The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Hamchang is an eup in Sangju City, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It comprises 30 distinct ri, has a population of 8,427. There are a middle school and a high school. Hamchang was once the capital of Goryeong Gaya. Although its role today is far less central, it remains an important local town, served by intercity buses as well as the Gyeongbuk Line railroad. Hamchang is located about 19 kilometers north of the Sangju city center, borders Jeomchon in Mungyeong City directly on the north. Within Sangju, it adjoins the local districts of Ian-myeon, Gonggeom-myeon, Sabeol-myeon, it covers a total area of 43.37 km². Of this 16.87 km² are vacant. The vacant land is mountainous, but contains no high peaks. Hamchang's eastern border is formed by the Yeong River, which flows between Mungyeong's Yeongsun-myeon and Hamchang-eup; the Iancheon stream runs from west to east across southern Hamchang and into the Yeong, which shortly thereafter meets the Nakdong. In the early Three Kingdoms period, the small kingdom of Goryeong Gaya is traditionally supposed to have been based in Hamchang, making it by far the northernmost state of the Gaya confederacy.
The reputed tomb of Goryeong's founder, the progenitor of the Hamchang Kim lineage, is located near the town center. On Obong Mountain, other tombs dating to the Three Kingdoms period have been excavated; these are sometimes associated with a minor state which appears in early Silla records. What relation may have existed between Sabeol-guk and Goryeong Gaya, or whether they were in fact the same kingdom, is not known. By the early 6th century, the Hamchang area was securely under Silla control, it was subsequently administered as part of the ju of Sangju. At this time, Hamchang was known by various names which appear to suggest a connection with Goryeong Gaya, such as Goreung and Godongnam-gun. In the Goryeo period, in 964, the area became known as Hamnyeong-gun; the name changed to the present "Hamchang" in 1018. In the Joseon period, the Hamchang area was designated as Hamchang-hyeon in 1490 and Hamchang-gun in 1895. In 1914, it was included in Sangju County, it received its present designation as Hamchang-eup by presidential decree on December 1, 1980.
List of Korea-related topics Official eup website, in Korean
Paik Sun-yup is a retired South Korean military officer. He served the latter during the Korean War. Paik is known for his service during the Korean War and for being the first four-star general in the history of the South Korean military, his brother, Paik In-yeop served in the Republic of Korea Army during the Korean War, commanding the 17th Independent Regiment at the Battle of Ongjin and again in the Inchon Landings. Paik was born in Kangsŏ-gun, South P'yŏngan the city of Nampo, on November 23, 1920, during a time when Korea was under Japanese rule, he was born the eldest of three siblings, with a younger sister and brother, being raised by a widowed mother. In 1925 the Paik family moved to Pyongyang where it lived under poor conditions in a single, rented room. Unable to feed her family, Paik's mother attempted to take the children and commit family suicide by jumping from the Taedong River bridge but was dissuaded from doing so by her older sister. Paik's mother and sister soon took jobs at a rubber factory to pay for his schooling.
He attended Mansu Primary School for four years before transferring to Yaksong Primary School. After, he spent five years in Pyongyang Normal School, training to be a teacher in 1939. Instead of getting into teaching, he entered Mukden Military Academy of Manchukuo. After graduation, he became an officer of the Manchukuo Imperial Army, served in the Gando Special Force, he engaged in guerrilla suppression work in Jiandao. He joined the Japanese campaign on northern China for ten months from 1944 to 1945 until its defeat by the Soviet Army. After the end of World War II he returned to Pyongyang but in December 1945 fled south since rising communists threatened his safety. In South Korea, he was commissioned as a first lieutenant in the Constabulary, the predecessor of the ROK Army, he was committed to build the army, crush communist guerrillas, purge the army of leftists. However, he did help Park Chung-hee, at the time tried as a communist, by persuading President Rhee to commute his sentence and have him released.
Paik got him reinstated into the army during the Korean War. When the fighting broke out on June 25, 1950, he was assigned to defend Seoul as the 1st Infantry Division's commanding officer, he retreated to South Gyeongsang but made an important contribution to the defense of the Pusan Perimeter to the victory at the village of Dabudong. On the move north, his 1st Division under the United States I Corps became the first to enter Pyongyang on October 19, he was one of the first officers to realize the Chinese entry into the war. He was plagued by a larger Chinese army. In April 1951, Paik was placed in command of the ROK I Corps in charge of eastern Korea, he soon found the South Korean military insufficiently trained. In July 1951, Paik was elected to represent the ROK military at the Kaesong Truce Talk but failed to attain results. In November, Task Force Paik was set up to destroy communist guerrillas on Jirisan; the campaign, known as Operation Rat Killer, was finished in March 1952. In recognition of the success, he was promoted to Lieutenant General and Task Force Paik was transformed to the new ROK II Corps.
He was appointed to Army Chief of Staff in July 1952. He devoted himself in building up the ROK Army. In January 1953, he was promoted to the rank of general in the ROK Army. Paik successively filled the positions of commander of the First Field Army, the Army Chief of Staff, the Chairman for the ROK Joint Chiefs of Staff until his retirement from the army in May 1960, he was aware of the political developments taking place in Korea at the time, but chose not to participate with either side. He was overseas, he was appointed as an ambassador to the Republic of China in 1960, to France in 1961, to Canada in 1965. From 1969 to 1971, he served as Minister of Transportation and launched the construction of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. In 1970 he faced the hijacking of a Japan Airlines plane at Gimpo Airport by Japanese Red Army, he served as the presidents of two national policy companies in sequence. He participated in the construction of the War Memorial at Yongsan, which opened in 1990. Paik is the author of From Pusan to Panmunjom: Wartime Memoirs of the Republic of Korea's First Four-Star General.
List of Korea-related topics Military of South Korea Paik, Sun Yup, From Pusan to Panmunjom, Riverside, NJ: Brassey Inc. ISBN 0-02-881002-3 Media related to Paik Sun-yup at Wikimedia Commons
Republic of Korea Army
The Republic of Korea Army known as the ROK Army, is the army of South Korea, responsible for ground-based warfare. It is the largest of the military branches of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces with 464,000 members as of 2018; this size is maintained through conscription. The modern South Korean army traces its lineage back to the Gwangmu Reform, when the Beolgyegoon was established by Emperor Gojong in 1881; the 1st of every October is celebrated in South Korea as Armed Forces Day. It commemorates the day during the Korean War when units of the ROK Army first crossed the 38th Parallel, thus leading the UN Coalition north into North Korean territory for the first time; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was formed out of the Republic Of Korea Army. This organization was created during the American occupation period from 1945-1948; the National Security Guard Of South Korea was a reserve unit of the National Police. In addition to some Nationalist Chinese and post-Manchurian soldiers remnants of the Imperial Japanese Army contributed to the force.
The National Defense Force was established on January 15, 1946 replacing the American lead constabulary from 1945. The outbreak of the Korean War caught the South Korean forces unprepared, requiring the United Nations to intervene with U. S.-led forces. The South Korean military developed during the Korean War, suffering enormous casualties and loss of equipment; as the Soviets had armed North Korea, the United States armed and trained the South Korean military throughout the Korean War. The South Korean army is structured to operate in both the mountainous terrain native to the Korean Peninsula and in North Korea with its 950,000 strong Korean People's Army Ground Force, two-thirds of, permanently garrisoned in the frontline near the DMZ; the current administration has initiated a program over the next two decades to design a purely domestic means of self-defense, whereby South Korea would be able to counter a North Korean attack. The ROK Army was organized into 3 armies: the First Army, Third Army and Second Operational Command.
Each with its own headquarters and divisions. The Third Army was responsible for the defense of the capital as well as the western section of the DMZ; the First Army was responsible for the defense of the eastern section of the DMZ whereas the 2nd OC formed the rearguard. Under a restructuring plan aimed at reducing redundancy, the Second ROK Army was converted as the Second Operations Command in 2007, the First and Third ROK Armies were merged as the Ground Operations Command in 2019; the army consists of 495,000 troops 2,400-2,500 tanks, 2,700 armored fighting vehicles, 5,800 artillery pieces, 60 guided missile systems, 600 helicopters as of 2014. Main battle tank types include: 880 M48 Patton series and its upgrades such as M48A3K, M48A5, M48A5K, 33 Soviet T-80U and 2 T-80UK, as well as 1,524 K1A1 and K1 tanks, which bear a 120 mm smoothbore gun and are of local manufacture; the future replacement for the K1 and K1A1 MBTs has been named the K2 Black Panther, which will be fitted with a 1500 hp MTU-based engine, 55-caliber 120 mm main gun with autoloader.
The new tank will feature radar equipment as well as all-bearing laser detection and defense systems, anti-missile active protection, heavy reactive armor and sensor package comparable to the American M1A2 Abrams and German Leopard 2A6. The ROK Army is planning to field 390 Black Panthers. In addition Republic of Korea manufactures the K-9 howitzer which have been exported to Turkey as the T-155 howitzer as well as the ZMA series TIFV's which saw action in UN peacekeeping operations as part of the Malaysian peacekeeping forces. A variation of the K200, the KAFVs can be retrofitted to bear a 90 mm cannon, 40 mm grenade turret, M230-1 Chain gun Turret, or MK-30 Chaingun Turret. A replacement for K200 series IFVs are being tested, designated as K21 KNIFV, which will have various capabilities for both land and naval warfare; the initial production is set for 2008, with the ROKA planning to field 1,000 units until 2015. The K21 KNIFV's chassis will be constructed out of fiberglass, reducing the vehicle's load and enabling it to travel at higher speeds without bulky and powerful engines.
When constructed, the NIFV will be lighter than other IFVs, including the American Bradley series and Russian BMP series, increasing both speed and payload. The ROK Army fields the mobile K-SAM "Pegasus", fitted with 8 missiles that fly at maximum speeds of mach 2.6, the K-30 "Biho" series, which features a 30 mm twin gun system for anti-aerial fire support. Besides having vehicles and equipment of their own design as well as American models, the ROK Army possesses inventories of Russian-built AFVs, including BMP-3 IFVs and T-80U MBTs, given by the Russian government to pay off the financial debt owed to South Korea. Other notable foreign equipment in service with the ROK Army includes the Mistral MANPADS. A new infantry rifle, the Daewoo K11 entered service in 2010; the overall concept of this weapon is similar to the American OICW. Capital Defense Command'SHIELD' 1st Air Defense Brigade 52nd Homeland Defense Infantry Division 56th Homeland Defense Infantry Division Special Warfare Command'LION' 1st Special Forces Brigade'EAGLE' 3rd Special Forces Brigade'FLYING TIGER' (3공수특전여단'비호부대'
7th Infantry Division (South Korea)
The 7th Infantry Division is a military formation of the Republic of Korea Army employed on patrol duty in the Korean Demilitarized Zone around Hwacheon County, Gangwon Province. Like the Big Dipper, it was established at the time of the creation of the division to be the center of things and always win, it is composed of the only single-digit numerical coalition established by the entire army at the same time as the establishment of the unit. It is located in the central part of the truce line and has a GOP regiment, a reserve regiment, an artillery regiment, a subordinate force. 7th Infantry Division HQ: Chemical Company DMZ Patrol Company Armor Battalion Signal Battalion Reconnaissance Battalion Engineer Battalion Support Battalion Medical Battalion 3rd Regiment 5th Regiment 8th Regiment Artillery Regiment During the Korean War, the 7th Infantry Division served a total of 28 battles. In particular, the Yeongcheon at the time to perform on the defense division president received a citation for troops to destroy the two Democratic People's Republic of Korea in battle of the world.
The division first started from Youngsan, Seoul in June 10, 1949. The division first saw combat in September 14, 1949, in an operation on Jirisan Mt. to fight Communist guerillas. This division was, after the fall of Taejon, only had a few hundred survivors to participate in the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. During the Battle of Pusan Perimeter, The 7th Infantry Division regrouped with the 3rd, 5th, 8th infantry regiments to become what formation they have, destroyed size of two divisions of North Korean army during the Battle of YoungChen. On 26 November 1950, a column of retreating ROK Korean soldiers of the ROK 6th and 7th Divisions from Tokchon was attacked by a battalion of the Turkish Brigade who were the first to arrive at Wawon, after the Turks mistook the Koreans for Chinese. 125 Koreans were taken prisoner and many of them were slaughtered by the Turks. The event was wrongly reported in American and European media as a Turkish victory over the Chinese and after news leaked out about the truth to the Americans, no efforts were made by the media to fix the story.
After the Chinese intervention and attacks in November 1950, the U. S. 2d Infantry Division, the Turkish Brigade, the ROK 6th, 7th, 8th Infantry Divisions suffered substantial loss that they needed extensive rest and refitting to recover combat effectiveness. After recovery, The 7th Division took part of the operation as II Corps's command such as Retaking of Hwacheon, Battle of Gumsung. Capital Division Appleman, Roy E.. Disaster in Korea: The Chinese Confront MacArthur. Volume 11 of Texas A & M University military history series: Texas A and M University. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 160344128X. Retrieved 18 April 2014. Leckie, Robert. Conflict: The History of the Korean War, 1950-53. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0306807165. Retrieved 18 April 2014. Leckie, Robert. Conflict: The history of the Korean War 1950-1953. G. P. Putnam's Sons. New York. Archived from the original on Feb 19, 2008
1st Infantry Division (South Korea)
The 1st Infantry Division is a military formation of the Republic of Korea Army's I Corps. The division was established on 12 May 1945 under the command of Colonel Kim Suk-won. Current structure: Headquarters: Anti-tank Company DMZ Patrol Company Armored Battalion Signal Battalion Reconnaissance Battalion Engineer Battalion Support Battalion Medical Battalion Chemical Battalion 11th Infantry Regiment 12th Infantry Regiment - The regiment was activated as the 12th Regiment on May 1, 1948, at Kunsan and was first commanded by Lt. Col. Paik In Ki; the unit was not assigned to a division but was assigned to the 1st Division following that unit's activation in May 1949. It participated in the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. 15th Infantry Regiment Artillery Regiment The division was the first unit of the ROK Army to be attacked by the North Koreans on June 25, 1950. At 4 a.m. the North Koreans began an artillery barrage on the division's positions along the 38th Parallel. The artillery bombardment was followed by ground attacks by the NKPA's 1st and 6th Infantry Divisions.
It became part of II Corps after the first fall of Seoul, was part of the defensive line to slow the North Korean advance from Seoul to Taejon. It subsequently fought in the Battle of Pusan Perimeter. On October 19, 1950 Company F of the U. S. 5th Cavalry entered Pyongyang, followed shortly thereafter by 1st Division elements from the northeast. The next morning, the division reached the heart of the city and took the fortified administrative center without difficulty; the entire city was secured by 10:00 that day. "In the western half of North Korea, as part of the U. S. I Corps' general advance on October 25, 1950, the 1st Division was spread out on the road that ran from the Chongchon River to Unsan; the division's 15th Regiment continued toward Unsan without opposition. In the lead were elements of Company D, 6th Medium Tank Battalion, which passed through Unsan without incident. Just before 1100, as the tanks approached a bridge one and a half miles northeast of the town, enemy mortar fire destroyed the bridge.
Engaging the enemy force, the soldiers reported a half-hour that at least three hundred Chinese troops were in the hills just north of Unsan. The 12th Regiment, the second division unit in the column, turned west when it arrived at Unsan, ran into Chinese forces just beyond the town; the CCF's attacks against the 1st Division continued on the twenty-sixth but eased up the following day."During the afternoon of November 1, the CCF's attack north of Unsan gained strength against the 15th Regiment and extended to the right flank of the U. S. 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry. At nightfall the 1st Battalion controlled the northern approaches to the Samtan River, except for portions of the 15th Regiment's zone on the east side; the battalion's position on the left was weak. This left a gap between the 2d Battalions. East of the Samtan the 15th Regiment was under heavy attack, shortly after midnight it no longer existed as a combat force. Lee Jin-tae and Lee Jin-seok, main characters in the 2004 Korean film Taegukgi, were assigned to the fictional 2d Company, 4th Battalion, 8th Regiment, 1st Infantry Division
People's Volunteer Army
The People's Volunteer Army was the armed expatriate volunteer forces deployed by the People's Republic of China during the War to Resist the United States and aid North Korea. Although all units in the Chinese People's Volunteer Army were transferred from the People's Liberation Army under orders of Mao Zedong, the People's Volunteer Army was separately constituted in order to prevent an official war with the United States; the People's Volunteer Army entered Korea on October 19, 1950, withdrew by October 1958. The nominal commander and political commissar of the PVA was Peng Dehuai before the ceasefire agreement in 1953, although both Chen Geng and Deng Hua served as acting commander and commissar after April 1952 due to Peng's illness; the initial units in the PVA included 38th, 39th, 40th, 42nd, 50th, 66th Corp totaling 250,000 men, about 3 million Chinese civilian and military personnel served in Korea by July 1953. Although the United Nations forces were under United States command, this army was a UN "police" force.
In order to avoid an open war with the US and other UN members, the People's Republic of China deployed the People's Liberation Army under the name "volunteer army". About the name, there were various opinions. According to some scholars during the mid 1990s, after the Chinese Communists arranged strategic decisions to send soldiers to Korea, the first name of this army was "support army", but Huang Yanpei, the vice premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government at that time, suggested that the name "support army" will drive the international community think that China sent soldiers to Korea declaring war against the US. Therefore, the army's name was modified to "volunteer army" while different unit designations and footings were used instead, in order to show that China did not tend to declare war against the US, it was the people that volunteered to the battlefields in Korea. On the other hand, some recent studies show; because much earlier on July 7, 1950, the name had been changed to "volunteer army" by Zhou Enlai on his manuscript about the decision of the army's clothing and flags.
Despite arguments on the changing from "People's Support Army" to "People's Volunteer Army", the name was a homage to the Korean Volunteer Army that had helped the Chinese communists during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. It managed to deceive the US intelligence and the UNC about the size and nature of the Chinese forces that entered Korea, they realized that the PVA was the PLA's North East Frontier Force, with other PLA formations transferred under NEFF's command as the Korean War dragged on. But the result was that they still admitted the name, "People's Volunteer Army", in order to minimize the war within the Korean Peninsula and prevent escalation of the war; the PVA soldier was reasonably well clothed, in keeping with the PLA's guerrilla origin and egalitarian attitudes. All ranks wore a cotton or woolen green or khaki shirt and trousers combination with leaders' uniforms being different in cut; the nominal strength of a PLA division was 9,500 men, with a regiment comprising 3,000 and a battalion consisting of 850.
However, many divisions sent to the Korean War were below-strength while the divisions stationed opposite Taiwan were above-strength. There was variation in organization and equipment as well as in the quantity and quality of the military equipment; some of the PLA's equipment was from the Imperial Japanese Army or were captured from the Kuomintang military forces. Some Czechoslovak-made weapons were purchased on the open market by the PRC. During the PVA's first offensive in the Korean War between October and November 1950, large quantities of captured American weapons were used due to the availability of the required ammunition and the increasing difficulty of constant re-supplying across the Yalu River due to numerous UN-/USA-conducted air interdiction operations. In addition, there was a local copy of the American Thompson submachine gun being produced by the PRC, based on the type of, exported to and used in China since the 1930s and by American/South Korean troops during the Korean War as well.
On, after the first year of the Korean War, the Soviet Union began to send more weapons and ammunition to the PRC, which started to produce unlicensed copies of some types of Soviet weapons, such as the PPSh-41 submachine gun, designated as the Type 50. The People's Republic of China had issued warnings that they would intervene if any non-South Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel, citing national security interests. Truman regarded the warnings as "a bold attempt to blackmail the UN". On October 8, 1950, the day after American troops crossed the parallel, Chairman Mao issued the order for the NEFF to be moved to the Yalu River, ready to cross. Mao Zedong sought Soviet aid and saw intervention as defensive: "If we allow the U. S. to occupy all of Korea... we must be prepared for the US to declare... war with China", he told Joseph Stalin. Premier Zhou Enlai was sent to Moscow to add force to Mao's cabled arguments. Mao delayed his forces while waiting for Soviet help, the planned attack was thus postponed from 13 October to 19 October.
Soviet assistance was limited to providing air support no closer than 60 miles from the battlefront. The MiG-15s in PRC colours would be an unpleasant surprise to