IMDb is an online database of information related to films, television programs, home videos, video games, streaming content online – including cast, production crew and personal biographies, plot summaries, trivia and critical reviews, ratings. An additional fan feature, message boards, was abandoned in February 2017. A fan-operated website, the database is owned and operated by, Inc. a subsidiary of Amazon. As of January 2020, IMDb has 6.5 million titles and 10.4 million personalities in its database, as well as 83 million registered users. IMDb began as a movie database on the Usenet group "rec.arts.movies" in 1990 and moved to the web in 1993. The movie and talent pages of IMDb are accessible to all internet users, but a registration process is necessary to contribute information to the site. Most data in the database is provided by volunteer contributors; the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Users with a proven track record of submitting factual data are given instant approval for additions or corrections to cast and other demographics of media product and personalities.

However, name, character name, plot summaries, title changes are screened before publication, take between 24 and 72 hours to appear. All registered users choose their own site name, most operate anonymously, they have a profile page which shows how long a registered user has been a member, as well as personal movie ratings and, since 2015, "badges" are added representing how many contributions a particular registered user has submitted. These badges range from total contributions made to independent categories such as photos, bios, etc. If a registered user or visitor is in the entertainment industry and has an IMDb page that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO. There is no single index of contributors, no index on each profile page of the items contributed, no identification of contributors to each product's or person's data pages. Users are invited to rate any film on a scale of 1 to 10, the totals are converted into a weighted mean-rating, displayed beside each title, with online filters employed to deter ballot-stuffing.

In January 2019, IMDb launched a free movie streaming platform called Freedive, an ad-supported service offering Hollywood movie titles and TV shows. Many Freedive titles are licensed from Sony Pictures. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting entitled "Those Eyes", by the British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham, about actresses with beautiful eyes. Others with similar interests soon responded with different lists of their own. Needham subsequently started an "Actors List", while Dave Knight began a "Directors List", Andy Krieg took over "THE LIST" from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the "Actress List". Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, but soon retired people were added, so Needham started what was a separate "Dead Actors/Actresses List". Steve Hammond started collecting and merging character names for both the actors and actresses lists; when these achieved popularity, they were merged back into the lists themselves. The goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible.

By late 1990, the lists included 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17, 1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts that could be used to search the four lists, thus the database that would become the IMDb was born. At the time, it was known as the "rec.arts.movies movie database". The database had been expanded to include additional categories of filmmakers and other demographic material as well as trivia and plot summaries; the movie ratings had been properly integrated with the list data, a centralized email interface for querying the database had been created by Alan Jay. In 1993, it moved onto the fledgling World Wide Web under the name of Cardiff Internet Movie Database; the database resided on the servers of the computer science department of Cardiff University in Wales. Rob Hartill was the original web interface author. In 1994, the email interface was revised to accept the submission of all information, which enabled people to email the specific list maintainer with their updates.

However, the structure remained so that information received on a single film was divided among multiple section managers, the sections being defined and determined by categories of film personnel and the individual filmographies contained therein. Over the next few years, the database was run on a network of mirrors across the world with donated bandwidth. In 1996 IMDb was incorporated in the United Kingdom, becoming the Internet Movie Database Ltd. founder Col Needham became the primary owner. General revenue for site operations was generated through advertising and partnerships. In 1998, Jeff Bezos, owner, CEO of, struck a deal with Needham and other principal shareholders to buy IMDb outright for $55 million and attach it to Amazon as a subsidiary, private company. This gave IMDb the ability to pay the shareholders salaries for their work, while would be able to use IMDb as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. IMDb continued to expand its functionality.

On January 15, 2002, it added a subscription service known as IMDbPro, aimed at entertainment professionals. IMDbPro was launched at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival, it provides a variety of services includi

Horst Bertl

Horst Bertl is a retired German football midfielder. In 1969, Bertl began his career with TuS Bremerhaven 93 before transferring to Bundesliga club Hannover 96 in 1970, he played two seasons with Hannover and moved to Borussia Dortmund where he spent two seasons. In 1974, Bertl signed with Hamburger SV, he played five seasons with Hamburg before moving to the United States and signing with the Houston Hurricane of the North American Soccer League in 1979. The Hurricane folded after the 1980 season and Bertl spent two seasons with the Memphis Americans of the Major Indoor Soccer League. In 1981, the Memphis Americans of MISL signed Bertl as head coach, he compiled a 39-53 record over two seasons as a player-coach. In 1984, Bertl became a coach with the Comets Soccer Club in Texas. In 2012, MLS's FC Dallas Youth acquired the Comets Soccer Club. In 1993, he coached the Dallas Rockets to the USISL playoffs. Bertl served as player agent for Eric Eichmann, Braeden Cloutier and Brian McBride. UEFA Cup Winners' Cup: 1976–77 Bundesliga: 1978–79 DFB-Pokal: 1975–76 Horst Bertl at NASL/MISL stats

Ex parte Vallandigham

Ex parte Vallandigham, 68 U. S. 243, is a United States Supreme Court case, involving a former congressman Clement Vallandigham of Ohio, who had violated an Army order against the public expression of sympathy for the Confederate States and their cause. Vallandigham was tried before a military tribunal by Major General Ambrose E. Burnside for treason after he delivered an incendiary speech at Mount Vernon. In February 1864, the Supreme Court avoided ruling on the question by instead unanimously holding that they could not take appeals from military tribunals at all. Clement Vallandigham, a member of the United States House of Representatives, was the acknowledged leader of the pro-Confederate faction known as Copperheads in Ohio. After General Burnside, commander of the Military District of Ohio, issued General Order Number 38, warning that the "habit of declaring sympathies for the enemy" would not be tolerated, Vallandigham gave a major speech charging the war was being fought not to save the Union but to free blacks and enslave whites.

To those who supported the war he declared, "Defeat, taxation sepulchres - these are your trophies." He called for "King Lincoln's" removal from the presidency. Accordingly, on May 5, Vallandingham was arrested as a violator of General Order No. 38. Vallandigham's enraged supporters burned the offices of the Dayton Journal, the local Republican newspaper, he was tried by a military court on 6–7 May, convicted of "uttering disloyal sentiments" and attempting to hinder the prosecution of the war, sentenced to two years' confinement in a military prison. A Federal circuit judge upheld Vallandigham's arrest and military trial as a valid exercise of the President's war powers. Despite repeated petitions, President Lincoln refused to repudiate Burnside's actions or release Vallandigham. In a letter written in response to one meeting of Albany Democrats, Lincoln explained his position: Must I shoot a simple-minded soldier boy who deserts, while I must not touch a hair of a wiley agitator who induces him to desert?

This is none the less injurious when effected by getting a father, or brother, or friend into a public meeting, there working upon his feelings till he is persuaded to write the soldier boy that he is fighting in a bad cause... However, in late May, Lincoln commuted Vallandigham's sentence to banishment to the Confederacy, from where he went to Canada. Meanwhile, Vallandigham's lawyers appealed the military tribunal's decision to the Supreme Court; the Court issued a unanimous ruling in February 1864, refusing to address Vallandigham's main argument that the military tribunal lacked jurisdiction to try him. Instead, they said the Court was only authorized to take appeals as regulated by Congress - and Congress had never authorized them to take an appeal from a military tribunal. Accordingly, they denied Vallandigham's appeal for lack of jurisdiction. After the war was over, the Court would again revisit this issue in Ex parte Milligan, a similar case where, instead of appealing his sentence by a military tribunal, Milligan would file for a writ of habeas corpus.

The court upheld Milligan and Vallandigham's claim that military tribunals lacked authority to try civilians when civil courts were open. Supreme Court cases of the American Civil War Ex parte Milligan Text of Ex parte Vallandigham, 68 U. S. 243 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Justia Library of Congress OpenJurist