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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

IPv6

Internet Protocol version 6 is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol, the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force to deal with the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion. IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4. In December 1998, IPv6 became a Draft Standard for the IETF, who subsequently ratified it as an Internet Standard on 14 July 2017. Devices on the Internet are assigned a unique IP address for location definition. With the rapid growth of the Internet after commercialization in the 1990s, it became evident that far more addresses would be needed to connect devices than the IPv4 address space had available. By 1998, the Internet Engineering Task Force had formalized the successor protocol. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address, theoretically allowing 2128, or 3.4×1038 addresses. The actual number is smaller, as multiple ranges are reserved for special use or excluded from use.

The two protocols are not designed to be interoperable, thus direct communication between them is impossible, complicating the move to IPv6. However, several transition mechanisms have been devised to rectify this. IPv6 provides other technical benefits in addition to a larger addressing space. In particular, it permits hierarchical address allocation methods that facilitate route aggregation across the Internet, thus limit the expansion of routing tables; the use of multicast addressing is expanded and simplified, provides additional optimization for the delivery of services. Device mobility and configuration aspects have been considered in the design of the protocol. IPv6 addresses are represented as eight groups, separated by colons, of four hexadecimal digits; the full representation may be simplified by several methods of notation. IPv6 is an Internet Layer protocol for packet-switched internetworking and provides end-to-end datagram transmission across multiple IP networks adhering to the design principles developed in the previous version of the protocol, Internet Protocol Version 4.

In addition to offering more addresses, IPv6 implements features not present in IPv4. It simplifies aspects of address configuration, network renumbering, router announcements when changing network connectivity providers, it simplifies processing of packets in routers by placing the responsibility for packet fragmentation into the end points. The IPv6 subnet size is standardized by fixing the size of the host identifier portion of an address to 64 bits; the addressing architecture of IPv6 is defined in RFC 4291 and allows three different types of transmission: unicast and multicast. Internet Protocol Version 4 was the first publicly used version of the Internet Protocol. IPv4 was developed as a research project by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a United States Department of Defense agency, before becoming the foundation for the Internet and the World Wide Web. IPv4 includes an addressing system; these addresses are displayed in quad-dotted notation as decimal values of four octets, each in the range 0 to 255, or 8 bits per number.

Thus, IPv4 provides an addressing capability of 232 or 4.3 billion addresses. Address exhaustion was not a concern in IPv4 as this version was presumed to be a test of DARPA's networking concepts. During the first decade of operation of the Internet, it became apparent that methods had to be developed to conserve address space. In the early 1990s after the redesign of the addressing system using a classless network model, it became clear that this would not suffice to prevent IPv4 address exhaustion, that further changes to the Internet infrastructure were needed; the last unassigned top-level address blocks of 16 million IPv4 addresses were allocated in February 2011 by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority to the five regional Internet registries. However, each RIR still has available address pools and is expected to continue with standard address allocation policies until one /8 Classless Inter-Domain Routing block remains. After that, only blocks of 1024 addresses will be provided from the RIRs to a local Internet registry.

As of September 2015, all of Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre, the Réseaux IP Européens Network Coordination Centre, Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre, American Registry for Internet Numbers have reached this stage. This leaves African Network Information Center as the sole regional internet registry, still using the normal protocol for distributing IPv4 addresses; as of November 2018, AFRINIC's minimum allocation is / 1024 IPv4 addresses. A LIR may receive additional allocation. RIPE NCC announced that it had run out of IPv4 addresses on November 25, 2019, called for greater progress on the adoption of IPv6, it is expected that the Internet will use IPv4 alongside IPv6 for the foreseeable future. On the Internet, data is transmitted in the form of network packets. IPv6 specifies a new packet format, designed to minimize packet header processing by routers; because the headers of IPv4 packets and IPv6 packets are different, the two protocols are not interoperable. However, most transport and application-layer protocols need little or no change to operate over IPv6.

Baby (Anton Powers and Pixie Lott song)

"Baby" is a song performed by British DJ and producer Anton Powers and English singer Pixie Lott. The song was released in the United Kingdom as a digital download on 31 March 2017 through 3Beat Productions; the song peaked at number 97 on number 28 on the Scottish Singles Chart. Talking about the single, Pixie said, "I've been away in the studio for the past few months and I can't wait for my fans to hear everything I've been working on – it feels like a new chapter for me. I had a lot of fun working with Anton on Baby. We first met years ago when he remixed my song "Gravity" but we bumped into each other in Ibiza last Summer and I knew he was someone I wanted to work with again." Anton Powers and Pixie Lott gave their first live performance of the song on The Voice UK Final on 1 April 2017. Powers and Lott performed the song on All Round to Mrs. Brown's on 8 April 2017. A music video to accompany the release of "Baby" was first released onto YouTube on 14 April 2017 at a total length of three minutes and nineteen seconds

Jamal Mohamed

Jamal Mohamed known as Jamal Malo, is a Kenyan footballer who plays for Al-Nasr S. C. S. C. in Oman Professional League. Jamal is considered as Kenya's most stylish footballer. Jamal says that he loves his life however rich he becomes, he will continue living in the populous estate that borders Eastleigh and Ziwani, he is a hero to both the old in the estate. Whenever he is around the estate he draws a great deal of public attention from his adoring fans who considered him as one of the most talented footballers to have come from the sprawling estate. Many fans believe that it is the kind of laid back, slow life in the estate that has affected the Kenyan's career. Jamal believes. Gifted with great football skills and magical touching and passing ability, he is considered as one of Kenya's most calculative player. “People need to understand the talent in Jamal. He is that kind of player, he may look like a slow player but he is calculative,” former Kenya national football team coach, Jacob Mulee once said about him.

But with the talent, a particular section of the country believes that Jamal has not used the gift to his best. He has had a penchant for changing clubs at an alarming rate, at times he has played a starring role for a club, two months he was without a club. Kenyan footballing legends believe that his walk-in, walk-out habit in him is what has affected the growth of his career. “I want to settle in one club and build my career, but in some cases I find it hard to acclimatize. In other places, I find the coach unwilling to field me so I leave,” Jamal once said. Prior to the second leg match of 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification between Kenya and Nigeria was photographed partying and smoking shisha while the team was in camp. In the past he had never been involved in any indiscipline cases as reported in a section of the media. "I give my all when in the pitch contrary to. I should be judged on what I do in the pitch and I am not the shisha player. I want to humbly thank the coach for having faith in me when many could have opted to drop me.

My aspiration is to work hard to justify my call up to the National team. When in the team my role is to give my all to get positive results,” he said in reply to the reports in the media. Jamal began his footballing career in 1998 with Mathare-based Mathare Youth Sports Association and played there for the next five years, he first moved out of Kenya in 2006 to Ghana where he signed a short-term contract with Accra-based Ghana Premier League club, Liberty Professionals F. C. With his great display of skills and set pieces, he caught the attention of various top clubs in the African continent and a few from Europe one of, the Swedish club, Enköpings SK. In 2007, he moved to Sweden where he signed a long-term contract with Superettan side, Enköpings SK, he made 9 appearances for the Enköping-based club in the 2007 Superettan. He scored 2 goals in 24 appearances in the 2008 Superettan which included a goal on 29 May 2008 in a 2-1 loss against IK Sirius Fotboll and another on 12 July 2008 in a 3-2 win over Falkenbergs FF.

In spite of being in top form, Jamal couldn't help the Swedish side avoid relegation to Swedish Football Division 1. In the 2009 Swedish football Division 1, he scored 2 goals in 12 appearances which included a goal on 3 May 2009 in a 3-2 win over Skellefteå FF and another on 22 June 2009 in a 4-2 loss against Valsta Syrianska IK. In August 2009, the club terminated his contract on a mutual consent. In 2009, he again moved out of Kenya and this time to the Middle East where he signed a two-year contract with Kuwaiti Premier League club, Kazma SC, he scored 7 goals in 23 appearances in the 2009–10 Kuwaiti Premier League. He made a few appearances in the 2010 Kuwait Emir Cup and scored a goal in a 1-1 draw against Al-Sahel SC in the First Round in a match, won by Kazma 4-1 on penalties which included a penalty from Jamal. In the 2009-10 season, he made 9 appearances in the 2010 AFC Cup and helped his side to reach the Quarter-finals of the competition where his side 4-2 on aggregate to eventual winners of the competition, Al-Ittihad SC Aleppo of Syria.

He scored 2 goals in 21 appearances in the 2010–11 Kuwaiti Premier League and scored a goal in a 5-0 win over Khaitan SC in the Group Stage match of the 2010–11 Kuwaiti Federation Cup. In the 2010 -- 11, he helped. In July 2011, he moved back to Europe and more to Romania where he signed a short-term contract with Liga I side, FCM Tîrgu Mureș, he made his Liga I debut on 30 July 2011 in a 2-0 loss against CFR Cluj. He made an appearance in the Round of 16 of the 2011–12 Cupa României on 20 September 2011 in a 2-1 loss against FC Oțelul Galați at the Stadionul Oțelul, Galați, he made 6 appearances in the 2011–12 Liga I. In December 2011, he moved back to Kenya and on 1 January 2012, he signed a one-year contract with his former and parent club, Mathare United F. C. During the first leg of the season, Jamal fell out one of Mathare United's coaching staff members over what the coach termed as gross indiscipline which included absconding training sessions. After claims of lacking focus and drive during the club's training sessions, from the coach, Mathare United F.

C.'s management decided to terminate the player's contract thus putting an end to his one-year contract with the Mathare-based club. While he was at his parent club, Mathare United, news speculated that he would join 2009 Kenyan Premier League champions and fierce rivals, Sofapaka F. C. There was another speculation of the Kenyan again moving t

Release Me (Agnes song)

"Release Me" is a pop song recorded by Swedish singer Agnes Carlsson taken from her third album, Dance Love Pop. The track was written by Anders Hansson and Sharon Vaughn, it was released as the album's second single as Agnes's debut single internationally. "Release Me" was another top ten hit for Agnes in Sweden and charted in Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Worldwide, the single sold over 900,000 copies, making it Agnes' biggest hit to date. In July 2009, "Release Me" was released outside of Europe for the first time, in Australia, on Warner Music; the song was released in the United States on August 18, 2009 where it hit number one on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs chart. The BBC's "Chartblog" said "73% of why this is a great song rests with those amazing swooping harmonies. That's not to take anything away from Agnes's vocal talents, it's just her honeyed-rasp, set to a synth-disco backing, is not THAT startlingly new a sound."Nick Levine of Digital Spy called "Release Me" "far classier" than other europop, reaching the UK, like September and Velvet.

He said that " the all-conquering chorus and thumping beats are present and correct, but this has lashings of strings and lavish production flourishes too." "Release Me" was released to radio stations and as a digital download in Sweden on November 24, 2008. and entered the Swedish Singles Chart at number sixty based on digital downloads and climbed the chart and peaked at number nine. The song made its international debut on the Danish Singles Chart on February 27, 2009 at number thirty-nine and has so far peaked at number six and sold gold with more than 15,000 copies sold, it debuted on the Flanders Ultratop 50 chart on April 11, 2009 at number forty-seven and peaked at number seven, in Wallonia the song debuted in the Ultratop 50 chart at number thirty-three and peaked at number six. The single was released in the United Kingdom in May 2009, it debuted and peaked number 3 on the UK Singles Chart and has so far sold over 350 000 units since its release. It peaked within the top 10 in Ireland.

During the summer of 2009 "Release me" was able to reach a lot of charts all over Europe. In the Slovakian and Slovenian Singles Chart it peaked at two respectively. After a few weeks on the French download charts and music video charts, "Release Me" entered the Official French Singles Chart at seven in late July, it entered a lot of French charts and became the third most played song on French radio during 2009. The song was ranked high on a number of airplay charts all over Europe. In 2010 the song was translated to Italian and French by the investment banker/art producer Olivier Doria. On July 27 "Release Me" entered the first chart outside of Europe, the Australian Dance Chart at eleven, however on the overall ARIA Charts it peaked at only No. 26. It has entered the US Billboard Hot Dance Club Play Chart at 38, peaked at one; the song was released in 35 countries all over the world. After twelve weeks on the Swedish Singles Chart in early 2009, "Release Me" left the chart, but on September 25, 2009, the song re-entered at 44 after its appearance in Swedish Idol.

Radio stations started to play the 2009 single again, after Agnes's live performance at the final of Swedish Idol it climbed higher on the charts. In January 2010, "Release Me" entered the top five at Swedish iTunes and reached number 11 on the official chart, giving the song a total of 31 weeks over three years on the Swedish 60 Top Singles Chart; the music video for "Release Me" premiered on November 28, 2008, the same day that the song was released for sale in Sweden. The video was directed by the swede Anders Rune, who made the video for Agnes's single On and On, made for the Swedish and Dutch market; the video begins with Agnes laying in front of an orange wall. Agnes walks through the streets of Stockholm at night seeing people dancing and preparing for a night out at a club. In the next scene everyone has arrived at the club and they are dancing while Agnes is standing against a wall with a man holding her. Agnes leaves the club and walks down the street to another club; the next scene shows a bathroom where Agnes is doing her make-up in front of a mirror while two other girls are dancing in the background.

These are the main parts of the video, other sequences are shown of people dancing in various places and Agnes singing in front of the orange wall. The music video had a massive impact in the UK, where it started to spin on radio stations and TV channels in February 2009 four months before the release of the song; the song was frequently shown in other parts of Europe, with honors like "song of the week" and "artist of the month" to follow. The music video made for the European market was rejected by the American record company, Geffen/Interscope, according to director Thomas Kloss she looked far too grown up. Therefore, a new video was shot in Los Angeles in early September; the video was produced by Brett Marx. The new music video premiered one week after the new "On and On" video exclusive on September 30 on Popeater.com and one day after on Geffen's website and YouTube channel. The U. S video starts off with Agnes standing in the studio recording "Release Me" and for a few seconds you hear the a cappella version of the song, when she rushes out the door and, together with her friends, walks to a club.

The set-up and structure of the video is similar to the original one, a major part of the video takes place in the club dancing. Agnes performed "Release Me" live in the UK on morning TV show GMTV on June 10, 2009

Banded iron formation

Banded iron formations are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are always of Precambrian age. A typical banded iron formation consists of repeated, thin layers of silver to black iron oxides, either magnetite or hematite, alternating with bands of iron-poor shales and cherts red in color, of similar thickness, containing microbands of iron oxides; some of the oldest known rock formations, are associated with banded iron formations. Banded iron formations account for more than 60% of global iron reserves, can be found in Australia, Canada, Russia, South Africa and the United States; the formations are abundant around the time of the great oxygenation event, 2,400 million years ago, become less common after 1,800 mya with evidence pointing to intermittent low levels of free atmospheric oxygen. 750 million years ago new banded iron formations formed that may be associated with the theoretical Snowball Earth. The conventional hypothesis is that the banded iron layers were formed in sea water as the result of oxygen released by photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

The oxygen combined with dissolved iron in Earth's oceans to form insoluble iron oxides, which precipitated out, forming a thin layer on the ocean floor, which may have been anoxic mud. Each band is similar to a varve, to the extent that the banding is assumed to result from cyclic variations in available oxygen, it is unclear whether these banded ironstone formations were seasonal, followed some feedback oscillation in the ocean's complex system or followed some other cycle. It is assumed that the Earth started with vast amounts of iron and nickel dissolved in the world's acidic seas; as photosynthetic organisms generated oxygen, the available iron in the Earth's oceans precipitated out as iron oxides. At a suspected tipping point where the oceans became permanently oxygenated, small variations in oxygen production produced periods of free oxygen in the surface waters, alternating with periods of iron oxide deposition. BIFs occur in two forms and Superior-type. Algoma-type are smaller in size and formed in the Archean.

Algoma-type BIFs are found in volcanic rocks in greenstone belts. The formation process involves the chemical precipitation of iron in anoxic environments; when oxidized the iron would sink to the bottom of the seafloor. As the oxygen levels continuously shift, the magnetite beds interlayered with amorphous/microcrystalline quartz. Superior type are the second and larger form of BIFs, they formed during the Paleoproterozoic era, occurring on continental shelves and can be found around the world. Superior types were formed by chemical precipitation in shallow waters due to increasing ocean oxygen levels reacting with dissolved iron ions in the oceans. Under calm shallow conditions, released during photosynthesis by blue-green algae, would combine with the iron to create insoluble magnetite, which would sink and be deposited on the seafloor; until 1992 it was assumed that the rare banded iron deposits represented unusual conditions where oxygen was depleted locally. Iron-rich waters would form in isolation and subsequently come into contact with oxygenated water.

The Snowball Earth hypothesis provided an alternative explanation for these younger deposits. In a Snowball Earth state the continents, seas at low latitudes, were subject to a severe ice age circa 750 to 580 million years ago that nearly or depleted free oxygen. Dissolved iron accumulated in the oxygen-poor oceans. Following the thawing of the Earth, the seas became oxygenated once more causing the precipitation of the iron. An alternative mechanism for banded iron formations in the Snowball Earth era suggests the iron was deposited from metal-rich brines in the vicinity of hydrothermally active rift zones. Alternatively, some geochemists suggest that banded iron formations could form by direct oxidation of iron by microbial anoxygenic phototrophs. Banded iron formations in northern Minnesota were found directly underneath a thick layer of ejecta from the Sudbury Basin impact. At the time of formation Earth had a single supercontinent called Columbia with substantial continental shelves. An asteroid slammed into waters about 1,000 m deep some 1.85 billion years ago.

Computer models suggest that the tsunami would have been at least 1,000 metres high at the centre, 100 metres high about 3,000 kilometres away. Those immense waves and large underwater landslides triggered by the impact stirred the ocean, bringing oxygenated waters from the surface down to the ocean floor. Sediments deposited on the seafloor before the impact, including banded iron formations, contained little if any oxidized iron, but were high in reduced iron; this Fe to Fe ratio suggests that most parts of the ocean were devoid of oxygen. Marine sediments deposited after the impact included substantial amounts of Fe but little Fe; this suggests. Following the impact dissolved iron was mixed into the deepest parts of the ocean; this would have choked off most of the supply of Fe to shallower waters where banded iron formations accumulated. The geological record suggests that environmental changes were happening in oceans worldwide before the Sudbury impact; the role of the Sudbury Basin impact in temporarily shutting down band

Ivan Sharpe

Ivan Gordon Sharpe was an English amateur footballer. Although an amateur himself, he played for several professional clubs, including Watford, Derby County— with whom he won the Football League First Division in 1911–12–and Leeds United, he represented the England national amateur football team, the Great Britain Olympic football team, with whom he won an Olympic gold medal at the 1912 games in Sweden. He is one of few players to have played for both Leeds City and Leeds United. After retirement he enjoyed a long career as a sports journalist, becoming president of the Football Writers Association, he served as editor of the Athletic News Football Annual and of the Athletic News Cricket Annual. In 1936 he was selected by the BBC to be one of two journalists who for the first time provided live commentary on the FA Cup Final, he continued to contribute a hard-hitting article to the Wolverhampton Wanderers match day programme for many years right up to his death. He produced a volume of memoirs "40 Years in Football" in 1954, as well as writing "Soccer Top Ten" in 1962, detailing his ten favorite players.

Specific GeneralJones, Trefor. The Watford Football Club Illustrated Who's Who. Pp. 209–210. ISBN 0-9527458-0-1. "Ivan Sharp Olympic games profile". Retrieved 14 January 2010