Atyrau Airways was an airline based in Atyrau, Kazakhstan. It operated scheduled and chartered passenger flights within the CIS and to destinations in Europe out of its base at Atyrau Airport, using a fleet of four Tupolev Tu-134A aircraft. Atyrau Airways was established in 1996 as an airline as well as the operating company of Atyrau Airport, it became part of the Air Kazakhstan Group in December 1999. In November 2000, the ownership of Atyrau Airways and Airport was transferred to Euro-Asia Air, a subsidiary of state petroleum company KazTransOil. On 13 July 2009, Atyrau Airways was included in the List of air carriers banned in the European Union, along with all other Kazakh airlines with the exception of Air Astana due to the poor maintenance record of the country. Shortly thereafter, its airline license was revoked
The IP Code, International Protection Marking, IEC standard 60529, sometimes interpreted as Ingress Protection Marking and rates the degree of protection provided against intrusion, accidental contact, water by mechanical casings and electrical enclosures. It is published by the International Electrotechnical Commission; the equivalent European standard is EN 60529. The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof. For example, a cellular phone rated at IP68 is "dust resistant" and can be "immersed in 1.5 meters of freshwater for up to 30 minutes". An electrical socket rated IP22 is protected against insertion of fingers and will not be damaged or become unsafe during a specified test in which it is exposed to vertically or nearly vertically dripping water. IP22 or IP2X are typical minimum requirements for the design of electrical accessories for indoor use; the digits indicate conformity. The digit 0 is used; the digit is replaced with the letter X when insufficient data has been gathered to assign a protection level.
There are no hyphens in a genuine IP code. IPX-8 is thus an invalid IP code; this page contains a combination of IEC 60529 and other standards, such as ISO 20653. The original documents are available for purchase, have important and specific requirements that cannot be reprinted due to copyright restrictions; this includes drawings specifying the required test equipment, such as the shape of water nozzles used for water jet testing. Additional standards are referenced that may contain important information. One must refer to the latest revision of the required standard when conducting tests for agency certification; this table shows what each part of the IP code represents. The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts and the ingress of solid foreign objects; the second digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against harmful ingress of water. The ratings for water ingress are not cumulative beyond IPX6.
A device, compliant with IPX7, covering immersion in water, need not be compliant with IPX5 or IPX6, covering exposure to water jets. A device which meets both tests is indicated by listing both tests separated by a slash, e.g. IPX5/IPX7. Further letters can be appended to provide additional information related to the protection of the device: The letter K is specified in DIN 40050-9, not in IEC 60529. IP codes with the letter "K" are from ISO 20653:2013 Road Vehicles-Degrees of protection, which states that it is in accordance with IEC 60529 except for the "K" tests, which describe special requirements for road vehicles; the test specifies a spray nozzle, fed with 80 °C water at 8–10 MPa and a flow rate of 14–16 L/min. The nozzle is held 10–15 cm from the tested device at angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° for 30 seconds each; the test device sits on a turntable. The IPx9 specification in IEC 60529 has details for testing larger specimens that will not fit on a turntable test fixture; the IP69K test specification was developed for road vehicles those that need regular intensive cleaning, but it finds use in other areas.
German standard DIN 40050-9 extended the older IEC 60529 rating system with an IP69K rating for high-pressure, high-temperature wash-down applications. DIN 40050-9 has been replaced by ISO 20653:2013 Road Vehicles-Degrees of protection; such enclosures must not only be dust-tight, but it must be able to withstand high-pressure and steam cleaning. By 2013 IEC 60529 added level 9 water ingress testing, with IPx9 being the same spray test as IP69K adding a drawing of a fixture to verify the water pressure. In the USA, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association defines NEMA enclosure types in NEMA standard number 250; the following table outlines. Ratings between the two standards are not directly equivalent: NEMA ratings require additional product features and tests not addressed by IP ratings; the inclusion of an Ingress Protection rating has become common for use in the consumer electronics market with devices such as mobile phones, tablet computers and cameras now being sold as water resistant and dustproof.
Some manufacturers have produced IP rated smartphones, aimed at consumers who are concerned about their handsets getting submerged in liquids or getting covered in dust. With the availability of portable devices, the desire to get outside with active lifestyles, portable speakers have become popular with the rugged consumer market for those who enjoy outdoor recreation, extreme sports as well. EN 62262 – IK code on resistance to mechanical impacts MIL-STD-810 U. S. Military connector specifications for military equivalents Reference Chart - Downloadable PDF reference chart for offline use. Water Resistant mark on wrist watches 2001 edition of the standard
The Integrated Programme is a scheme that allows high-performing students in secondary schools in Singapore to skip the GCE Ordinary Level examination and proceed to sit for the GCE Advanced Level examination, International Baccalaureate, or an equivalent examination, after six years of secondary education. The A-level examination is taken by students at the end of their second or third year in junior college; the programme allows for more time allocated to enrichment activities. That is, without the O-level examinations, the students have more time and flexibility to immerse themselves in a more broad-based education which will lead to the A-level examination. In addition, the students enjoy more freedom in the combination of subjects. Only the top performers are eligible to be part of the IP programme, do use to implement it, as it is regarded as experimental, thus most of the main body of the students pursue their secondary education at the current pace by first completing a four-year O-level course before proceeding to a two-year A-level education.
The integrated programme was first implemented in Hwa Chong Institution, Nanyang Girls' High School, Raffles Girls School and Raffles Institution in 2004. The IP allows students to skip the O-level at secondary four and be admitted directly to junior colleges. All the schools allowed in the scheme accepts the top 10% of the national cohort; this ensures that students who are under the IP are able to cope with their A-level after bypassing their O-level. Some junior colleges including National Junior College, Temasek Junior College, Victoria Junior College, offer it independently. VJC is now offering it with Cedar Girls Secondary and Victoria School For the four-year IP, secondary two students from various schools are allowed to apply for this programme; these students have their secondary three and four education in the junior college itself, followed by the A-level course. Dunman High School applied for the IP system in mid-2004 standalone, the Ministry of Education approved the first batch to be enrolled in 2005, with Year 1 and Year 3 students, each having a cap of about 135 out of 380 students.
Full IP was granted in late 2005, the school went full IP at the beginning of 2006. River Valley High School joined the IP system in 2006 by operating a six-year course standalone. Since 2009, National Junior College has accepted students who have taken the Primary School Leaving Examination, making it a six-year program. Since 2012, Victoria School and Cedar Girls' Secondary School are offering the IP with Victoria Junior College which will build upon the four-year Victoria Integrated Programme in the junior college, it is [called the VCA IP. In January 2013, the Joint Integrated Programme referred to as the JIP, offered by Catholic High School, CHIJ Saint Nicholas Girls' School and Singapore Chinese Girls' School, alongside with Eunoia Junior College, was established; the four schools are the newest additions to the Integrated Programme landscape. The three secondary schools will continue to offer the'O' Level track alongside the IP track, thus they are termed by the MOE as dual track schools.
Such schools allow students to have the flexibility to switch to the stream, better suited to the students' needs. Anglo-Chinese School and St Joseph's Institution, the only IP leading to IB schools in the country, have allowed their students to abandon the British system and "go Swiss" by dropping the GCE examinations altogether and adopting the International Baccalaureate, having been authorized as IB World Schools; the IB is regarded as a better track if the students have plans to study overseas in future. The IB allows students to take both arts and science subjects, philosophy courses and extensive research papers. Anglo-Chinese School and St Joseph's Institution are the only secondary schools in Singapore to offer the IP, which leads to the International Baccalaureate examinations. Anglo-Chinese School is regarded as one of the top schools in terms of results of the IB in the world, having averages as high as 42 out of a total of 45 points. St Joseph's Institution started its IP in 2013.
The NUS High School of Mathematics and Science is a school which specialises in math and science, but aims to develop all-rounded students through its diploma curriculum, which allows rigour and depth, or flexibility and breadth. NUS High School is affiliated and closely linked to the National University of Singapore. Students in this school graduate with the NUS High School diploma, accredited by NUS, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Management University, is still in the process of gaining more recognition from universities and colleges in other countries. For placement into overseas universities, they take the Scholastic Assessment Test and Advanced Placement. Anglo-Chinese School Methodist Girls' School St. Joseph’s Institution Catholic High School Cedar Girls' Secondary School CHIJ St. Nicholas Girls’ School Dunman High School Hwa Chong Institution Methodist Girls' School Nanyang Girls' High School National Junior College Raffles Girls' School Raffles Institution River Valley High School Singapore Chinese G
Intestinal permeability is a term describing the control of material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract through the cells lining the gut wall, into the rest of the body. The intestine exhibits some permeability, which allows nutrients to pass through the gut, while maintaining a barrier function to keep harmful substances from leaving the intestine and migrating to the body more widely. In a healthy human intestine, small particles can migrate through tight junction claudin pore pathways, particles up to 10–15 Å can transit through the paracellular space uptake route; the barrier formed by the intestinal epithelium separates the external environment from the body and is the most extensive and important mucosal surface of body. The intestinal epithelium serves two crucial functions. First, it acts as a barrier, preventing the entry of harmful substances such as foreign antigens and microorganisms. Second, it acts as a selective filter which facilitates the uptake of dietary nutrients, electrolytes and various other beneficial substances from the intestinal lumen.
Selective permeability is mediated via two major routes: Transepithelial or transcellular permeability. This consists of specific transport of solutes across the epithelial cells, it is predominantly regulated by the activities of specialised transporters that translocate specific electrolytes, amino acids, short chain fatty acids and other molecules into or out of the cell. Paracellular permeability, it depends on transport through the spaces. It is regulated by cellular junctions; this is the main route of passive flow of water and solutes across the intestinal epithelium. Regulation depends on the intercellular tight junctions which have the most influence on paracellular transport. Disruption of the tight junction barrier can be a trigger for the development of intestinal diseases. One way in which intestinal permeability is modulated is via CXCR3 receptors in cells in the intestinal epithelium, which respond to zonulin. Gliadin activates zonulin signaling in all people who eat gluten, irrespective of the genetic expression of autoimmunity.
This lead to increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules. Bacterial pathogens such as cholera, select enteric viruses, parasites modulate intestinal tight junction structure and function, these effects may contribute to the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Stress and infections seem to cause perturbations in intestinal permeability. Most people do not experience adverse effects, but the opening of intercellular tight junctions can act as a trigger for diseases that can affect any organ or tissue depending on genetic predisposition, it can allow the passage of bacteria known as bacterial translocation, the passage of microbial products like extracellular vesicles, foreign antigens into the mucosa and the body proper. This can result in activation of the immune secretion of inflammatory mediators. Increased intestinal permeability is a factor in several diseases, such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, certain types of cancer, fatty liver and allergic diseases, among others.
In the majority of cases, increased permeability develops prior to disease, but the cause–effect relationship between increased intestinal permeability in most of these diseases is not clear. A relationship with autism has been hypothesized but the data supporting this theory are limited and contradictory, since both increased intestinal permeability and normal permeability have been documented in people with autism. Studies with mice provide some support to this hypothesis. A well studied model is celiac disease, in which increased intestinal permeability appears secondary to the abnormal immune reaction induced by gluten and allows fragments of gliadin protein to get past the intestinal epithelium, triggering an immune response at the intestinal submucosa level that leads to diverse gastrointestinal or extra-gastrointestinal symptoms. Other environmental triggers may contribute to alter permeability in celiac disease, as intestinal infections and iron deficiency. Once established, this increase of permeability might self-sustain the inflammatory immune responses and perpetuate a vicious circle.
Eliminating gluten from the diet leads to normalization of intestinal permeability and the autoimmune process shuts off. In normal physiology, glutamine plays a key role in signalling in enterocytes that are part of the intestinal barrier, but it is not clear if supplementing the diet with glutamine is helpful in conditions where there is increased intestinal permeability. Prebiotics and certain probiotics such as Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 have been found to reduce increased intestinal permeability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii have been shown to reduce increased intestinal permeability. Larazotide acetate is a zonulin receptor antagonist, probed in clinical trials, it seems to be a drug candidate for use in conjunction with a gluten-free diet in people with celiac disease, with the aim to reduce the intestinal permeability caused by gluten and its passage through the epithelium, therefore mitigating the resulting cascade of immune reactions.
A proposed medical condition called leaky gut syndrome has been popularized by some health practiti
The program counter called the instruction pointer in Intel x86 and Itanium microprocessors, sometimes called the instruction address register, the instruction counter, or just part of the instruction sequencer, is a processor register that indicates where a computer is in its program sequence. In most processors, the PC is incremented after fetching an instruction, holds the memory address of the next instruction that would be executed. Processors fetch instructions sequentially from memory, but control transfer instructions change the sequence by placing a new value in the PC; these include branches, subroutine calls, returns. A transfer, conditional on the truth of some assertion lets the computer follow a different sequence under different conditions. A branch provides. A subroutine saves the preceding contents of the PC somewhere. A return retrieves the saved contents of the PC and places it back in the PC, resuming sequential execution with the instruction following the subroutine call.
In a typical central processing unit, the PC is a digital counter that may be one of many registers in the CPU hardware. The instruction cycle begins with a fetch, in which the CPU places the value of the PC on the address bus to send it to the memory; the memory responds by sending the contents of that memory location on the data bus.. Following the fetch, the CPU proceeds to execution, taking some action based on the memory contents that it obtained. At some point in this cycle, the PC will be modified so that the next instruction executed is a different one. Like other processor registers, the PC may be a bank of binary latches, each one representing one bit of the value of the PC; the number of bits relates to the processor architecture. For instance, a “32-bit” CPU may use 32 bits to be able to address 232 units of memory. If the PC is a binary counter, it may increment when a pulse is applied to its COUNT UP input, or the CPU may compute some other value and load it into the PC by a pulse to its LOAD input.
To identify the current instruction, the PC may be combined with other registers that identify a segment or page. This approach permits a PC with fewer bits by assuming that most memory units of interest are within the current vicinity. Use of a PC that increments assumes that what a computer does is execute a linear sequence of instructions; such a PC is central to the von Neumann architecture. Thus programmers write a sequential control flow for algorithms that do not have to be sequential; the resulting “von Neumann bottleneck” led to research into parallel computing, including non-von Neumann or dataflow models that did not use a PC. This research led to ways to making conventional, PC-based, CPUs run faster, including: Pipelining, in which different hardware in the CPU executes different phases of multiple instructions simultaneously; the long instruction word architecture, where a single instruction can achieve multiple effects. Techniques to predict out-of-order execution and prepare subsequent instructions for execution outside the regular sequence.
Modern high-level programming languages still follow the sequential-execution model and, indeed, a common way of identifying programming errors is with a “procedure execution” in which the programmer's finger identifies the point of execution as a PC would. The high-level language is the machine language of a virtual machine, too complex to be built as hardware but instead emulated or interpreted by software. However, new programming models transcend sequential-execution programming: When writing a multi-threaded program, the programmer may write each thread as a sequence of instructions without specifying the timing of any instruction relative to instructions in other threads. In event-driven programming, the programmer may write sequences of instructions to respond to events without specifying an overall sequence for the program. In dataflow programming, the programmer may write each section of a computing pipeline without specifying the timing relative to other sections. Branch prediction Instruction cache Instruction cycle Instruction unit Instruction pipeline Instruction register Instruction scheduling Program status word
Suspensory ligament of ovary
The suspensory ligament of the ovary infundibulopelvic ligament, is a fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis. Some sources consider it a part of the broad ligament of uterus while other sources just consider it a "termination" of the ligament, it is not considered a true ligament in that it does not physically support any anatomical structures. The suspensory ligament is directed upward over the iliac vessels, it contains the ovarian artery, ovarian vein, ovarian nerve plexus, lymphatic vessels. The suspensory ligament of the ovary is one continuous tissue that connects the ovary to the wall of the pelvis. There are separate names for the two regions of this tissue. In the anterior region, the suspensory ligament is attached to the wall of the pelvis via a continuous tissue called peritoneum. In the more posterior region, the suspensory ligament is attached to the upper pole of ovary and infundibulum of fallopian tube via a continuous tissue called the broad ligament.
In sum, the suspensory ligament consists of a single connective tissue from that has different regional notations, the peritoneum and the broad ligament. Most of the abdominal cavity is lined by a double-membranous sac called peritoneum; the interior is called the peritoneal cavity, this is the location of all'intra-peritoneal' organs. The most inferior extent of the peritoneum covers the pelvic inlet; the suspensory ligament originates from the mesonephros, which, in turn, originates from intermediate mesoderm. The prenatal development of the suspensory ligament of the ovary is a part of the development of the reproductive system. Ligament of ovary This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1254 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 43:02-05 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:9784 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Slide at pitt.edu
The International Paper Company is an American pulp and paper company, the largest such company in the world. It has 56,000 employees, is headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee; the company was incorporated January 31, 1898, upon the merger of 17 pulp and paper mills in the northeastern United States. Its founders and first two presidents were William Augustus Russell, who died in January 1899, Hugh J. Chisholm; the newly formed company supplied 60 percent of all newsprint in the country. The Hudson River Mill in Corinth, New York, where the Sacandaga River joins the Hudson River, was a pioneer in the development of the modern paper industry in the late 19th century; the first wood-based newsprint paper mill in New York, it was built by Albrecht Pagenstecher in 1869. In the early 20th century, the Hudson River Mill was one of the company's largest plants and served both as its principal office, a place where paper workers helped shape the direction of the industry's early labor movement. After World War II, Hudson River Mill workers developed and perfected the production of coated paper for the company.
Shifting economic forces resulted in the mill's closure in November 2002. The historic mill was slated for partial demolition during 2011; the work including asbestos removal was completed by Northstar Group Services. Given the nature of their products, paper plants are flammable. Therefore, International Paper Company used asbestos insulation in its walls and roofs as a protective measure. Asbestos insulation was used on pipes and boilers throughout International Paper plants; this material intended to protect people turned out to damage their health The producers did not reveal that their asbestos products were dangerous though asbestos was known to cause illnesses as far back as the 1920s. Many former employees of International Paper have been diagnosed with mesothelioma following decades of service. In 1987, the company's paper mill workers went on strike at a number of its U. S. plants. In 1986, the company acquired the Hammermill Paper Company, founded in 1898, which managed eleven papermills nationwide, had its corporate offices based in Erie, PA.
In 1996, it purchased Federal Paper Board. In 1999, the company purchased Union Camp Corporation, in June of 2000 Champion International. Additionally, it owns shares in the Chilean company Copec. Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills Rajahmundry, now an International Paper company, is one of the biggest integrated paper and pulp manufacturing centers in India; the company produces writing and copier papers and paper boards for foreign and domestic markets. APPM's production facilities are two mills in Rajahmundry and Kadiam with a total production capacity of 240,000 TPD; the company is becoming a driving force in sustainability in the paper manufacturing arena through focused social and community programs, including pioneering work in raw material generation through social farm forestry. International Paper owns a majority interest in APPM, the remaining shares are publicly traded on the Bombay and National Stock Exchange of India. In 2012, International Paper, through the merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Metal Acquisition Inc. with and into Temple-Inland, acquired Temple-Inland in a deal valued at $4.5 billion.
Temple-Inland became a wholly owned subsidiary of International Paper. At the time of sale, Temple-Inland's corrugated packaging operation consisted of 7 mills and 59 converting facilities as well as the building products operation. In 2005 and 2006, the company undertook a significant restructuring, selling over 6,000,000 acres of forestland in the U. S. along with its coated paper, kraft paper, wood products, beverage packaging businesses, as well as subsidiaries Arizona Chemical and New Zealand-based Carter Holt Harvey. The coated paper business were sold to Apollo Management and now operate as Verso Paper; the kraft paper business was sold to Kapstone Paper and Packaging and operates as Kapstone Kraft Paper. The beverage packaging business, now called Evergreen Packaging, was purchased by Carter Holt Harvey, following the purchase of CHH by Graeme Hart; the company sold its wood products division to West Fraser Timber, based in Vancouver, British Columbia. This included 13 sawmills, making West Fraser the second-largest producer of lumber in North America, after Weyerhaeuser Company.
Under pressure from budget sequestration in 2013, the federal government of the United States has moved from physical checks to cheaper electronic transactions. John Runyan, former head of federal government relations for IP, has become executive director of Consumers for Paper Options, a paper industry funded group that advocates for the use of paper documents for clients of the federal government who are Internet challenged; the company's logo was designed by American graphic designers Lester Beall and Richard Rogers in 1960. The logo features the letters "I" and "P" which form a stylized arrow resembling a tree surrounded by a circle. A primary constraint in the design process was the need for a logo simple enough that it could be stenciled onto trees and lumber intended for paper production. International Paper owns Tower I and occupies the entire property and leases 50,000 square feet in Tower II and all of Tower III. In 2000, International Place Tower III was designed and rests amid the two exi