Indian Order of Merit
The Indian Order of Merit was a military and civilian decoration of British India. It was established in 1837, although following the Partition of India in 1947 it was decided to discontinue the award and in 1954 a separate Indian honours system was developed, to act retrospectively to 1947. For a long period of time the IOM was the highest decoration that a native member of the British Indian Army could receive and it had three divisions; this was changed in 1911. A civilian division of the IOM existed between 1902 and 1939, however, it was only conferred rarely; the medal was first introduced by the East India Company in 1837, under the name "Order of Merit" and was taken over by the Crown in 1858, following the India's First War of Independence. The name of the medal was changed in 1902 to avoid confusion with a British Order of the same name; the Indian Order of Merit was the only gallantry medal available to Native soldiers between 1837 and 1907 when the Indian Distinguished Service Medal was introduced, when the Victoria Cross was opened to native soldiers in 1911.
Both divisions of the order were removed when India became independent in 1947. Recipients receive the post nominal letters IOM; the original object was to "afford personal reward for personal bravery without reference to any claims founded on mere length of service and general good conduct" The medal was introduced with three classes, until others medals were made available to Indian soldiers, at which point it was reduced to two classes, reduced to one class in 1944. A recipient technically needed to be in possession of the lower class before being awarded a higher class, although recipients were sometimes awarded the higher class if they performed more than one act of gallantry they may have been awarded the higher class, without receiving the lower one; the recipients of the order received increased pay and pension allowances and were highly regarded. A civil division was available in two classes between 1902 and 1939, when it was reduced to one class; the civil medal was awarded. Eight pointed dull silver star with blue circle, surrounded by silver laurels, in the middle, with crossed swords and the words Awarded for Valour, this was changed to Awarded for Gallantry in 1944.
Conspicuous act of individual gallantry on the part of any Native Officers or Soldiers, in the Field or in the attack or defence of a Fortified place, without distinction of rank or grade. Eight pointed shiny silver star with blue circle, surrounded by gold laurels in the middle, with crossed swords and the words Awarded for Valour, this was changed to Awarded for Gallantry in 1944. To be obtained by those who possess the third and for similar services. Eight pointed gold star with blue circle, surrounded by gold laurels in the middle, with crossed swords and the words Awarded for Valour, this was changed to Awarded for Gallantry in 1944. To be obtained in like manner only by those who possess the third and second classes. Dark Blue ribbon flanked by two red stripes of about a sixth of the width. Risaldar Bakshi Guranditta Mal Ranyal, 2nd Lancers Subedar Mir Dast Subedar Kishanbir Nagarkoti, IOM 5 Goorkha Regiment Only person to have been awarded the IOM four times and hence awarded a gold clasp as recognition.
Bahadur Risaldar Major Ganda Singh Datt Maharajadhiraja Bahadur Sir Bijay Chand Mahtab Sowar A. L. Dafadar Udey Singh, 1726 was awarded Indian Order of Merit for his gallant action and playing important role in pushing the enemy forces back during his time in France during World War I. Sardar Bahadur Subedar Arjan Singh Bhullar, IOM - OBI. First punjab sikh regiment. Star’s awarded:- THE AFRICA STAR. THE BURMA STAR. THE DEFENCE MEDAL. NORTH - WEST FRONTIER. WAR SERVICE MEDAL. INDIA INDEPENDENCE MEDAL. WOUND STRIP. 1935-1945 STAR. All 21 soldiers of the detachment of 36th Sikhs British Indian Army which fought to the death against overwhelming numbers at the Battle of Saragarhi in 1897. Havildar Karbir Pun was awarded the Indian Order of Merit for his joint actions along with John Duncan Grant, awarded the Victoria Cross along with other members of the 8th Gurkha Rifles on July 6th, 1904 at the attack at Gyantse Dzong, Tibet as a part of the British invasion of Tibet with Colonel Younghusband Subedar Bahadur Niaz Muhammad Khan, IOM, OBI, 7th Rajput Regiment, British Indian Army, for acts of gallantry on the Akaran front in the Burma campaign in World War II, vide Gazette of India No.
74H, dated 16 March 1944. Risaldar Bharat Singh, IOM of 7th Light Cavalry for gallantry in Burma vide Gazette of India No. 100H dated 4 May 1944. Subedar Major & Hon. Captain Rithu Singh Rawat, I. O. M. I. D. S. M. M. D. 3rd Battalion 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles, for acts of gallantry in the Middle East during World War II, vide Gazette of India Havildar Nur Khan, IOM, I. D. S. M. Regt No-13535, 3/2 Punjab Regiment, for planning and implementing and escape plan from Nazi Pow camp at Tobruk, Libya Subadar-Major and Hon. Captain Bisesar Tewari, Surdar Bahadur, the senior Indian officer of the 1st Brahmans regiment from 1909 to 1914; as a sepoy in 1886, he was awarded the Indian Order of Merit, 2nd Class for his bravery in the 3rd Burma War:'in charging the enemy's position, when suffering from a severe wound in the neck, remaining in action during the whole day.' Subedar Major Sardar Bahadur Muhammad Ismail, IOM 2nd Class 1897- OBI 2nd Class 1909-OBI 1st Class 1917 - 32nd Mountain Battery British In
The infraorbital margin is the lower margin of the eye socket. It consists of the zygomatic bone and the maxilla, on which it separates the anterior and the orbital surface of the body of the maxilla, it is an attachment for the levator labii superioris muscle
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom; the island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399; the lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom.
It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, although this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each. Internationally, the Isle of Man is best known for the Isle of Man TT competition; the Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning "island". The short form used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man; the earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Mana. The Old Irish form of the name is Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth; the oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin.
Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia, Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön; the name is cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn derived from a Celtic word for'mountain', from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos. The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology. In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, gave name to, the Isle of Man". A Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem; the island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC, but was colonised by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum; the Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, megalithic monuments began to appear, such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, Ballaharra Stones at St John's.
There were the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers; the Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside. The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the 5th century AD, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, a Goidelic language related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century, they introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth. In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann. In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited home rule, with democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since democratic government has been extended; the Isle of Man has designated more than 250 historic sites as registered buildings. The Isle of Man is located in the middle of t
Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences the St. Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, is a research institute in Saint Petersburg, Russia that houses various collections of manuscripts and early printed material in Asian languages, including Arabic, Mongolian and Tangut; the origins of the IOM date back to 1818, when the Russian Academy of Sciences learned that Louis-Jacques Rousseau, the French consul at Aleppo and Tripoli, was selling his extensive collection of manuscripts written in the Arabic script. In November of that year, the president of the RAS, Count Sergey Uvarov, wrote to the Board of the RAS requesting that a separate room be put aside in the Academy's cabinet of curiosities for storing this collection of manuscripts, as well as other medals and books of oriental origin in the Museum of the Imperial Academy of Science; the result was the establishment of the Asiatic Museum of the RAS, in Saint Petersburg.
The Asiatic Museum established itself as the main institute for the collection and study of oriental manuscripts and books in Russia, as well as a major international centre for oriental studies, by the time of the Russian Revolution in 1917 a hundred years after its foundation, it housed one of the most extensive collections of oriental manuscripts and printed books in the world. Following the Russian Revolution, the Asiatic Museum continued under the same name until May 1930, when the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was founded, the Asiatic Museum was incorporated into this new institute; the IOS was located within the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Leningrad, but in 1949 it moved to its own premises in one wing of the New Michael Palace. Two years in 1951, the institute was relocated to its own premises in Moscow. However, for practical reasons the institute's main library and its collections of manuscripts and early printed books remained at the New Michael Palace in Leningrad as the Department of Oriental Manuscripts of the IOS.
Five years after the move of the IOS to Moscow, in February 1956, the Department of Oriental Manuscripts in Leningrad was reconstituted as the Leningrad Branch of the IOS. Whereas the main Moscow branch of the IOS concentrated on modern studies, the Leningrad branch specialized in the study of ancient and medieval oriental history and languages, as well as in the production of critical editions of texts in its collections. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, it continued as a branch of the IOS, albeit now renamed the Saint Petersburg Branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, until 2007. In 2007 the Saint Petersburg branch separated from the IOS to become an independent institute under the RAS; the new institute, which assumed the title of Institute of Oriental Manuscripts in late 2009, continues to occupy one wing of the New Michael Palace. Christian Martin Frähn Johannes Albrecht Bernhard Dorn Victor Romanovich Rosen Ferdinand Johann Wiedemann Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff Karl Germanovich Salemann Sergey Fyodorovich Oldenburg Sergey Fyodorovich Oldenburg Aleksandr Nikolaevich Samoilovich Vasily Vasilievich Struve Aleksey Petrovich Barannikov Vasily Vasilievich Struve Serguey Pavlovich Tolstov Vsevolod Igorevich Avdiev Alexander Andreevich Guber Joseph Abgarovich Orbeli Andrey Nikolaevich Kononov Jury Ashotovich Petrosyan Evgenij Ivanovich Kychanov Irina Fedorovna Popova Irina Fedorovna Popova The IOM has a collection of more than 100,000 manuscripts and early printed books, encompassing about 65 different languages, including Arabic, Chinese, Georgian, Japanese, Kurdish, Mongolian, Sanskrit, Tajik, Tibetan and Uyghur.
The foundation for the manuscript collection at the Asiatic Museum were some 700 Arabic script manuscripts belonging to Jean-Baptiste Louis-Jacques Rousseau that were acquired in 1819 and 1826. The first director of the Asiatic Museum, Christian Martin Frähn, augmented the museum's holdings in Arabic manuscripts, by 1828 the museum housed some 851 Arabic and Turkic manuscripts. However, the collection of Arabic manuscripts did not grow until the early 20th century. In 1915, Vladimir Alexeyevich Ivanov purchased some 1,057 manuscripts from Bukhara, in 1916–1917, S. V. Ter-Avetisyan, curator of the Caucasian Museum in Tbilisi, sent a large number of manuscripts that he had collected to the Asiatic Museum, including more than a thousand Arabic manuscripts; the IOM has one of the largest collections of Tibetan books and manuscripts in the world, comprising over 20,000 catalogued items, as well as many as yet uncatalogued items. The history of the collection dates back to the 1720s when Tibetan texts from a ruined monastery along the Irtysh River were brought back to Saint Petersburg.
During the 18th and 19th centuries more Tibetan and Tibeto-Mongolian woodblock-printed books were collected from Buryat monasteries in Siberia. Other Tibetan and Mongolian books were sent back
Jupiter known as Jove, was the god of the sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice. Jupiter is thought to have originated as an aerial god, his identifying implement is the thunderbolt and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army. The two emblems were combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt seen on Greek and Roman coins; as the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline Hill.
In the Capitoline Triad, he was the central guardian of the state with Minerva. His sacred tree was the oak; the Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus, in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto, the Roman equivalents of Poseidon and Hades respectively; each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight identified with Jupiter. Tinia is regarded as his Etruscan counterpart; the Romans believed that Jupiter granted them supremacy because they had honoured him more than any other people had. Jupiter was "the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested." He personified the divine authority of Rome's highest offices, internal organization, external relations. His image in the Republican and Imperial Capitol bore regalia associated with Rome's ancient kings and the highest consular and Imperial honours.
The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter's name, honoured him on the annual feriae of the Capitol in September. To thank him for his help, they offered him a white ox with gilded horns. A similar offering was made by triumphal generals, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter's statue in the Capitol; some scholars have viewed the triumphator as embodying Jupiter in the triumphal procession. Jupiter's association with kingship and sovereignty was reinterpreted as Rome's form of government changed. Rome was ruled by kings. Nostalgia for the kingship was considered treasonous; those suspected of harbouring monarchical ambitions were punished, regardless of their service to the state. In the 5th century BC, the triumphator Camillus was sent into exile after he drove a chariot with a team of four white horses —an honour reserved for Jupiter himself; when Marcus Manlius, whose defense of the Capitol against the invading Gauls had earned him the name Capitolinus, was accused of regal pretensions, he was executed as a traitor by being cast from the Tarpeian Rock.
His house on the Capitoline Hill was razed, it was decreed that no patrician should be allowed to live there. Capitoline Jupiter found himself in a delicate position: he represented a continuity of royal power from the Regal period, conferred power on the magistrates who paid their respects to him. During the Conflict of the Orders, Rome's plebeians demanded the right to hold political and religious office. During their first secessio, they threatened to found their own; when they agreed to come back to Rome they vowed the hill where they had retreated to Jupiter as symbol and guarantor of the unity of the Roman res publica. Plebeians became eligible for all the magistracies and most priesthoods, but the high priest of Jupiter remained the preserve of patricians. Jupiter was served by the patrician Flamen Dialis, the highest-ranking member of the flamines, a college of fifteen priests in the official public cult of Rome, each of whom was devoted to a particular deity, his wife, the Flaminica Dialis, had her own duties, presided over the sacrifice of a ram to Jupiter on each of the nundinae, the "market" days of a calendar cycle, comparable to a week.
The couple were required to marry by the exclusive patrician ritual confarreatio, which included a sacrifice of spelt bread to Jupiter Farreus. The office of Flamen Dialis was circumscribed by several unique ritual prohibitions, some of which shed light on the sovereign nature of the god himself. For instance, the flamen may remove his clothes or apex only when under a roof, in order to avoid showing himself naked to the sky—that is, "as if under the eyes of Jupiter" as god of the heavens; every time the Flaminica saw a lightning bolt or heard a clap of thunder, she was prohibited from carrying on with her normal routine until she placated the god. Some privileges of the flamen of Jupiter may reflect the regal nature of Jupiter: he had the use of the curule chair, was the
Isle of Man Airport
Isle of Man Airport, is the main civilian airport on the Isle of Man. It is located in the south of the island at Ronaldsway near Castletown, 6 nautical miles southwest of Douglas, the island's capital. Along with the Isle of Man Sea Terminal, it is one of the two main gateways to the island; the airport has scheduled services to the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland as well as seasonal routes to Switzerland. Ronaldsway was first used as an airfield in 1928 with passenger services to the UK starting in 1933, operated by Blackpool and West Coast Air Services. Further services were established by Aer Lingus and Railway Air Services from 1934. From 1937 RAS operations from Ronaldsway to the UK were transferred to Isle of Man Air Services. In a 1936 expansion of the Ronaldsway Airport, workers discovered a mass grave believed to hold the remains of soldiers who died during the Battle of Ronaldsway in 1275; the airfield came under Royal Air Force control at the outbreak of the Second World War.
Known as RAF Ronaldsway, it was one of the few airfields that continued operating civilian flights throughout the wartime period. The airfield was used by № 1 GDGS operating Westland Wallace aircraft, the drogues from these aircraft being fired on from gun emplacements on St Michael's Isle and Santon Head. An expansion of the airport during the War led to the discovery of the archaeological remains of a Neolithic settlement belonging to what is now called the Ronaldsway culture, in honour of this site. RAF operations continued until 1943 when the airfield was handed over to the Admiralty for further development as a Fleet Air Arm training station. Now a naval air station, RNAS Ronaldsway, the airport was taken out of commission in 1943 for twelve months of extensive development undertaken by John Laing & Son. By the summer of 1944 the airfield had evolved from a grass landing area with a few hangars to a four runway airfield with the infrastructure to house and operate three training squadrons using Barracuda torpedo bombers.
Commissioned as HMS Urley by the Admiralty on 21 June 1944, with accounts handled by HMS Valkyrie, flying recommenced on 15 July 1944. The airfield's main role was that of a torpedo working-up station. No. 1 OTU consisted of 710, 713 and 747 Squadrons and these operated until the cessation of hostilities in 1945. The base was paid off on 14 January 1946, transferred to'Care and Maintenance' under HMS Blackcap; the nominal depot ship from 21 June 1944 was a 32' cutter named XXII, which itself was constructed in 1937. The airport reverted to civilian flying immediately after the war, but the airfield remained in Admiralty possession until sold to the Isle of Man Government for £200,000 in 1948, far short of the £1 million that the UK Government had spent on constructing the airport buildings and runways, plus the £105,000, paid by the Admiralty in 1943 to purchase the site. Several Manx-based airlines were formed in the early postwar years to operate scheduled and charter services to the UK mainland.
A project by Ellis Brown Architects began in November 1998 to extend the airport and improve the facilities available to passengers. In March 2000 the new extension was opened, providing a new landside catering outlet, arrivals area, baggage hall and departure lounge; the existing part of the airport was refurbished during this time to provide improved check-in facilities and offices, linked to the extension with a new airport entrance. During the extension and renovation period the iconic Three Legs of Man sculpture adorning the airport's façade was refurbished. In March 2006 funding for a further extension was granted by Tynwald to increase the number of departure gates, with work due for completion in summer 2007. In April 2008 Tynwald granted a major runway extension and resurfacing project at the airport; the runway will be extended by 245 m out into the Irish Sea by the construction of a rock-armoured promontory. It is part of a £44m plan which will include resurfacing of the runway during summer 2008 and the extension programme that will commence in spring 2008 and is due to be completed by December 2009.
It has emerged that the actual runway take-off length was underestimated by 160 metres in the £1.5 million feasibility study. Whilst the study looked into the aviation marketing implication of runway length, airport management have now denied that the extension is for the use of heavier aircraft in the future, stating that the resurfacing and extension are to comply with the latest international safety standards. There has been a significant overspend on the project due to poor forex management of the Euro denominated components of the costs, it is thought that the Manx treasury minister may have been referring to the expense of the runway and the additional £6,515,000 control tower project when he stated in his 2009 Budget speech that the Isle of Man could no longer afford "Rolls Royce" projects. Following the completion of the runway extension project the largest aircraft that can operate at Ronaldsway is the Boeing 757; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from the Isle of Man: Now-defunct regional airlines Citywing and Manx Airlines had their head offices on the airport property.
The Manx Military and Aviation Museum is situated next to the airport and has exhibits and information about the history of aviation on the island. In 2018, 847,251 passengers travelled through the airport, a 4.93% increase compared with 2017. Bus services are provided by Bus Vannin Isle of Man Transport. Bus Vannin routes 1, 1H, 2, 2A, 2C, 11, 12 and 12A