International Psychoanalytical Association
The International Psychoanalytical Association is an association including 12,000 psychoanalysts as members and works with 70 constituent organizations. It was founded in 1910 on an idea proposed by Sándor Ferenczi. In 1902 Sigmund Freud started to meet every week with colleagues to discuss his work, so the Psychological Wednesday Society was born. By 1908 there were 14 regular members and some guests including Max Eitingon, Carl Jung, Karl Abraham, Ernest Jones, all future Presidents of the IPA. Society became the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society. In 1907 Jones suggested to Jung. Freud welcomed the proposal; the meeting took place in Salzburg on April 27, 1908. Jung named it the "First Congress for Freudian Psychology", it is reckoned to be the first International Psychoanalytical Congress. So, the IPA had not yet been founded; the IPA was established at the next Congress held at Nuremberg in March 1910. Its first President was Carl Jung, its first Secretary was Otto Rank. Sigmund Freud considered an international organization to be essential to advance his ideas.
In 1914 Freud published a paper entitled The History of the Psychoanalytic Movement. The IPA is the world’s primary accrediting and regulatory body for psychoanalysis; the IPA's aims include creating new psychoanalytic groups, stimulating debate, conducting research, developing training policies and establishing links with other bodies. It organizes a large biennial Congress. There is a Regional Organisation for each of the IPA’s 3 regions: Europe—European Psychoanalytical Federation, which includes Australia, Israel, South Africa and Turkey, its administrative offices are at The Lexicon in Central London. Latin America—Federation of Psychoanalytic Societies of Latin America; each of these three bodies consists of Constituent Organisations and Study Groups that are part of that IPA region. The IPA has a close working relationship with each of these independent organisations and values them but they are not or part of the IPA; the IPA's members qualify for membership by being a member of a "constituent organisation".
Constituent Organisations Argentine Psychoanalytic Association Argentine Psychoanalytic Society Australian Psychoanalytical Society Belgian Psychoanalytical Society Belgrade Psychoanalytical Society Brasília Psychoanalytic Society Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of Rio de Janeiro Brazilian Psychoanalytic Society of São Paulo Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Porto Alegre Brazilian Psychoanalytical Society of Ribeirão Preto British Psychoanalytic Association British Psychoanalytical Society Buenos Aires Psychoanalytic Association Canadian Psychoanalytic Society Caracas Psychoanalytic Society Chilean Psychoanalytic Association Colombian Psychoanalytic Association Colombian Psychoanalytic Society Contemporary Freudian Society Cordoba Psychoanalytic Society Czech Psychoanalytical Society Danish Psychoanalytical Society Dutch Psychoanalytical Association Dutch Psychoanalytical Group Dutch Psychoanalytical Society Finnish Psychoanalytical Society French Psychoanalytical Association Freudian Psychoanalytical Society of Colombia German Psychoanalytical Association German Psychoanalytical Society Hellenic Psycho-Analytical Society Hungarian Psychoanalytical Society Indian Psychoanalytical Society Institute for Psychoanalytic Training and Research Israel Psychoanalytic Society Italian Psychoanalytical Association Italian Psychoanalytical Society Japan Psychoanalytic Society Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies Madrid Psychoanalytical Association Mato Grosso do Sul Psychoanalytical Society Mendoza Psychoanalytic Society Mexican Assn for Psychoanalytic Practice, Training & Research Mexican Psychoanalytic Association Monterrey Psychoanalytic Association Northwestern Psychoanalytic Society Norwegian Psychoanalytic Society Paris Psychoanalytical Society Pelotas Psychoanalytic Society Peru Psychoanalytic Society Polish Psychoanalytical Society Porto Alegre Psychoanalytical Society Portuguese Psychoanalytical Society Psychoanalytic Center of California Psychoanalytic Institute of Northern California Psychoanalytic Society of Mexico Psychoanalytical Association of The State of Rio de Janeiro Recife Psychoanalytic Society Rio de Janeiro Psychoanalytic Society Romanian Psychoanalytic Society Rosario Psychoanalytic Association Spanish Psychoanalytical Society Swedish Psychoanalytical Association Swiss Psychoanalytical Society Uruguayan Psychoanalytical Association Venezuelan Psychoanalytic Association Vienna Psychoanalytic Society Guadalajara Psychoanalytic Association Moscow Psychoanalytic Society Psychoanalytic Society for Research and Training Vienna Psychoanalytic Association American Psychoanalytic Association is a body which has in membership societies which cover around 75% of psychoanalysts in the United States of America.
"Study Groups" are bodies of analysts which have not yet developed sufficiently to be a freestanding society, but, their aim. Campinas Psychoanalytical Study Group Center for Psychoanalytic Education and Research Croatian Psychoanalytic Study Group Fortaleza Psychoanalytic Group Goiania Psychoanalytic Nucleus Korean Psychoanalytic Study Group Latvia and Estonia Psychoanalytic Study Group Lebanese Association for the Development of Psychoanalysis Minas Gerais Psychoanalytical Study Group Port
Indigenous Protected Area
An Indigenous Protected Area is a class of protected area used in Australia formed by agreement with Indigenous Australians, declared by Indigenous Australians, formally recognised by the Australian Government as being part of its National Reserve System. By agreeing to establish Indigenous Protected Areas, Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders have contributed two thirds of all new additions to Australia's National Reserve System. During the 1990s the Australian Government was working in cooperation with State and Territory Governments to build a National Reserve System aimed at protecting, for future generations, a representative sample of Australia's diverse range of flora and eco-systems; as part of this effort, Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander owners of lands and seas were asked, many who were interested in re-establishing effective indigenous land management agreed to participate in this endeavour. At a national conference of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders held in 1997, it was agreed and resolved by the delegates present that a new class of'indigenous' protected area should be formed as follows: "An Indigenous Protected Area is governed by the continuing responsibilities of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to care for and protect lands and waters for present and future generations."
"Indigenous Protected Areas may include areas of land and waters over which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are custodians, which shall be managed for cultural biodiversity and conservation, permitting customary sustainable resource use and sharing of benefit." The first trialing of this new environmental partnership aimed at adding the new class of Protected Areas to Australia's National Reserve System, was with the Adnyamathanha people of Nepabunna Aboriginal community volunteering 580 square kilometres of rugged limestone hills, siltstone flats and waterholes between the Flinders Ranges and Gammon Ranges National Parks to be managed as an Indigenous Protected Area. The land selected for the first proposed Indigenous Protected area was held by the South Australian Aboriginal Lands Trust, and, by 26 August 1998, an agreement had been reached to see the Adnyamathanha people of Nepabunna Aboriginal community engaged and some employed in restoring the landscape to its former natural and cultural value, Australia's first Indigenous Protected Area, the Nantawarrina Indigenous Protected Area was declared.
By 2007 the kind of partnership agreed and started with the Nantawarrina Indigenous Protected Area had grown to include 23 declared Indigenous Protected Areas covering close to 170,000 square kilometres or 23 per cent of the National Reserve System. In July 2012, The Nature Conservancy, alongside IPA alongside the Central Land Council and government representatives from Australia’s National Reserve System, helped announce the launch of the Southern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area; this Indigenous Protected Area is Australia’s largest land reserve, spanning 10.15 million hectares. It protects important pieces of the Northern Territory’s natural legacy. Included in the Southern Tanami reserve are much of Lake Mackay—Australia’s second-largest lake—and an enormous swath of the Tanami Desert; this IPA links a variety of habitats that includes deserts and savannas, giving plant and animal species the space they need to maneuver around threats like wildfires and climate change. Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander land and sea owners may be encouraged, or themselves apply to the Australian Government to establish an Indigenous Protected Area on their lands/seas.
However, an Indigenous Protected Area can only come into existence where: land and/or seas are owned by Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. IPA data is available online from several sources. Department of Environment IPA Database. AT 3 February 2017, latest data file was 20 September 2016. Data is not well maintained – for example the gazetted area value for several IPAs is zero. Department of Environment Collaborative Australian Protected Area Database. CAPAD data is infrequently updated on a two year schedule. At February 2017, the last available update was in 2014. Data values may be incorrect/out of date. For example some values have not been updated/corrected for 10 years. Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet Indigenous Affairs online IPA and Indigenous Ranger map. Data provided is incomplete and locations for several smaller IPAs are incorrect on the map. Protected Planet's World Database on Protected Areas The following IPAs have been declared in New South Wales: Brewarrina Ngemba Billabong Indigenous Protected Area Boorabee and The Willows Indigenous Protected Area Gumma Indigenous Protected Area Minyumai Indigenous Protected Area Ngunya Jargoon Indigenous Protected Area Tarriwa Kurrukun Indigenous Protected Area Toogimbie Indigenous Protected Area Wattleridge Indigenous Protected Area Weilmoringle Indigenous Protected Area The following IPAs have been declared in the Northern Territory: Angas Downs Indigenous Protected Area Anindilyakwa Indigenous Protected Area Dhimurru Indigenous Protected Area Djelk Indigenous Protected Area Laynhapuy Indigenous Protected Area - 600,000 ha, created in 2006 Marri-Jabin | Stage one of the Thamarrurr Indigenous Protected Area Northern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area Southern Tanami Indigenous Protected Area Warddeken Indigenous Protected A
Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia
The Independent Psychiatric Association of Russia is the sole Russian non-governmental professional organization that makes non-forensic psychiatric expert examination at the request of citizens whose rights have been violated with the use of psychiatry. The IPA is not a state institution but a public organization, its medical reports have not a legal but an ethical significance. There is nowhere to refute one's misdiagnosis in Russia. In recent years, the IPA forces restrictions on patients’ rights and transinstitutionalization of the mentally ill; the IPA was established in Moscow in March 1989 and became the first psychiatric association in the USSR, not controlled by the State. The IPA was created as an association publicly opposing itself to official Soviet psychiatry and its offspring, the All-Union Society of Neuropathologists and Psychiatrists, under the control of the Soviet government and implemented its political principles; the members of the initiative group on establishing the IPA were Alexandr Podrabinek and psychologist Victor Lanovoi who had developed the plan to establish the IPA and had been its first president before he emigrated to Israel.
The IPA has been the full member of the World Psychiatric Association since October 17, 1989. In 1992, the IPA joined the Russian Human Rights House Network, a union of 10 well-known human rights organizations; the IPA played a significant part in the demolition of punitive psychiatry. The IPA appears to make active efforts to communicate their views on the previous and present abuses of psychiatry in Russia to psychiatry in the West. In 2010, the IPA has about 600 members in 54 regions of Russia. Most members of the IPA are the members of the Russian Society of Psychiatrists; the charter of the IPA runs as follows: “Independent means self-supporting, no included in the composition and departmental subordination of state medical institutions and other administrative bodies.” The IPA cooperates with the Moscow Helsinki Group and has the community liaison office and examination commission where one can receive free legal advice and services. The Society of Clinical Psychotherapists was created under the auspices of IPA in 1995.
On Moscow Group for Philosophy and Psychiatry was organized and began to function together with psychotherapeutic theatre and regular meetings grouped under the title of “Psychiatry and Problems of Spiritual Life”. IPA takes an active part in the movement "Philosophy and Psychiatry," with Elena Bezzubova and Yuri Savenko being members of the Steering Committee of International Network for Philosophy and Psychiatry; the President of the IPA is Yuri Savenko, the Executive Director is Lyubov Vinogradova, the Chief of the legal service is Julia Argunova. The official publication of the IPA is Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal. According to resolution adopted on the 19 of February 2010 by the presidium of the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal has been included in the list of the leading peer-reviewed journals and publications. Noted public figures and scientists expressed their appreciation for the IPA activities.
In 2004, the President of the World Psychiatric Association Professor Ahmed Okasha wrote: “The World Psychiatric Association has strengthened due to the membership of your Society.” Three years his successor as the WPA President, Professor Juan Mezzich, noted that the WPA representatives appreciated the IPA successes in clinical psychiatry as well as ethical and humanitarian aspirations demonstrated by the IPA despite many difficulties it had to face. According to A. I. Appenyansky, the Chief Academic Secretary of the Russian Society of Psychiatrists, the RSP appreciates the IPA role in developing psychiatric care in the country. A. I. Appenyansky noted that the IPA became a reputable professional public organization providing pluralism for professional discussion in psychiatry and that it was promoted due to, in particular, publishing important and interesting periodical Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal as well as contributions of noted representatives of the psychiatric community such as Savenko, Argunova, Boukhanovsky and others.
In 2006, Yuri Savenko stated that a first large relapse of the use of psychiatry for political purposes in post-Soviet Russia during recent decade was struggle against ‘totalitarian sects.’ According to Yuri Savenko, the reason for the use of psychiatry against religious minorities, which began from 1995, was professor Y. I. Polishchuk’s report containing conclusion about ‘gross harm on mental health’ inflicted by different religious organizations; this report was distributed to all public prosecutors’ offices of the country and the presidents of the educational institutions despite the fact that its scientific inadequacy was emphasized by not only the IPA, but the Russian Society of Psychiatrists since all imputed cases of illness, family breakdown, etc. proved to be much more frequent in the general population than in the persecuted religious organizations. In 1999, the IPA expressed its concern about the facts of the use of psychiatry against religious minorities in the IPA Open Letter to the General Assembly of XI Congress of the WPA.
Stressing all the responsibility taken by the authors of the letter for the action involved in their statement, they noted in it that they considered it necessary to draw the WPA General Assembly’s attention to the recurrent use of psychiatry for non-medical purposes, recommenced in Russia from
Institute of Public Accountants
The Institute of Public Accountants is one of the three recognised professional bodies for accountants in Australia. The IPA represents more than 35,000 members and students working in industry, government and professional practice; the organisation rebranded from its previous title, the National Institute of Accountants, on May 2, 2011. In 2012, the IPA was ranked 19th in the BRW Most Innovative Companies list; the IPA launched its digital hub pubacct.org.au, an expanded digital edition of its flagship journal Public Accountant, in early 2013. The Institute of Public Accountants is one of Australia's oldest representative professional bodies, formed in 1923. 1923 - Institute of Factory and Cost Accountants, formed in Melbourne, Victoria. 1950 - Institute of Taxation and Cost Accountants, name change. 1957 - National Institute of Accountants, name change. 1967 - Institute of Commercial Studies, name change. 1970 - Institute of Affiliate Accountants, name change. 1988 - National Institute of Accountants, adoption of the precedent name.
2002 - NIA gazetted as an authorised assessing authority for skilled migration to Australia. 2004 - NIA became a member of the International Federation of Accountants. 2007 - NIA became a member of Asia Oceania Tax Consultants' Association. 2011 - Institute of Public Accountants, name change 2011 - IPA became a member of the Confederation of Asian and Pacific Accountants. 2012 - IPA launches "My Public Accountant" package for accountants in public practice. 2012 - Named number 19 in 2012 BRW Most Innovative Companies List 2013 - Launched the Public Accountant digital hub pubacct.org.au 2015 - IPA amalgamation with the Institute of Financial Accountants of United Kingdom. The IPA has three levels of membership: Associate Member Fellow Student Membership Students studying towards an accounting qualification can join as a student member, free of charge. Student members have access to networking opportunities, receive monthly e-newsletters, employment tips, are eligible to participate in the IPA Project.
Additionally, graduate IPA student members and non-members who have completed their accounting degree or advanced diploma within the last three years are eligible for the Graduate Associate level of membership. This level of membership was designed to assist in the transition of students to full membership in their early career years, it provides graduated students with a reduced rate of membership, without missing out on the benefits that full IPA membership provides. Retired Members Retired members are eligible for reduced membership fees and specific offers designed to assist semi-retired members in practice. AIPA membership requires: Australian Advanced Diploma of Accountingor Bachelor's degree in Accounting or current BAS Agent or Tax Agent registration MIPA membership requires: Australian Advanced Diploma of Accounting Two years of pre-IPA program full-time work experience in accounting or related fields IPA Program Mentored Experience Programor Bachelor's degree in Accounting IPA Program Note.
Members with a recognized university qualification in accountancy may elect to complete a further 8 subjects to obtain a Master of Commerce awarded by the University of New England. Mentored Experience ProgramFIPA membership requires: equivalent. With the guidance of an IPA approved mentor a qualified accountant from one of the three professional bodies, the MEP provides the framework for members to increase both their practical experience and knowledge in the workplace; the IPA Program is a accredited educational pathway delivered by the University of New England. It provides rigorous and globally recognised postgraduate education resulting in the award of a Graduate Certificate in Public Accounting and/or a Master of Commerce degree. Members are required to undertake either four or twelve subjects to advance to MIPA status depending on their undergraduate qualifications; the program allows members to study at their own pace. Members have up to 5 years to complete the program; the IPA is the only accounting body to offer a Master of Commerce degree in Public Accounting as its professional program.
The Master of Commerce degree is designated by the Australian Qualifications Framework Authority at Level 9. The Australian Qualifications Framework establishes the quality of Australian qualifications; the AQF is the national policy for regulated qualifications in the Australian education and training system. Members of the IPA who complete the IPA program and obtain the Master's Degree, achieve a Higher Qualification than those from either CPA Australia or Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand. Since January 2015, the IPA program was revised to a Graduate Certificate in Public Accounting and/or Master of Commerce degree in Public Accounting, awarded by the University of New England. Like the pre-2015 versions of the IPA program, the paths to full IPA membership depend on entry qualifications of members and completion of both the MEP and the particular type of IPA
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
India pale ale
India pale ale is a hoppy beer style within the broader category of pale ale. The term'pale ale' denoted an ale brewed from pale malt. Among the first brewers known to export beer to India was Englishman George Hodgson's Bow Brewery on the Middlesex-Essex border. Bow Brewery beers became popular among East India Company traders in the late 18th century because of the brewery's location near the East India Docks in Blackwall; the export style of pale ale, which had become known as'India pale ale', developed in England around 1840, it became a popular product there. On the other hand, IPAs have a long history in Canada and the United States, many breweries there produce a version of the style; the pale ales of the early 18th century were hopped and quite different from today's pale ales. By the mid-18th century, pale ale was brewed with coke-fired malt, which produced less smoking and roasting of barley in the malting process, hence produced a paler beer. One such variety of beer was October beer, a pale well-hopped brew popular among the landed classes, who brewed it domestically.
Among the first brewers known to export beer to India was George Hodgson's Bow Brewery, on the Middlesex-Essex border. Bow Brewery beers became popular among East India Company traders in the late 18th century because of the brewery's location near the East India Docks and Hodgson's liberal credit line of 18 months. Ships transported Hodgson's beers to India, among them his October beer, which benefited exceptionally from conditions of the voyage and was highly regarded among its consumers in India. Bow Brewery came into the control of Hodgson's son in the early 19th century, but his business practices alienated their customers. During the same period, several Burton breweries lost their European export market in Russia when the Tsar banned the trade, were seeking a new export market for their beer. At the behest of the East India Company, Allsopp brewery developed a strongly-hopped pale ale in the style of Hodgson's for export to India. Other Burton brewers, including Bass and Salt, were eager to replace their lost Russian export market and followed Allsopp's lead.
As a result of the advantages of Burton water in brewing, Burton India pale ale was preferred by merchants and their customers in India, but Hodgson's October beer influenced the Burton brewers' India pale ales. Brewer Charrington's trial shipments of hogsheads of "India Ale" to Madras and Calcutta in 1827 proved successful and a regular trade emerged with the key British agents and retailers: Griffiths & Co in Madras. Early IPA, such as Burton brewers' and Hodgson's, was only higher in alcohol than most beer brewed in his day and would not have been considered a strong ale; the common story that early IPAs were much stronger than other beers of the time, however, is a myth. While IPAs were formulated to survive long voyages by sea better than other styles of the time, porter was shipped to India and California successfully, it is clear that by the 1860s, India pale ales were brewed in England, that they were much more attenuated and hopped than porters and many other ales. Demand for the export style of pale ale, which had become known as India pale ale, developed in England around 1840 and India pale ale became a popular product in England.
1837 a pint of IPA cost 6s 6d, the same as the Guinness Double Stout, more than 4s 3d for a Porter beer. Some brewers dropped the term "India" in the late 19th century, but records indicated that these "pale ales" retained the features of earlier IPAs. American and Canadian brewers manufactured beer with the label IPA before 1900, records suggest that these beers were similar to English IPA of the era. IPA style beers started being exported to other colonial countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, around this time with many breweries dropping the'I' in'IPA' and calling them Pale Ales or Export Pales. Many breweries, such as Kirkstall Brewery, sent large quantities of export beer across the world by steam ship to auction off to wholesalers upon arrival. India Pale Ale, or IPA, has been used in the United Kingdom to describe a well-hopped, high-gravity beer since 1835, it gained popularity in the domestic market after 1841, the term is still used, as in Greene King IPA and Charles Wells Eagle IPA.
IPA is a popular style in the Canadian craft beer industry. IPAs have a long history in the United States, many breweries there produce a version of the style. Contemporary American IPAs are brewed with distinctively American hops, such as Cascade, Citra, Chinook, Amarillo, Warrior and Nugget. East Coast IPAs are distinguished from West Coast IPAs by a stronger malt presence, which balances the intensity of the hops, whereas hops are more prominent in the western brews because of the proximity of West Coast breweries to hop fields in the Pacific Northwest. East Coast breweries rely more on spicier European hops and specialty malts than those on the West Coast. Double IPAs are a stronger hoppy variant of IPAs that have alcohol content above 7.5% by volume. The style is claimed to have originated with Vinnie Cilurzo the owner of Russian River Brewing Company in Santa Rosa, California, in 1994 at the now-defunct Blind Pig Brewery in Temecula, California; the style has been embraced by the craft brewers of San Diego County, California, to such an extent t