II Corps (Union Army)

There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps during the American Civil War. These formations were the Army of the Cumberland II Corps commanded by Thomas L. Crittenden from October 24, 1862, to November 5, 1862 renumbered XXI Corps. Banks from June 26, 1862, to September 4, 1862, Alpheus S. Williams from September 4, 1862, to September 12, 1862, renumbered XII Corps. Of these five, the one most known was the Army of the Potomac formation, the subject of this article; the II Corps was prominent by reason of its longer and continuous service, larger organization, hardest fighting, greatest number of casualties. Within its ranks was the regiment that sustained the largest percentage of loss in any one action. Of the one hundred regiments in the Union Army that lost the most men in battle, thirty-five of them belonged to the II Corps; the II Corps fought in nearly every battle in the main Eastern Theater, from the 1862 Peninsula Campaign to the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House.

The corps was organized under General Orders No. 101, March 21, 1862, which assigned Brigadier General Edwin Vose Sumner to its command, Brigadier Generals Israel B. Richardson, John Sedgwick, Louis Blenker to the command of its divisions. Within three weeks of its organization the corps moved with George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac on the Peninsula Campaign, except for Blenker's division, withdrawn on March 31 from McClellan's command, ordered to reinforce John C. Frémont's army in western Virginia. Blenker's division never rejoined the corps; the remaining two divisions numbered 21,500 men. The first general engagement of the corps occurred at the Battle of Seven Pines, where Sumner's prompt and soldierly action brought the corps on the field in time to retrieve a serious disaster, change a rout into a victory. In a fierce engagement with Confederate general Gustavus W. Smith's division, Brig. Gen Oliver Howard was shot in the arm and had to have it amputated, causing him to miss all of the summer campaigning of the army.

The casualties of the two divisions in that battle amounted to 196 killed, 899 wounded, 90 missing. In the Seven Days Battles, the II Corps was not engaged until Savage's Station when it held off Confederate general John B. Magruder's troops; the following day, the corps was engaged at Glendale, where John Sedgwick's division was in the thick of the fighting. Israel Richardson's division spent the battle to the north engaged in a standoff with "Stonewall" Jackson's troops on opposite sides of White Oak Swamp; the corps was held in reserve at Malvern Hill. Total II Corps casualties in the Seven Days were 201 killed, 1,195 wounded, 1,024 missing. Afterwards, Sumner and Richardson all received promotions to major general as part of a blanket promotion of each corps and division commander in the Army of the Potomac; the II Corps spent the Northern Virginia Campaign in Washington D. C. and did not participate in it except at the end when it moved out to cover the retreat of Maj. Gen John Pope's army.

The corps marched on the Maryland Campaign, during which time it received a new division of nine month troops headed by Brig. Gen William H. French. At the Battle of Antietam the corps was engaged, its casualties amounting to more than twice that of any other corps on the field. Out of 15,000 effectives, it lost 883 killed, 3,859 wounded, 396 missing. Nearly one-half of these casualties occurred in Sedgwick's 2nd Division, in its bloody and ill-planned advance on the Dunker church, an affair, under Sumner's personal direction; the Irish Brigade, of Richardson's 1st Division sustained a terrible loss in its fight at the "Bloody Lane", but, at the same time, inflicted a greater one on the enemy. This allowed Colonel Francis C. Barlow to lead the 61st and 64th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiments to break through the Confederate line. Sedgwick and Richardson were both wounded in the battle. Oliver Howard succeeded to command of Sedgwick's division, Richardson's division was taken over by Brig. Gen Winfield Hancock, brought over from the VI Corps as the ranking brigadier general in the division, John C.

Caldwell, was too junior for the position. The next engagement was at the Battle of Fredericksburg. In the meantime Sumner had been promoted to the command of a Grand Division—II and IX Corps—and General Darius N. Couch, a division commander of the IV Corps, was appointed to his place; the loss of the corps at Fredericksburg exceeded that of any other in that battle, amounting to 412 killed, 3,214 wounded, 488 missing, one-half of which fell on Hancock's Division in the unsuccessful assault on Marye's Heights. The percentage of loss in Hancock's division was high. After Fredericksburg, the Grand Divisions were di

1937 Wimbledon Championships

The 1937 Wimbledon Championships took place on the outdoor grass courts at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in Wimbledon, United Kingdom. The tournament was held from Monday 21 June until Saturday 3 July 1937, it was the 57th staging of the Wimbledon Championships, the third Grand Slam tennis event of 1937. Don Budge and Dorothy Round won the singles title; this edition marked the first time that the Wimbledon Championships were televised by the BBC. Only matches taking place on Centre Court were transmitted by the BBC for half an hour each day. Two cameras were used, one for a close up view of the match and one for a general view, the match between Bunny Austin and George Lyttleton-Rogers was the first one to be broadcast. Don Budge defeated Gottfried von Cramm, 6–3, 6–4, 6–2 Dorothy Round defeated Jadwiga Jędrzejowska, 6–2, 2–6, 7–5 Don Budge / Gene Mako defeated Pat Hughes / Raymond Tuckey, 6–0, 6–4, 6–8, 6-1 Simonne Mathieu / Billie Yorke defeated Phyllis King / Elsie Pittman, 6–3, 6–3 Don Budge / Alice Marble defeated Yvon Petra / Simonne Mathieu, 6–4, 6–1 Official Wimbledon Championships website British Pathé filmreel on 1937 Wimbledon finals

Harry A. Franck

Harry Alverson Franck, better known as Harry A. Franck was an American travel writer during the first half of the 20th century. Harry Alverson Franck was born on June 29, 1881 in Munger, the eldest of three children of the blacksmith Charles Adolph Franck and Lillie Evelyn Wilsey, herself the daughter of a local blacksmith, Peter Alverson Wilsey, his wife Almira Lincoln Graham. Harry's father Charles was born in Schwerin, Germany, but at less than a year old came to the United States with his elder sister and his parents, Heinrich Franck and Wilhelmina Christina Magdalena Kort, who remained in contact with family in Schwerin. In the summer of 1900, following his freshman year at the University of Michigan, Harry Franck set out with only $3.18 in his pocket to see Europe. He worked his way across the Atlantic on a cattle boat, visited England and France, got back to Ann Arbor two weeks after classes had started. While an undergraduate, he bet a fellow student that he could travel around the world without money, after a year of teaching, proceeded to do so.

He spent sixteen months circling the globe, working to earn money along the way and performing feats such as walking across the Malay peninsula. His book, A Vagabond Journey Around the World sold well enough to encourage him to continue his travels, following five years teaching in two private schools and in the Springfield, Massachusetts Technical High School. Franck had many adventures, not all of them pleasant, but all described in his plain, somewhat sardonic style, the antithesis of the romantic prose of other popular travel writers, such as Richard Halliburton. All his books except Winter Journey Through the Ninth, are out of print, but some are now in the public domain and available online, all are available secondhand, his books intimately recorded life as it was lived in the societies he visited, at a time when many of them were changing under the influence of industrialization. As historical sources they are of value for their pen-portraits of figures such as the "Irish Buddhist" U Dhammaloka.

Young readers may find it hard to believe that the societies were true descriptions of situations of less than a century ago, but they ring true in the context of other autobiographical writings and the fiction of those days and of many decades after. His observations and much of his wording mirror the racist attitudes of his time, but it is appropriate to note from incidents retailed in works such as Zone Policeman 88, chapters II, VIII, X and elsewhere, that Franck's personal attitudes towards everyone were undiscriminatingly humane and courteous, if informal, his tone becomes subtly acrid in retailing examples of explicit racism or other forms of inter-group insensitivity. His unconscious remarks and use of words that nowadays are unacceptable in civilised speech are of interest in revealing the differences between the conventions of the day and those of say, the late 20th century. In Wandering in Northern China, he visited Korea, a Japanese colony since 1910; the first thing he noted was that Korea was devoid of trees.

The aristocracy had been stripped of their duties but were allowed to wear the unique attire of their rank, although many were living in poverty. Franck reported that the women "displayed to the public gaze that portion of the torso which the women of most nations take pains to conceal."In the same book he reported on a visit to the northern Chinese city of Harbin, which at the time of writing contained a large population of refugee Russian aristocracy. He reported that the refugees held formal gatherings every Saturday night, complete with formal dress, although most of them were destitute. A former Russian aristocrat approached the director of the YMCA whom Franck was visiting to ask for some food; the Russian apologized but said he was unable to comply—manual labor was declasse—and departed, unfed. In Zone Policeman 88, Franck worked as a police officer in the Panama Canal Zone and assisting in the census of its citizens. In Vagabonding Down the Andes, he tells of his trip walking the spine of the Andes, traveling with a camera and a revolver, but without a blanket.

He paid for his return trip by selling Edison phonographs. In Vagabonding Through Changing Germany he reported the turmoil in the aftermath of World War I, he traveled through the Soviet Union in 1935, not without difficulty, recorded his impressions in A Vagabond in Sovietland. In 1938 Franck was 57 and began to travel by air, still a novelty at that time, he wrote Sky Roaming Above Two Continents in 1938 and The Lure of Alaska in 1939. When he was 61 years old, Franck obtained a commission as a Major in the Army Air Force and served with the Ninth Air Force in France in the closing days of World War II, where the fighting was still going on, he reported vividly on the devastated conditions in eastern France. A nearby fortress was still manned by a German garrison; the Germans fired the same number of rounds from their cannon every night at the same time. Winter Journey Through the Ninth was not accepted for publication at the