INSEE code

The INSEE code is a numerical indexing code used by the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies to identify various entities, including communes and départements. They are used as national identification numbers given to people. Although today this national identification number is used by social security in France and is present on each person's social security card, it was created under Vichy France under the guise of the Registration Number to the National Directory of Identification of Physical People; the latter was to be used as a clandestine military recruitment tool, but at the end served to identify Jews and other "undesirable" populations under Vichy's conceptions. The first digit of the NIR was 1 for a male European, 2 for a female European, 3 for a male Muslim, 4 for a female Muslim, 5 for a male Jew, 6 for a female Jew, 7 for a male foreigner, 8 for a female foreigner, while 9 and 0 were reserved for persons of undetermined racial status; the Demographic Service was created in 1940 in order to replace the military recruitment office prohibited by the June 1940 Armistice with Nazi Germany.

On October 11, 1941, the Demographic Service absorbed the former General Statistics of France. The new organization was called the National Statistical Service; each French person receives at birth a national identification number, the "numéro d'inscription au répertoire" called a "numéro de sécurité sociale". This INSEE number is composed of 13 digits + a two-digit key. Although the total number is of 15 digits, its composition makes it easy for individuals to remember at least the first seven digits. Since this number is used in many administrative procedures, most people know by memory part of this identification number, their format is as follows: syymmlloookkk cc, where s is 1 for a male, 2 for a female, yy are the last two digits of the year of birth, mm is the month of birth 01 to 12, ll is the number of the départment of origin: 2 digits, or 1 digit and 1 letter in metropolitan France, 3 digits for overseas. Ooo is 2 digits for overseas. Kkk is an order number to distinguish people being born at the same place in the same year and month.

This number is the one given by the Acte de naissance, an official paper which officialize a birth.'cc' is the "control key", 01 to 97, equal to 97- or to 97 if the number is a multiple of 97. There are exceptions for people in particular situations; the "sex" codes can be given in special occasions for temporary registrations, such as for someone who a person who works as a wage-earner but is not registered for miscellaneous reasons. Under Vichy France, but only in Algeria this s code was used to register Jews, Algerian Muslims, foreigners, or ill-defined people. Thus, 8 or 9 was given of all colonies; the part llooo is used together, referred to as the COG, which identifies the person's location of birth. They are specific codes for people whose date or place of birth is unknown, although this is today more and more rare. For overseas departments, the department number has three digits, the communal number two digits. People born abroad have a departmental code of 99, the communal code is replaced by the code of the country of birth, which has three digits.

Before 1964, departmental codes from 91 to 96 were used for Algeria and Morocco. If in a specified month the total number of births exceeds 999, an extension common code is created; the last code is obtained by a mathematical method: this gives the control key code. The NIR was created by René Carmille, who died at the Dachau concentration camp in 1944) who conducte between April and August 1941, under the Vichy regime, the first general survey to prepare the secret mobilisation of a French army; the codification was done by General Marie in Algeria, to obtain a census of Jews and other categories. The aim was to create a file of the whole of the French population and to discriminate according to ethnic or statutory criteria, following the racial policies of Vichy. Thus, the first digit, now used to distinguish males and females had other purposes: 3 or 4 for Algerian non-Jewish indigenous people, 5 or 6 for indigenous Jews, 7 or 8 for foreigners, 9 or 0 for miscellaneous and ill-defined statutes.

This discriminatory categorization used in Algeria was abolished in 1944 and has never been used in Metropolitan France where, throughout the war, only "1" and "2" was used. The administration of the NIR was assigned in 1946 to the new Statistical Institute, the INSEE. Th

St. Mary's Cathedral, Tallinn

St. Mary's Cathedral, Tallinn is a cathedral church located on Toompea Hill in Tallinn, Estonia. Established by Danes in the 13th century, it is the oldest church in Tallinn and mainland Estonia, it is the only building in Toompea which survived a 17th-century fire. A Roman Catholic cathedral, it became Lutheran in 1561 and now belongs to the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Tallinn, the spiritual leader of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church, chairman of that church's governing synod. The first church was made of wood most already and built by 1219, when the Danes invaded Tallinn. In 1229, when the Dominican friars arrived, they started building a stone church replacing the old wooden one; the monks were killed in a conflict between the Knights of the Sword and vassals supporting the Pope’s legate in 1233 and the church was thus desecrated. A letter asking permission to consecrate it anew was sent to Rome in 1233 and this is the first record of the church’s existence.

The Dominicans couldn’t finish the building. They built only the base walls; the building was completed in 1240 and it was a one-aisled building with a rectangular chancel. In 1240, it was named cathedral and consecrated in honour of Virgin Mary. In the beginning of the 14th century, reconstruction of the church began; the church was made bigger. The reconstruction began with building a new chancel. At about the same time, the new vestry was built; the enlargement of the one-aisled building to a three-aisled building began in the 1330s. The construction work, lasted 100 years; the new longitudinal part of the church, 29 meters long, built by following the principles of basilica, was completed in the 1430s. The nave’s rectangular pillars had been completed in the second half of the 14th century, though; the church suffered considerable damage in the great fire of 1684 when the entire wooden furnishings were destroyed. Some vaults collapsed and many stone-carved details were damaged- in the chancel. In 1686, after the fire, the church was rebuilt to restore it to its previous state.

The new pulpit with figures of the apostles and the altarpiece were made by the Estonian sculptor and carver Christian Ackermann. The Dome Church’s exterior dates from the 15th century, the spire dates from the 18th century. Most of the church's furnishings go back to the 18th centuries. From 1778 to 1779, a new baroque spire was built in the western part of the nave. One should mention the numerous different kinds of tombstones from 13th –18th century, the stone-carved sarcophagi from the 17th century the altar and chancel, numerous coats-of arms from the 17th – 20th centuries. Two of the church's four bells date back to two date to the 18th century; the organ was made in 1914. Among the people buried in the cathedral are the Bohemian nobleman Jindřich Matyáš Thurn, one of leaders of the Protestant revolt against emperor Ferdinand II and in events that led to the Thirty Years' War. List of cathedrals in Estonia Toompea Tallinn

Ahmad al-Wansharisi

Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Wansharisi was an Algerian Berber Muslim theologian and jurist of the Maliki school around the time of the fall of Granada. He was one of the leading authorities on the issues of Iberian Muslims living under Christian rule, he was born in the Ouarsenis mountains in present-day Algeria, in a family belonging to one of the Berber tribes in these mountains. His family moved to Tlemcen. In Tlemcen, he studied and taught Islamic law, he moved to Fez, present-day Morocco. He became official mufti in Fez and became the leading living authority on the issues of Iberian Muslims living under Christian rule, after the Christian conquest of Islamic Al-Andalus, he died on the Tuesday, 20 June 1508. He was buried in the Kudyat al-Baraṭil cemetery, near the tomb of ibn Abbad, his most notable work is al-Miyar al-Murib, a multivolume collection of legal opinions in North Africa and Islamic Spain. By the sixteenth century it became part of the educational curriculum in North Africa, in modern times it is studied as a source of information on the religious and social practices of contemporary Islamic Spain and the Maghreb North Africa.

Another work, Al-Manhaj al-Faaiq wa al-Manhal al-Raaiq fi Ahkam al-Wathaaiq consists of 16 chapters about notarization of Islamic legal documents. It includes the requirements and desired characters of a notary public and requirements of an Islamic legal document, as well as notarial topics such as how to date a legal document. In total, at least 15 of al-Wansharisi's works are extant all in the topic of fiqh, he wrote Asna al-matajir fi bayan ahkam man ghalaba'ala watanihi al-nasara wa lam yuhajir wa ma yatarattabu'alayhi min al-'uqubat wa al-zawajir, an extensive fatwa arguing that it was compulsory for Muslims in Christian-conquered Spain to emigrate to Muslim lands. It was issued in 1491, shortly before the fall of Granada. At this point, most of Spain excepting Granada were had been conquered by the Christians, Muslims had lived in these territories under Christian rule. In addition to citing the Qur'an, hadith and previous consensus of jurists, he supported his case with a detailed demonstration of why the mudéjars were unable to properly fulfill a Muslim's ritual obligation.

This fatwa is one of the most preeminent pre-modern legal opinions on Muslims living under non-Muslim rule, although it was issued in the context of Muslims in Iberia and North Africa. In addition to The Most Noble Commerce, he wrote a shorter companion fatwa, sometimes called the "Marbella fatwa", responding to a question about a man from Marbella in Southern Spain who wished to stay in Christian Spain in order to assist those unable to migrate; these two fatwas were distributed as independent work, are included in his collection The Clear Standard. Al-Wansharisi's position, which emphasised the obligation to emigrate, was the predominant position of the Maliki school at the time; the Oran fatwa, issued in 1504 after the forced conversion in the Crown of Castile, was an exception to this majority opinion, arguing that it may be permissible for Spanish Muslims to stay and outwardly conform to Christianity, when forced and necessary for survival. Ahmad ibn Abi Jum'ah Islam in Spain Mudéjar Morisco Oran fatwa