click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

IP address

An Internet Protocol address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Internet Protocol version 4 defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP, using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 172.16.254.1 in IPv4, 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6. The size of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the number of significant bits, e.g. 192.168.1.15/24, equivalent to the used subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The IP address space is managed globally by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, by five regional Internet registries responsible in their designated territories for assignment to local Internet registries, such as Internet service providers, other end users.

IPv4 addresses were distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of 16.8 million addresses each, but have been exhausted at the IANA level since 2011. Only one of the RIRs still has a supply for local assignments in Africa; some IPv4 addresses are not globally unique. Network administrators assign an IP address to each device connected to a network; such assignments may be on a static or dynamic basis, depending on network practices and software features. An IP address serves two principal functions, it identifies the host, or more its network interface, it provides the location of the host in the network, thus the capability of establishing a path to that host. Its role has been characterized. An address indicates. A route indicates how to get there." The header of each IP packet contains the IP address of the sending host, that of the destination host. Two versions of the Internet Protocol are in common use in the Internet today; the original version of the Internet Protocol, first deployed in 1983 in the ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, is Internet Protocol version 4.

The rapid exhaustion of IPv4 address space available for assignment to Internet service providers and end user organizations by the early 1990s, prompted the Internet Engineering Task Force to explore new technologies to expand the addressing capability in the Internet. The result was a redesign of the Internet Protocol which became known as Internet Protocol Version 6 in 1995. IPv6 technology was in various testing stages until the mid-2000s, when commercial production deployment commenced. Today, these two versions of the Internet Protocol are in simultaneous use. Among other technical changes, each version defines the format of addresses differently; because of the historical prevalence of IPv4, the generic term IP address still refers to the addresses defined by IPv4. The gap in version sequence between IPv4 and IPv6 resulted from the assignment of version 5 to the experimental Internet Stream Protocol in 1979, which however was never referred to as IPv5. Other versions v1 to v9 were defined, but only v4 and v6 gained widespread use.

V1 and v2 were names for TCP protocols in 1974 and 1977, as there was to separate IP specification at the time. V3 was defined in 1978, v3.1 is the first version where TCP is separated from IP. v6 is a synthesis of several suggested versions, v6 Simple Internet Protocol, v7 TP/IX: The Next Internet, v8 PIP — The P Internet Protocol, v9 TUBA — Tcp & Udp with Big Addresses. IP networks may be divided into subnetworks in both IPv4 and IPv6. For this purpose, an IP address is recognized as consisting of two parts: the network prefix in the high-order bits and the remaining bits called the rest field, host identifier, or interface identifier, used for host numbering within a network; the subnet mask or CIDR notation determines how the IP address is divided into network and host parts. The term subnet mask is only used within IPv4. Both IP versions however use the CIDR notation. In this, the IP address is followed by a slash and the number of bits used for the network part called the routing prefix.

For example, an IPv4 address and its subnet mask may be 255.255.255.0, respectively. The CIDR notation for the same IP address and subnet is 192.0.2.1/24, because the first 24 bits of the IP address indicate the network and subnet. An IPv4 address has a size of 32 bits. Of this number, some addresses are reserved for special purposes such as private networks and multicast addressing. IPv4 addresses are represented in dot-decimal notation, consisting of four decimal numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g. 172.16.254.1. Each part represents a group of 8 bits of the address. In some cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in various hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations. In the early stages of development of the Internet Protocol, the network number was always the highest order octet; because this method allowed for only 256 networks, it soon proved inadequate as additional networks developed that were independent of the existing networks designated by a network number.

In 1981, the addressing specification was revised with the introduction of classful network architecture. Classful network des

Michael Melle

Michael George Melle was a South African cricketer who played in seven Tests from 1950 to 1953. Melle was educated at Hilton College. A "genuinely fast right-arm bowler", Melle made his first-class debut for Transvaal at the age of 18 against the touring MCC in Johannesburg in 1948–49, opening the bowling and taking one wicket. For his next match he was selected to play for a South African XI against the touring Australians in 1949–50 and took 4 for 82. After two matches for Transvaal against the Australians he was selected to open the bowling with Cuan McCarthy in the Fourth Test in Johannesburg, having taken just six first-class wickets at 38.33. Still only 19 years old, he took 5 for 113 and 1 for 58 in a drawn match 2 for 132 in the Fifth Test in Port Elizabeth, which Australia won by an innings, he played his first Currie Cup matches the following season, 1950–51. In the first, for Transvaal against Rhodesia in Salisbury, batting at number eight he scored 50, his highest score to date, took 2 for 13 and 2 for 30 in an innings victory.

In his next match, against Griqualand West in Johannesburg in 1950–51 he took 2 for 22 and 8 for 8, bowling Griqualand West out for 29 in the second innings. In six matches he took 27 wickets at 14.40, was selected to tour England in 1951. Despite missing several weeks of the tour owing to a hernia operation he headed the tour averages with 50 wickets at 20.28. However, he played only the Fifth Test the tour selectors preferring to use a two-man pace attack of McCarthy and Geoff Chubb for the first four Tests, he took his best innings and match figures for the tour after the Test series had finished: 2 for 22 and 6 for 71 against T. N. Pearce's XI at Scarborough, his form fell away somewhat in 1951–52 but in six matches he took 17 wickets at 27.35, as McCarthy was unavailable and Chubb had retired Melle was selected to tour Australasia in 1952–53 as the most experienced of the four pace bowlers in the team. Melle took seven expensive wickets in the five matches leading up to the First Test, but at Brisbane, bowling 46.5 eight-ball overs in the Test, he took 6 for 71 and 3 for 95, he and his opening partner Watkins "maintain an admirable consistency of length and hostility" in a match that Australia won narrowly.

However, he took only five wickets for 365 in the next three Tests and lost his place, despite a remarkable performance against Tasmania in Launceston: 3 for 34 in the first innings and, bowling unchanged in the second innings, 9 for 22. After two matches in the 1953–54 season he played no more first-class cricket, he was only 23 when he played his last match, hitting his highest first-class score of 59 and taking 2 for 56 and 3 for 28 to help Western Province to victory against Natal at the end of December 1953. His father Basil played for Western Province, Oxford University and Transvaal between 1909 and 1923. List of South Africa cricketers who have taken five-wicket hauls on Test debut Mick Melle at Cricket Archive Michael Melle at Cricinfo

German submarine U-1276

German submarine U-1276 was a Type VIIC/41 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, built for service during World War II. She was laid down at Bremer Vulkan of Bremen-Vegesack on 13 July 1943, she was commissioned 6 April 1944 with Oberleutnant zur See Karl Heinz Wendt in command. U-1276 was equipped with a submarine snorkel. German Type VIIC/41 submarines were preceded by the heavier Type VIIC submarines. U-1276 had a displacement of 759 tonnes when at 860 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres.

The submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-1276 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, one 3.7 cm Flak M42 and two 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between sixty. At 11:45 on 20 February 1945, U-1276 sank HMS Vervain, a Flower-class corvette escorting convoy HX 337. Vervain sank after 20 minutes about 25 nautical miles south-east of Ireland; the commander, three officers and 56 ratings were lost. Three officers and 31 ratings were rescued. HMS Amethyst, part of the same convoy sank U-1276 by depth charges, off Waterford, Ireland at position 51°48′N 07°07′W. All hands aboard the U-boat were lost. In 2006, a group of divers from Ardmore Diving discovered the wreck site of U-1276 some 20 nautical miles south of Youghal; the submarine is lying in 75 metres of water and intact, albeit visibly damaged by the depth charges that sank her.

Battle of the Atlantic "The Type VII/C41 boat U-1276". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 6 December 2014

Broken But Beautiful

Broken But Beautiful is a 2018 Hindi romance web series, created by Ekta Kapoor for her video on demand platform, ALTBalaji. The series stars Vikrant Harleen Sethi as the protagonists; the series revolves around love and never ending romance between two individuals. The series is available for streaming on the ZEE5 & ALT Balaji App and associated websites since its release; the series was renewed for a second season and filming began in July 2019. Broken But Beautiful is Veer and Sameera's story, where their hearts were left broken. Veer lost his wife Alina in a road accident 3 years ago but still hasn't been able to cope. Veer begins to hallucinate talks to her in his imagination. Alina's sister and her husband Adil are motivating him to move on in his life and try to spend time with him. Due to unavoidable circumstances Veer has to buy his cousin Karthik's house. Kartik moved on to date Ananya. Sameera stalks him everywhere, unable to move on. Since the house belonged to Karthik and Sameera, Veer needs Sameera's signatures on the sale papers.

When she signs the papers, Veer promises her to let her speak to Kartik one last time. Veer and Sameera pretend they are together to make Karthik jealous; the show revolves around the budding relationship between Sameera and Veer. Vikrant Massey as Veer Shekhawat Harleen Sethi as Sameera Joshi Sheetal Thakur as Alina, Veer's dead wife Pooja Bhamrah as Porno, Sameera's friend Akriti Singh as Agni, Sameera's friend Meherzan Mazda as Parth, Agni's Husband Jitin Gulati as Kartik, Veer's cousin and Sameera's ex Simran Kaur Mundi as Ananya, Kartik's new girlfriend Poppy Jabbal as Ishanvi, Alina's sister and Veer's supportive sister-in-law Nikhil Sabhrawal as Adil, Ishanvi's husband Vikrant Massey as Veer Shekhawat Harleen Sethi as Sameera Joshi Gaurav Arora as Ahan Chaterji Anuja Joshi as Debbie Sameer Roy as Neil Pooja Bhamrah as Rutuparna "Porno" Jitin Gulati as Kartik Shekhawat Poppy Jabbal as Ishanvi Nikhil Sabarwal as Adil Meherzan Mazda as Parth Broken But Beautiful Season 1 Broken But Beautiful Season 2 Broken But Beautiful on IMDb

Icky Thump

Icky Thump is the sixth and final studio album by the American rock duo the White Stripes. It was released June 15, 2007 in Germany, June 18, 2007 in the rest of Europe, June 19, 2007 in the rest of the world, it was the band's only album on Warner Bros. Records. Icky Thump entered the UK Albums Chart at number one and debuted at number two on the Billboard 200 with 223,000 copies sold, behind Lost Highway by Bon Jovi. By late July, Icky Thump was certified gold in the United States. On February 10, 2008, the album won a Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album. After Get Behind Me Satan, Icky Thump marks a return to the punk, garage rock and blues influences for which the band is known. Additionally, the album introduces Scottish folk music, avant-garde and bagpipes into the formula, whilst reintroducing older characteristics such as the first studio recording of the early White Stripes song "Little Cream Soda". Icky Thump was recorded and mixed in analog at Nashville's Blackbird Studio by Joe Chiccarelli.

According to Chiccarelli in an interview with HitQuarters, the band had rehearsed and demoed around half the album, with the rest being conceived in the studio. The album took three weeks to record—the longest of any White Stripes album; the recording differed from previous albums in that White had the comparative luxury of recording to 16-track analog rather than his usual 8-track. Chiccarelli said: "We spent a little more time than he is used to experimenting and trying different things on that album, whether it was different ways to record the drums or the vocals, or different arrangements, or cutting takes together." Trumpet player Regulo Aldama, who appears on "Conquest", was discovered by Jack White at a local Mexican restaurant. Jack White said that the album would appeal to fans of the band's self-titled debut, suggesting a stripped-down garage rock sound. A statement on the band's official website humorously claims that: Entertainment Weekly's online site had an interview with Michel Gondry in which he said he would be directing a video for "I'm Slowly Turning Into You".

He mentions the idea for the video. Gondry says that the video idea came first, after mentioning the idea to Jack White, White wrote the song to fit that idea. On May 30, 2007, Chicago radio station Q101 aired the entire album without the band's permission. Jack reacted angrily about them playing it. There is speculation that the label supplied the album to the station in order to promote its release. In the liner notes of Icky Thump, "Electra" is thanked on the second line, just after God. According to Ben Blackwell, Jack White's nephew, this is not directed towards the radio DJ, but to a pet Jack and Meg White used to have; the White Stripes announced the completion of Icky Thump on February 28, 2007. The title is derived from "ecky thump", a Lancashire colloquial response of surprise, popularized by an episode of the 1970s UK comedy series The Goodies. On Later with Jools Holland Jack attributed the album's name to its use as an exclamation by his wife, from Oldham in Lancashire, he added that the deliberate misspelling was to make it easier for an American audience to identify with.

The liner notes for Icky Thump suggest the spelling variation was due to concerns over copyright infringement. The Pearly Kings and Queens costume theme that the band used for this album is a traditional Cockney outfit, somewhat contrary to the Northern dialect of the title. Jack White told Blender in July 2007 that Icky Thump "is about feeling positive about being alive, taking deep breaths and just being happy." The album artwork features Meg dressed as Pearlies. To promote Icky Thump before its release, the band distributed custom-designed boxes and previewed tracks from the record through Ice Cream Man; the ice cream promotion focused on the Coachella and Bonnaroo festivals and culminated in the band's release show on June 20, 2007 at the site of the former West Hollywood Tower Records on Sunset Blvd. Temporarily rechristened Icky Thump. Records. In addition to being released on CD and 180 gram vinyl, the band released the album on a limited edition 512 MB USB drive, designed by British artist Stanley Chow There are two versions, one of which depicts Jack, the other depicting Meg.

The pressing was limited to 3,333 of each, were shipped the week of the U. S. release. Each drive contained the album in Apple lossless format; the 180 g vinyl edition contains alternate versions of both "Icky Thump" and "Rag and Bone". "Icky Thump" is a different mix to the digital version and is edited to be 14 seconds shorter. "Rag and Bone" is a different mix but in addition contains different vocals for each verse and is missing the harmonies from the last chorus. The sound quality of the digital versions has been criticized for being mastered too loudly and with excessive peak limiting. Critics claim this results in clipping or "digital distortion" which can be heard as crackling during bass drum hits; the vinyl version was mastered by Steve Hoffman. A special mono mix of Icky Thump was available on 180 gram vinyl for a short time to Third Man Vault Premium Account subscribers; the album received critical acclaim, with an overall average rating of 80 out of 100 at Metacritic. Barry Nicolson with British magazine NME wrote, "Icky Thump is brilliant, there's no way around that."

Commenting on the album's "fuller sound and relaxed flights of fancy," Heather Phares of AllMusic said "Icky Thump is a mature, but far

Radha (film)

Radha is a 2017 Indian Telugu language romantic comedy action drama film written and directed by Chandra Mohan, making his debut. The film which tells the story of Lord Krishna in modern times, is produced by Bhogavalli Bapineedu under Sri Venkateswara Cine Chitra; the film features Sharwanand and Lavanya Tripathi in lead roles along with Aksha Pardasany in an extended cameo role. Ashish Vidyarthi, Ravi Kishan, Kota Srinivasa Rao play supporting roles; the score and soundtrack is composed by Radhan and cinematography is by Karthik Ghattamneni. The film released on 12 May 2017. Radha Krishna grows up admiring Lord Krishna, he does not miss any chance to know about his stories of protecting Dharma. An incident makes him believe that he can help people in need by becoming a police officer just like Krishna did. After completing his studies, he helps the police bust a gang and gets a police job with special permission. Radha Krishna completes his training in Hyderabad and gets posted to a small village in Warangal district.

He feels unhappy in the beginning that he had not gotten any adventurous work that he had always dreamt of, but he sees a girl named Radha and tries to win her heart. Meanwhile, the home minister of the state wants to become a chief minister and tries to influence the party observer and current chief minister. However, the party observer declares his aide MLA Sujatha as a candidate for the post of Chief Minister, a honest leader. On the other end, Radha Krishna gets transferred to Hyderabad. Bomb blasts occur in Sujatha's election campaign. In the bomb blast, Radha Krishna loses his colleagues and promises to take revenge on the responsibility for the bomb blasts, it is revealed that those bomb blasts were planned by Sujatha himself to gain sympathy from the people as an aspirant for the Chief Minister position. Meanwhile, due to Radha Krishna's unpredictable actions, Sujatha gets suspicious on Radha and promotes him to his personal security. In the course of events, it is revealed by his henchmen that Radha Krishna is well-aware of Sujatha's plans and actions.

After some comical sequences and fights, Radha Krishna reveals Sujatha's true nature in the public. Sujatha dies. Radha Krishna concludes with a message that the public must respect the police as it is them that protect and maintain the good in the society just like Lord Krishna did during his entire life; the film ends with Radha Krishna again getting transferred to another place. The music was released on Times Music Company. Radha on IMDb