Saigon during the Battle of Xuân Lộc before succumbing to defeat.
Divisional Units Headquarters Battalion Amphibious Support Battalion Signal Battalion Engineer Battalion Medical Battalion Anti-tank Company Military Police Company Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol Company147th Marine Brigade 1st Marine Battalion - "Wild Birds" 4th Marine Battalion - "Killer Sharks" 7th Marine Battalion - "Grey Tigers" 1st Marine Artillery Battalion - "Lightning Fire258th Marine Brigade 2nd Marine Battalion - "Crazy Buffaloes" 5th Marine Battalion - "Black Dragons" 8th Marine Battalion - "Sea Eagles" 2nd Marine Artillery Battalion - "Divine Arrows"369th Marine Brigade 3rd Marine Battalion - "Sea Wolves" 6th Marine Battalion - "Divine Hawks" 9th Marine Battalion - "Ferocious Tigers" 3rd Marine Artillery Battalion - "Divine Crossbows"A 4th brigade, the 468th, was added to the VNMC in December, 1974. 14th Marine Battalion 16th Marine Battalion 18th Marine Battalion 4th Marine Artillery Battalion - "Tan Lap" Major Lê Quang Mỹ Lt. Colonel Lê Quang Trọng Major Phạm Văn Liễu Vice Captain Bùi Phó Chí Major Lê Như Hùng Major Le Nguyen Khang Lt. Colonel Nguyễn Bá Liên Colonel Le Nguyen Khang Colonel Bùi Thế Lân Generally, the VNMC weapons and personal equipments were (if not
Corps is a term used for several different kinds of organisation. Within military terminology a corps may be: an operational formation, sometimes known as a field corps, which consists of two or more divisions, such as the Corps d'armée known as I Corps of Napoleon's Grande Armée); these usages overlap. Corps may be a generic term for a non-military organization, such as the U. S. Peace Corps. In many armies, a corps is a battlefield formation composed of two or more divisions, commanded by a lieutenant general. During World War I and World War II, due to the large scale of combat, multiple corps were combined into armies which formed into army groups. In Western armies with numbered corps, the number is indicated in Roman numerals; the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was raised in 1914, consisting of Australian and New Zealand troops, who went on to fight at Gallipoli in 1915. In early 1916, the original corps was reorganised and two corps were raised: I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps. In the stages of World War I, the five infantry divisions of the First Australian Imperial Force —consisting of personnel who had volunteered for service overseas—were united as the Australian Corps, on the Western Front, under Lieutenant General Sir John Monash.
During World War II, the Australian I Corps was formed to co-ordinate three Second Australian Imperial Force units: the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions, as well as other Allied units on some occasions, in the North African campaign and Greek campaign. Following the commencement of the Pacific War, there was a phased withdrawal of I Corps to Australia, the transfer of its headquarters to the Brisbane area, to control Allied army units in Queensland and northern New South Wales. II Corps was formed, with Militia units, to defend south-eastern Australia, III Corps controlled land forces in Western Australia. Sub-corps formations controlled Allied land forces in the remainder of Australia. I Corps headquarters was assigned control of the New Guinea campaign. In early 1945, when I Corps was assigned the task of re-taking Borneo, II Corps took over in New Guinea. Canada first fielded a corps-sized formation in the First World War; the Canadian Corps consisted of four Canadian divisions. After the Armistice, the peacetime Canadian militia was nominally organized into corps and divisions but no full-time formations larger than a battalion were trained or exercised.
Early in the Second World War, Canada's contribution to the British-French forces fighting the Germans was limited to a single division. After the fall of France in June 1940, a second division moved to England, coming under command of a Canadian corps headquarters; this corps was renamed I Canadian Corps as a second corps headquarters was established in the UK, with the eventual formation of five Canadian divisions in England. I Canadian Corps fought in Italy, II Canadian Corps in NW Europe, the two were reunited in early 1945. After the formations were disbanded after VE Day, Canada has never subsequently organized a Corps headquarters. Royal Canadian Army Cadets: A Corps size in the RCAC is different everywhere, depending on the size, the Commanding Officer can be a Captain or Major; the National Revolutionary Army Corps was a type of military organization used by the Chinese Republic, exercised command over two to three NRA Divisions and a number of Independent Brigades or Regiments and supporting units.
The Chinese Republic had 133 Corps during the Second Sino-Japanese War. After losses in the early part of the war, under the 1938 reforms, the remaining scarce artillery and the other support formations were withdrawn from the Division and was held at Corps, or Army level or higher; the Corps became the basic tactical unit of the NRA having strength nearly equivalent to an allied Division. The French Army under Napoleon used corps-sized formations as the first formal combined-arms groupings of divisions with reasonably stable manning and equipment establishments. Napoleon first used the Corps d'armée in 1805; the use of the Corps d'armée was a military innovation that provided Napoleon with a significant battlefield advantage in the early phases of the Napoleonic Wars. The Corps was designed to be an independent military group containing cavalry and infantry, capable of defending against a numerically superior foe; this allowed Napoleon to mass the bulk of his forces to effect a penetration into a weak section of enemy lines without risking his own communications or flank.
This innovation stimulated other European powers to adopt similar military structures. The Corps has remained an echelon of French Army organization to the modern day; as fixed military formation in peace-time it was used in all European armies after Battle of Ulm in 1805. In Prussia it was introduced by Order of His Majesty from November 5, 1816, in order to strengthen the readiness to war; the paramilitary forces of Pakistan's two main western provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are the Frontier Corps founded in 1907 during British Rule as at least three various organizations before being combined together. They are charged with guarding the country's wes
Republic of Vietnam Airborne Division
The Vietnamese Airborne Division was one of the earliest components of the Republic of Vietnam Military Forces. The Vietnamese Airborne Division began as companies organised in 1948, prior to any agreement over armed forces in Vietnam. After the partition of Vietnam, it became a part of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam; this division had its distinct origins in French-trained paratrooper battalions, with predecessor battalions participating in major battles including Dien Bien Phu and retained distinct uniforms and regalia. With the formation of an independent republic, the colonial paratroopers were dissolved, however regalia and aesthetics alongside the nickname "Bawouans" would be retained; the Airborne Division, alongside the Vietnamese Rangers and the Marine Division were regarded as among the most effective units, with former airborne advisor General Barry McCaffrey noting that "those of us privileged to serve with them were awe-struck by their courage and tactical aggressiveness. The senior officers and non-commissioned officers were competent and battle hardened."
Eight of nine battalions and three headquarters had earned US Presidential Unit Citation of which eight of these were earned by the Airborne between 1967-1968 which included the Tet Offensive period. Airborne commanders were highly rated, with Airborne Commander Ngô Quang Trưởng once described by former Airborne-adviser and Gulf War commanding General Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. "as the most brilliant tactical commander I have known". The Airborne Division had its origins in Indochinese-specific units raised under the "jaunissement" program, separating Indochinese members of French paratrooper units of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps forming separate battalions under the Vietnamese National Army. Among these includes the 1e BPVN, 3e BPVN and 5e BPVN whom were airdropped into combat during the Siege of Dien Bien Phu. Most were killed afterwards upon capture by the Viet Minh, who regarded them as traitors, rather than bargained as the French had been, they were reformed into the Republic of Vietnam Military Forces and restructured upon the expulsion of the French by Ngo Dinh Diem following the Geneva Accords.
Vietnamese Airborne Division was among the elite fighting forces in the ARVN and placed as a reserve unit along with the Republic of Vietnam Marine Division. Headquarters of the Airborne Division was outside of Saigon; the Airborne Division would mobilize anywhere within the four corps at a moments notice. The main use of the Airborne was to engage and destroy People's Army of Vietnam and Viet Cong forces, not hold a specific region like the infantry units; the Airborne played a decisive role in the Battle of Huế, as the first relief force that arrived, assaulting the strongest points at the outer line and Hue Citadel while enduring and inflicting the most casualties. The Airborne played a significant role in the Cambodian Campaign, with battalions participating in most of the individual operations and finding significant caches of supplies, alongside being the sole force dropped behind enemy lines to cut-off a potential retreat; the Airborne Division participated in Lam Son 719, having had less than a week to implement battle-plans and rushing their operations, many were ordered into static positions at many isolated fire-bases.
An NVA armoured counter-attack had inflicted grievous losses on many battalions. Much of the Airborne was decimated during the Hue–Da Nang Campaign by a series of well-coordinated armoured attacks flanking from the Central Highlands towards the coast. Units of Airborne and others held out during the Battle of Xuân Lộc Đỗ Cao Trí Nguyễn Văn Vỹ Cao Văn Viên Nguyễn Khánh Dư Quốc Đống Nguyễn Chánh Thi Nguyễn Khoa Nam Đoàn Văn Quảng Lê Quang Lưỡng Like all major ARVN units the Airborne were assigned a U. S. military advisory element the Airborne Brigade Advisory Detachment and redesignated the 162nd Airborne Advisory Detachment or U. S. Airborne Advisory Team 162. About 1,000 American airborne-qualified advisors served with the Brigade and Division, receiving on average two awards for valour per tour. U. S. officers were paired with their Vietnamese counterparts, from the Brigade/Division commander down to company commanders, as well with principal staff officers at all levels. U. S. NCOs assisted the company advisors.
Colonial units1st Indochinese Parachute Company 3rd Indochinese Parachute Company 5th Indochinese Parachute Company 7th Indochinese Parachute Company 1st Airborne Guard Company 3rd Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 5th Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 6th Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 7th Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 3rd Vietnamese Parachute Engineers Company Airborne Group unitsHeadquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Airborne Battalion 3rd Airborne Battalion 5th Airborne Battalion 6th Airborne Battalion Airborne Combat Support Battalion Airborne Brigade unitsHeadquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Task Force HQ 1st Airborne Battalion 6th Airborne Battalion 7th Airborne Battalion 2nd Task Force HQ 3rd Airborne Battalion 5th Airborne Battalion 8th Airborne Battalion Airborne Combat Support Battalion Airborne Division unitsHeadquarters Battalion U. S. Airborne Advisory Team 162 1st Task Force/Brigade HHC 1st Airborne Battalion 8th Airborne Battalion 9th Airborne
Nguyễn Văn Toàn (general)
Nguyễn Văn Toàn was born in Huế and served as a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Toan became an armor officer. Lieutenant General, III Corps Commander. Armor Commander. II Corps Commander. Major General, Armor Commander. Brigadier General, 2nd Infantry Division Commander. Colonel, 1st Infantry Division Deputy Commander. Lieutenant Colonel, 5th Armor Squadron. Major, Superintendent of Armor School. Captain, Armor Battalion Deputy Commander - Commander. Lieutenant, Armor Company X. O. First Lieutenant, Armor Platoon Leader. Cadet, 3-5 Class of Dalat Military Academy. Lieutenant Colonel Toan was relieved of command of the 5th Armored Squadron when his retreating armored elements killed over two dozen South Vietnamese Rangers, he returned to political favor when the officer that relieved him, General Nguyen Chanh Thi, was exiled for his unpopular political views. From 1968 to 1972, Toan served as a brigadier general commanding of the 2nd Infantry Division until being promoted to lieutenant general and becoming assistant operations officer and armor commander in the I Corps Tactical Zone.
During the initial phases of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive in March 1972, Toan performed well in the defense of Dong Ha, but he fell under the same cloud as his commander, Lieutenant General Hoang Xuan Lam, when the ARVN defense in I Corps collapsed. It was at this point that Toan's political connections again became paramount when he was moved south to take command of II Corps after the physical and emotional collapse of General Ngo Dzu, he took command at a point when the Central Highlands had become the second front of the communist offensive. Fortuitously for Toan, his senior U. S. advisor, John Paul Vann was fighting the battle for him. When the conflict settled down to a struggle for the city of Kontum, Toan intelligently attended to administrative matters and left operational control in the hands of Vann and Ly Tong Ba, commander of the 23rd Division. Toan remained in the command of II Corps until 1974, when he was relieved of command by President Nguyen Van Thieu during an anti-corruption campaign.
During the North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh Campaign of 1975, Toan was given command of III Corps. It was as commander of the Saigon redoubt during the final battles of the war that Toan faced his greatest challenge. Despite the courage of the 18th Division troops to prevent the Communist forces from entering to the capital, the troops were swamped by vastly larger forces. Recognizing the situation could not be reversed, Toan escaped from South Vietnam after deceiving Generals Le Minh Dao and Tran Quang Khoi that he would fly to the General Command Headquarters in Saigon to request for more troops. Toan is believed to have carried out the order of President Thieu to assassinate his Deputy Corps Commander General Nguyen Van Hieu on April 8, 1975. Andrade, Dale. Trial by Fire: The 1972 Easter Offensive, America's Last Vietnam Battle. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1993. Vien, General Cao Van, The Final Collapse. Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History, 1983. Lieutenant General Nguyễn Văn Toàn's military resume