Republic of Vietnam Airborne Division
The Vietnamese Airborne Division was one of the earliest components of the Republic of Vietnam Military Forces. The Vietnamese Airborne Division began as companies organised in 1948, prior to any agreement over armed forces in Vietnam. After the partition of Vietnam, it became a part of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam; this division had its distinct origins in French-trained paratrooper battalions, with predecessor battalions participating in major battles including Dien Bien Phu and retained distinct uniforms and regalia. With the formation of an independent republic, the colonial paratroopers were dissolved, however regalia and aesthetics alongside the nickname "Bawouans" would be retained; the Airborne Division, alongside the Vietnamese Rangers and the Marine Division were regarded as among the most effective units, with former airborne advisor General Barry McCaffrey noting that "those of us privileged to serve with them were awe-struck by their courage and tactical aggressiveness. The senior officers and non-commissioned officers were competent and battle hardened."
Eight of nine battalions and three headquarters had earned US Presidential Unit Citation of which eight of these were earned by the Airborne between 1967-1968 which included the Tet Offensive period. Airborne commanders were highly rated, with Airborne Commander Ngô Quang Trưởng once described by former Airborne-adviser and Gulf War commanding General Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. "as the most brilliant tactical commander I have known". The Airborne Division had its origins in Indochinese-specific units raised under the "jaunissement" program, separating Indochinese members of French paratrooper units of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps forming separate battalions under the Vietnamese National Army. Among these includes the 1e BPVN, 3e BPVN and 5e BPVN whom were airdropped into combat during the Siege of Dien Bien Phu. Most were killed afterwards upon capture by the Viet Minh, who regarded them as traitors, rather than bargained as the French had been, they were reformed into the Republic of Vietnam Military Forces and restructured upon the expulsion of the French by Ngo Dinh Diem following the Geneva Accords.
Vietnamese Airborne Division was among the elite fighting forces in the ARVN and placed as a reserve unit along with the Republic of Vietnam Marine Division. Headquarters of the Airborne Division was outside of Saigon; the Airborne Division would mobilize anywhere within the four corps at a moments notice. The main use of the Airborne was to engage and destroy People's Army of Vietnam and Viet Cong forces, not hold a specific region like the infantry units; the Airborne played a decisive role in the Battle of Huế, as the first relief force that arrived, assaulting the strongest points at the outer line and Hue Citadel while enduring and inflicting the most casualties. The Airborne played a significant role in the Cambodian Campaign, with battalions participating in most of the individual operations and finding significant caches of supplies, alongside being the sole force dropped behind enemy lines to cut-off a potential retreat; the Airborne Division participated in Lam Son 719, having had less than a week to implement battle-plans and rushing their operations, many were ordered into static positions at many isolated fire-bases.
An NVA armoured counter-attack had inflicted grievous losses on many battalions. Much of the Airborne was decimated during the Hue–Da Nang Campaign by a series of well-coordinated armoured attacks flanking from the Central Highlands towards the coast. Units of Airborne and others held out during the Battle of Xuân Lộc Đỗ Cao Trí Nguyễn Văn Vỹ Cao Văn Viên Nguyễn Khánh Dư Quốc Đống Nguyễn Chánh Thi Nguyễn Khoa Nam Đoàn Văn Quảng Lê Quang Lưỡng Like all major ARVN units the Airborne were assigned a U. S. military advisory element the Airborne Brigade Advisory Detachment and redesignated the 162nd Airborne Advisory Detachment or U. S. Airborne Advisory Team 162. About 1,000 American airborne-qualified advisors served with the Brigade and Division, receiving on average two awards for valour per tour. U. S. officers were paired with their Vietnamese counterparts, from the Brigade/Division commander down to company commanders, as well with principal staff officers at all levels. U. S. NCOs assisted the company advisors.
Colonial units1st Indochinese Parachute Company 3rd Indochinese Parachute Company 5th Indochinese Parachute Company 7th Indochinese Parachute Company 1st Airborne Guard Company 3rd Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 5th Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 6th Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 7th Vietnamese Parachute Battalion 3rd Vietnamese Parachute Engineers Company Airborne Group unitsHeadquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Airborne Battalion 3rd Airborne Battalion 5th Airborne Battalion 6th Airborne Battalion Airborne Combat Support Battalion Airborne Brigade unitsHeadquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Task Force HQ 1st Airborne Battalion 6th Airborne Battalion 7th Airborne Battalion 2nd Task Force HQ 3rd Airborne Battalion 5th Airborne Battalion 8th Airborne Battalion Airborne Combat Support Battalion Airborne Division unitsHeadquarters Battalion U. S. Airborne Advisory Team 162 1st Task Force/Brigade HHC 1st Airborne Battalion 8th Airborne Battalion 9th Airborne
1975 Spring Offensive
The 1975 Spring Offensive or known as The General Offensive and Uprising of the Spring 1975 was the final North Vietnamese campaign in the Vietnam War that led to the capitulation of South Vietnam. After the initial success capturing Phước Long Province, the North Vietnamese leadership increased the scope of the People's Army of Vietnam's offensive and captured and held the key Central Highlands city of Buôn Ma Thuột between March 10 and 18; these operations were intended to be preparatory to launching a general offensive in 1976. Following the attack on Buôn Ma Thuôt, the South Vietnamese realized they were no longer able to defend the entire country and ordered a strategic withdrawal from the Central Highlands; the retreat from the Central Highlands, was a debacle as, under fire, civilian refugees fled with soldiers along a single highway reaching from the highlands to the coast. This situation was exacerbated by confusing orders, lack of command and control, a well-led and aggressive enemy, which led to the utter rout and destruction of the bulk of South Vietnamese forces in the Central Highlands.
A similar collapse occurred in the northern provinces. Surprised by the rapidity of the South Vietnamese collapse, North Vietnam transferred the bulk of its northern forces more than 350 miles to the south in order to capture the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon in time to celebrate their late President Ho Chi Minh's birthday and end the war. South Vietnamese forces regrouped around the capital and defended the key transportation hubs at Phan Rang and Xuân Lộc, but a loss of political and military will to continue the fight became more manifest. Under political pressure, South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu resigned on 21 April, in hopes that a new leader, more amenable to the North Vietnamese could reopen negotiations with them, it was, too late. Southwest of Saigon IV Corps, remained stable with its forces aggressively preventing VC units from taking over any provincial capitals. With PAVN spearheads entering Saigon, the South Vietnamese government under the leadership of Dương Văn Minh, capitulated on 30 April 1975.
Both ARVN generals in the Mekong Delta, Le Van Hung and Nguyen Khoa Nam, committed suicide after the surrender. The signing of the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973 did not end the fighting in South Vietnam since both sides violated the cease-fire and attempted to gain control of as much territory as possible. Occupation meant population control in any future negotiations or reunification effort; the fighting that erupted was not small in scale. The three-phase North Vietnamese "Land-grabbing-and population nibbling" campaign, for example, included four division-sized attacks to seize strategically advantageous positions; the International Commission of Control and Supervision, established by a protocol of the Paris agreement, had been assigned the task of monitoring the implementation of the cease-fire. The principles of consultation and unanimity among the members, doomed any effort to control the situation or to stop cease-fire violations, the ICCS ceased to function in any meaningful way within a few months of its establishment.
At the end of 1973, there was serious debate among the Hanoi leadership over future military policy as the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam convened to assess the progress of its efforts in the south. General Văn Tiến Dũng, PAVN chief of staff, Defence Minister Võ Nguyên Giáp urged the resumption of conventional military operations, warning that increasing passivity would affect the morale of the army. Premier Phạm Văn Đồng, feared resuming operations would drain vital resources needed for reconstruction in the north; the final result of this debate was Resolution 21, which called for "strategic raids" on South Vietnamese forces in order to regain territory lost to the ARVN since the conclusion of the Peace Accords and to test the reaction of both the South Vietnamese military and the American government. The first blows of the new policy were delivered between March and November 1974, when the communists attacked ARVN forces in Quảng Đức Province and at Biên Hòa. Hanoi's leaders watched and anxiously as strikes by American B-52 Stratofortress bombers failed to materialize.
During these operations, however, PAVN retook the military initiative, gaining experience in combined arms operations, depleting ARVN forces, causing them to expend large quantities of ammunition, gaining avenues of approach and jump-off points for any new offensive. South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu had made his position on the cease-fire agreement quite public by proclaiming the "Four Nos": no negotiations with the communists. Thiệu still believed the promise made by President Richard Nixon to reintroduce American air power to the conflict if any serious violations of the agreement took place, it was assumed that U. S. financial and military aid would continue to be forthcoming at previous levels. On 1 July 1973, the U. S. Congress passed the Case–Church Amendment, legislation that all but prohibited any direct or indirect U. S. combat activities over or in Laos and both Vietnams. On 7 November the legislative branch overrode Nixon's veto of the War Powers Act. During 1972–1973, South Vietnam had received $2.2 billion in U.
S. assistance. In 1973–1974, that figure was slashed to $965 million, a more than 50 perce
Central Highlands, Vietnam
Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam. It contains the provinces of Đắk Nông, Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Lâm Đồng; this region is sometimes referred to as Cao nguyên Trung bộ, was referred to during the Republic of Vietnam as Cao nguyên Trung phần. The native inhabitants of the Central Highlands are the Degar peoples. Ethnic Vietnamese people arrived in the area during their "march to the south"; the Vietnamese now outnumber the indigenous Degars after state sponsored settlement directed by both the government of the Republic of Vietnam and the current Communist government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The Montagnards have fought against and resisted all Vietnamese settlers, from the anti-Communist South Vietnamese government, the Viet Cong, to the Communist government of unified Vietnam; the Champa state and Chams in the lowlands were traditional suzerains whom the Montagnards in the highlands acknowledged as their lords, while autonomy was held by the Montagnards.
After 1945, concept of "Nam tiến" and the southward expansion was celebrated by Vietnamese scholars. The Pays Montagnard du Sud-Indochinois was the name of the Central Highlands from 1946 under French Indochina. Up until French rule, the Central Highlands was never entered by the Vietnamese since they viewed it as a savage populated area with fierce animals like tigers, "poisoned water" and "evil malevolent spirits." The Vietnamese expressed interest in the land after the French transformed it into a profitable plantation area to grow crops on, in addition to the natural resources from the forests and rich earth and realization of its crucial geographical importance. An insurgency was waged by Montagnards in FULRO against South Vietnam and unified Communist Vietnam. A settlement program of ethnic Kinh Vietnamese by the governments of the Republic of Vietnam and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was implemented and now a Kinh majority predominates in the highland areas. After mass demonstrations and protests during 2001 and 2004 by ethnic hill tribe minorities against the communist government, foreigners were banned from the Central Highlands for a period of time.
Tây Nguyên is a plateau bordering the lower part of northeastern Cambodia. Kon Tum Province shares a border with both Laos and Cambodia but Gia Lai Province and Đắk Lắk Province only share borders with Cambodia. Lâm Đồng Province is landlocked, thus has no international border. Tây Nguyên is not situated on a unique plateau, instead it lies on series of contiguous plateaus, namely Kon Tum Plateau at the height of 500 m, Kon Plông Plateau, Kon Hà Nừng Plateau, Pleiku Plateau with the height of around 800m, Mdrak Plateau of 500 m, Đắk Lắk Plateau of around 800m, Mơ Nông Plateau with the height of about 800–1000 m, Lâm Viên Plateau of 1500 m and Di Linh Plateau of about 900–1000 m. All of these plateau mounts. Tây Nguyên can be divided into 3 subregions according to its deviation in topography and climate, namely: North Tây Nguyên, Middle Tây Nguyên, South Tây Nguyên. Trung Tây Nguyên has lower altitude and therefore has a higher temperature from other two subregions. Below is a list of recognized ethnic groups in Vietnam that are indigenous to the Central Highlands and nearby areas.
They speak Austroasiatic languages of the Bahnaric, as well as Chamic languages. Population statistics are from the 2009 Vietnam Population Census. Katuic speakers Bru: Quảng Trị Province Cơ Tu: Quảng Nam Province Tà Ôi: Thừa Thiên-Huế Province and Quảng Trị Province Bahnaric speakers West Bahnaric Brâu: Kon Tum Province East Bahnaric Co: Quảng Ngãi Province North Bahnaric Xơ Đăng: Kon Tum Province and Quảng Nam Province Hrê: Quảng Ngãi Province Rơ Măm: Kon Tum Province Central Bahnaric Ba Na: Gia Lai Province and Kon Tum Province Giẻ Triêng: Kon Tum Province and Quảng Nam Province South Bahnaric Chơ Ro: Đồng Nai Province Cờ Ho: Lâm Đồng Province Mạ: Lâm Đồng Province X’Tiêng: Bình Phước Province Mnông: Đắk Lắk Province and Đắk Nông Province Chamic speakers Chăm: Ninh Thuận Province and Bình Thuận Province Chu Ru: Lâm Đồng Province Ê Đê: Đắk Lắk Province Gia Rai: Gia Lai Province Ra Glai: Ninh Thuận Province and Khánh Hòa ProvinceListed by province, from north to south as well as west to east: Quảng Trị Province: Bru, Tà Ôi Thừa Thiên-Huế Province: Tà Ôi Quảng Nam Province: Cơ Tu, Xơ Đăng, Giẻ Triêng Quảng Ngãi Province: Hrê, Co Kon Tum Province: Giẻ Triêng, Ba Na, Xơ Đăng, Rơ Măm, Brâu Gia Lai Province: Gia Rai, Ba Na Đắk Lắk Province: Ê Đê, Mnông Khánh Hòa Province: Ra Glai Đắk Nông Province: Mnông Lâm Đồng Province: Chu Ru, Mạ (Sou
Nguyễn Văn Toàn (general)
Nguyễn Văn Toàn was born in Huế and served as a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Toan became an armor officer. Lieutenant General, III Corps Commander. Armor Commander. II Corps Commander. Major General, Armor Commander. Brigadier General, 2nd Infantry Division Commander. Colonel, 1st Infantry Division Deputy Commander. Lieutenant Colonel, 5th Armor Squadron. Major, Superintendent of Armor School. Captain, Armor Battalion Deputy Commander - Commander. Lieutenant, Armor Company X. O. First Lieutenant, Armor Platoon Leader. Cadet, 3-5 Class of Dalat Military Academy. Lieutenant Colonel Toan was relieved of command of the 5th Armored Squadron when his retreating armored elements killed over two dozen South Vietnamese Rangers, he returned to political favor when the officer that relieved him, General Nguyen Chanh Thi, was exiled for his unpopular political views. From 1968 to 1972, Toan served as a brigadier general commanding of the 2nd Infantry Division until being promoted to lieutenant general and becoming assistant operations officer and armor commander in the I Corps Tactical Zone.
During the initial phases of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive in March 1972, Toan performed well in the defense of Dong Ha, but he fell under the same cloud as his commander, Lieutenant General Hoang Xuan Lam, when the ARVN defense in I Corps collapsed. It was at this point that Toan's political connections again became paramount when he was moved south to take command of II Corps after the physical and emotional collapse of General Ngo Dzu, he took command at a point when the Central Highlands had become the second front of the communist offensive. Fortuitously for Toan, his senior U. S. advisor, John Paul Vann was fighting the battle for him. When the conflict settled down to a struggle for the city of Kontum, Toan intelligently attended to administrative matters and left operational control in the hands of Vann and Ly Tong Ba, commander of the 23rd Division. Toan remained in the command of II Corps until 1974, when he was relieved of command by President Nguyen Van Thieu during an anti-corruption campaign.
During the North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh Campaign of 1975, Toan was given command of III Corps. It was as commander of the Saigon redoubt during the final battles of the war that Toan faced his greatest challenge. Despite the courage of the 18th Division troops to prevent the Communist forces from entering to the capital, the troops were swamped by vastly larger forces. Recognizing the situation could not be reversed, Toan escaped from South Vietnam after deceiving Generals Le Minh Dao and Tran Quang Khoi that he would fly to the General Command Headquarters in Saigon to request for more troops. Toan is believed to have carried out the order of President Thieu to assassinate his Deputy Corps Commander General Nguyen Van Hieu on April 8, 1975. Andrade, Dale. Trial by Fire: The 1972 Easter Offensive, America's Last Vietnam Battle. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1993. Vien, General Cao Van, The Final Collapse. Washington DC: United States Army Center of Military History, 1983. Lieutenant General Nguyễn Văn Toàn's military resume
3d Armored Cavalry Squadron (South Vietnam)
The 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron a battalion-sized unit of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the South Vietnamese army. It was part of II Corps; the 3d Armored Cav was organized on January 1, 1954. In 1971, the Presidential Unit Citation of the United States was awarded to the 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron and attached U. S. Advisor/Liaison Personnel for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy during the period January 1, 1968, to September 30, 1968, in Pleiku and Binh Dinh Provinces; this makes the squadron one of only a few non-U. S. military units to receive the highest U. S. military honor awarded at the unit level. DA General Order No. 24, 27 April 1971 THE PRESIDENTIAL UNIT CITATION FOR EXTRAORDINARY HEROISM TO THE 3D ARMORDED CAVALRY SQUADRON ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM CONSISTING OF SQUADRON HEADQUARTERS AND SERVICE TROOP AND 1ST, 3D AND 4TH TROOPS AND U. S. ADVISOR/LIAISON PERSONNEL The 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron distinguished itself by extraordinary heroism in military operations against hostile ground forces during the period 1 January 1968 to 30 September 1968.
The Squadron engaged a Viet Cong battalion near the city of Pleiku during the Tet Offensive. Utilizing an imposing array of weapons, the enemy fought tenaciously in an attempt to occupy the city of Pleiku; the Squadron, by steadfast resolve and against countless odds, annihilated the enemy force. This lifted the siege of the city of Pleiku, the 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron was able to resume its normal mission of securing the U. S. 4th Division logistical lifeline between Pleiku and Kontum. The enemy committed large forces in an effort to close a single existing supply route; the 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron engaged a most determined enemy to relieve the pressure of being isolated. In each encounter, the South Vietnamese cavalrymen exhibited brilliant tactics under harrowing circumstances and inflicted prohibitive casualties on a numerically superior force. Elements of the Squadron spearheaded direct strikes against the 18th North Vietnamese Army regiment in other major engagements in Binh Dinh Province and the city of Phu My.
The resulting enemy casualties together with the destruction of residual weapon supplies forced the North Vietnamese to flee the field of battle. Through their unyielding tenacity, imaginative tactics, fierce determination the officers and men of the 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron achieved victory against insurmountable odds, their demonstrated professionalism and extraordinary heroism under hazardous and adverse conditions reflect the utmost credit on them and the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. February 1, 1968 The ARVN 3rd Cavalry Squadron fought a pitched battle with the Liberation Front's H-15 Local Force Battalion in or near Pleiku. August 1968 Elements of the 3rd ARVN Cavalry, along with a reaction platoon from the 2/1st Cav, OPCONed to the 4th Inf, foiled an attempted NVA ambush, killing 31 enemy; the following day the soldiers found 10 more bodies bringing the toll to 41 enemy killed. In the third day of enemy harassment of convoys along Highway 14 in Kontum Province, an estimated force of two NVA companies attacked a 4th Div convoy 14 miles south of Kontum with mortar, recoilless rifle, small arms, rocket and machinegun fire.
Armored cars from the 4th MP Company returned the fire. At the outbreak of the attack and armored cavalry assault vehicles of the 3rd ARVN Cavalry and the 2/1st Cav, deployed along the highway in anticipation of possible contact, began to pour heavy fire into the enemy positions. Under the onslaught of allied armor the enemy broke contact. Non-U. S. Recipients of U. S. gallantry awards 1968 in the Vietnam War M113 armored personnel carrier Simon Dunstan,'Vietnam Tracks: Armor into Battle 1945-75,' Osprey Publishing Ltd, London, 1982 Video taken of 3d Armored Cavalry Squadron in 1969—https://archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.32456
The Easter Offensive known as The 1972 Spring - Summer Offensive by North Vietnam, or Red fiery summer as romanticized in South Vietnamese literature, was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War. This conventional invasion was a radical departure from previous North Vietnamese offensives; the offensive was not designed to win the war outright but to gain as much territory and destroy as many units of the ARVN as possible, to improve the North's negotiating position as the Paris Peace Accords drew towards a conclusion. The U. S. high command had been expecting an attack in 1972 but the size and ferocity of the assault caught the defenders off balance, because the attackers struck on three fronts with the bulk of the North Vietnamese army. This first attempt by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam to invade the south since the Tet Offensive of 1968, became characterized by conventional infantry–armor assaults backed by heavy artillery, with both sides fielding the latest in technological advances in weapons systems.
In the I Corps Tactical Zone, North Vietnamese forces overran South Vietnamese defensive positions in a month-long battle and captured Quảng Trị city, before moving south in an attempt to seize Huế. PAVN eliminated frontier defense forces in the II Corps Tactical Zone and advanced to seize the provincial capital of Kon Tum, which would have opened the way to the sea, splitting South Vietnam in two. North-east of Saigon, in the III Corps Tactical Zone, PAVN forces overran Lộc Ninh and advanced to assault the capital of Bình Long Province at An Lộc; the campaign can be divided into three phases: April was a month of PAVN advances. On all three fronts, initial North Vietnamese successes were hampered by high casualties, inept tactics and the increasing application of U. S. and South Vietnamese air power. One result of the offensive was the launching of Operation Linebacker, the first sustained bombing of North Vietnam by the U. S. since November 1968. Although South Vietnamese forces withstood their greatest trial thus far in the conflict, the North Vietnamese accomplished two important goals: they had gained valuable territory within South Vietnam from which to launch future offensives and they had obtained a better bargaining position at the peace negotiations being conducted in Paris.
In the wake of the failed South Vietnamese Operation Lam Son 719, the Hanoi leadership began discussing a possible offensive during the 19th Plenum of the Central Committee of the Vietnam Workers' Party in early 1971. By December, the Politburo had decided to launch a major offensive early in the following year. 1972 would be a U. S. presidential election year, the possibility of affecting the outcome was enticing and there was increasing anti-war sentiment among the population and government of the U. S. With American troop withdrawals, South Vietnamese forces were stretched to breaking point along a border of more than 600 miles and the poor performance of ARVN troops in the offensive into Laos promised an easy victory; this decision marked the end of three years of political infighting between two factions within the Politburo: those members grouped around Trường Chinh, who favored following the Chinese model of continued low-intensity guerrilla warfare and rebuilding the north and the "southern firsters" around Defense Minister Võ Nguyên Giáp, supported by First Party Secretary Lê Duẩn.
The failure of the Tet Offensive of 1968, had led to a downgrading of Giap's influence but the victory achieved over South Vietnamese forces during the Laotian incursion, brought Giap's strategy back into the ascendant. Lê Duẩn was given responsibility for planning the operation but Giap never rose to his former prominence, dealing chiefly with logistical matters and the approval of operational planning; the officer entrusted with the conduct of the offensive was the PAVN chief of staff, General Văn Tiến Dũng. The central questions became where and with what forces the offensive would be launched and what its goals were to be. North Vietnam had used the border regions of Laos and Cambodia as supply and manpower conduits for a decade and a demilitarized zone that separated the two Vietnams. There, the line of communication would be shortest and forces could be concentrated where "the enemy is weakest...violent attacks will disintegrate enemy forces...making it impossible for him to have enough troops to deploy elsewhere."
This was an important consideration, since the northern thrust would serve to divert South Vietnamese attention and resources, while two other attacks were to be launched: one into the central highlands, to cut the country in two and another eastwards from Cambodia to threaten Saigon. The offensive was given a title steeped in Vietnamese history. In 1773, the three Tây Sơn brothers united a Vietnam divided by social unrest; the youngest brother, Nguyễn Huệ defeated an invading Chinese army on the outskirts of Hanoi in 1788. The campaign employed the equivalent of 14 divisions but decisive victory was not part of the North Vietnamese strategy; the goals were much more limited. There was the distinct possibili
Corps is a term used for several different kinds of organisation. Within military terminology a corps may be: an operational formation, sometimes known as a field corps, which consists of two or more divisions, such as the Corps d'armée known as I Corps of Napoleon's Grande Armée); these usages overlap. Corps may be a generic term for a non-military organization, such as the U. S. Peace Corps. In many armies, a corps is a battlefield formation composed of two or more divisions, commanded by a lieutenant general. During World War I and World War II, due to the large scale of combat, multiple corps were combined into armies which formed into army groups. In Western armies with numbered corps, the number is indicated in Roman numerals; the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was raised in 1914, consisting of Australian and New Zealand troops, who went on to fight at Gallipoli in 1915. In early 1916, the original corps was reorganised and two corps were raised: I ANZAC Corps and II ANZAC Corps. In the stages of World War I, the five infantry divisions of the First Australian Imperial Force —consisting of personnel who had volunteered for service overseas—were united as the Australian Corps, on the Western Front, under Lieutenant General Sir John Monash.
During World War II, the Australian I Corps was formed to co-ordinate three Second Australian Imperial Force units: the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions, as well as other Allied units on some occasions, in the North African campaign and Greek campaign. Following the commencement of the Pacific War, there was a phased withdrawal of I Corps to Australia, the transfer of its headquarters to the Brisbane area, to control Allied army units in Queensland and northern New South Wales. II Corps was formed, with Militia units, to defend south-eastern Australia, III Corps controlled land forces in Western Australia. Sub-corps formations controlled Allied land forces in the remainder of Australia. I Corps headquarters was assigned control of the New Guinea campaign. In early 1945, when I Corps was assigned the task of re-taking Borneo, II Corps took over in New Guinea. Canada first fielded a corps-sized formation in the First World War; the Canadian Corps consisted of four Canadian divisions. After the Armistice, the peacetime Canadian militia was nominally organized into corps and divisions but no full-time formations larger than a battalion were trained or exercised.
Early in the Second World War, Canada's contribution to the British-French forces fighting the Germans was limited to a single division. After the fall of France in June 1940, a second division moved to England, coming under command of a Canadian corps headquarters; this corps was renamed I Canadian Corps as a second corps headquarters was established in the UK, with the eventual formation of five Canadian divisions in England. I Canadian Corps fought in Italy, II Canadian Corps in NW Europe, the two were reunited in early 1945. After the formations were disbanded after VE Day, Canada has never subsequently organized a Corps headquarters. Royal Canadian Army Cadets: A Corps size in the RCAC is different everywhere, depending on the size, the Commanding Officer can be a Captain or Major; the National Revolutionary Army Corps was a type of military organization used by the Chinese Republic, exercised command over two to three NRA Divisions and a number of Independent Brigades or Regiments and supporting units.
The Chinese Republic had 133 Corps during the Second Sino-Japanese War. After losses in the early part of the war, under the 1938 reforms, the remaining scarce artillery and the other support formations were withdrawn from the Division and was held at Corps, or Army level or higher; the Corps became the basic tactical unit of the NRA having strength nearly equivalent to an allied Division. The French Army under Napoleon used corps-sized formations as the first formal combined-arms groupings of divisions with reasonably stable manning and equipment establishments. Napoleon first used the Corps d'armée in 1805; the use of the Corps d'armée was a military innovation that provided Napoleon with a significant battlefield advantage in the early phases of the Napoleonic Wars. The Corps was designed to be an independent military group containing cavalry and infantry, capable of defending against a numerically superior foe; this allowed Napoleon to mass the bulk of his forces to effect a penetration into a weak section of enemy lines without risking his own communications or flank.
This innovation stimulated other European powers to adopt similar military structures. The Corps has remained an echelon of French Army organization to the modern day; as fixed military formation in peace-time it was used in all European armies after Battle of Ulm in 1805. In Prussia it was introduced by Order of His Majesty from November 5, 1816, in order to strengthen the readiness to war; the paramilitary forces of Pakistan's two main western provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan are the Frontier Corps founded in 1907 during British Rule as at least three various organizations before being combined together. They are charged with guarding the country's wes