In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules. A firewall establishes a barrier between a trusted internal network and untrusted external network, such as the Internet. Firewalls are categorized as either network firewalls or host-based firewalls. Network run on network hardware. Host-based firewalls run on host computers and control network traffic out of those machines; the term firewall referred to a wall intended to confine a fire within a building. Uses refer to similar structures, such as the metal sheet separating the engine compartment of a vehicle or aircraft from the passenger compartment; the term was applied in the late 1980s to network technology that emerged when the Internet was new in terms of its global use and connectivity. The predecessors to firewalls for network security were the routers used in the late 1980s, because they separated networks from one another, thus halting the spread of problems from one network to another.
The first reported type of network firewall is called a packet filter. Packet filters act by inspecting packets transferred between computers; when a packet does not match the packet filter's set of filtering rules, the packet filter either drops the packet, or rejects the packet else it is allowed to pass. Packets may be filtered by source and destination network addresses, protocol and destination port numbers; the bulk of Internet communication in 20th and early 21st century used either Transmission Control Protocol or User Datagram Protocol in conjunction with well-known ports, enabling firewalls of that era to distinguish between, thus control, specific types of traffic, unless the machines on each side of the packet filter used the same non-standard ports. The first paper published on firewall technology was in 1988, when engineers from Digital Equipment Corporation developed filter systems known as packet filter firewalls. At AT&T Bell Labs, Bill Cheswick and Steve Bellovin continued their research in packet filtering and developed a working model for their own company based on their original first generation architecture.
From 1989–1990, three colleagues from AT&T Bell Laboratories, Dave Presotto, Janardan Sharma, Kshitij Nigam, developed the second generation of firewalls, calling them circuit-level gateways. Second-generation firewalls perform the work of their first-generation predecessors but maintain knowledge of specific conversations between endpoints by remembering which port number the two IP addresses are using at layer 4 of the OSI model for their conversation, allowing examination of the overall exchange between the nodes; this type of firewall is vulnerable to denial-of-service attacks that bombard the firewall with fake connections in an attempt to overwhelm the firewall by filling its connection state memory. Marcus Ranum, Wei Xu, Peter Churchyard released an application firewall known as Firewall Toolkit in October 1993; this became the basis for Gauntlet firewall at Trusted Information Systems. The key benefit of application layer filtering is that it can understand certain applications and protocols.
This is useful as it is able to detect if an unwanted application or service is attempting to bypass the firewall using a disallowed protocol on an allowed port, or detect if a protocol is being abused in any harmful way. As of 2012, the so-called next-generation firewall is nothing more than the "wider" or "deeper" inspection at the application layer. For example, the existing deep packet inspection functionality of modern firewalls can be extended to include: Intrusion prevention systems User identity management integration Web application firewall. WAF attacks may be implemented in the tool "WAF Fingerprinting utilizing timing side channels" Firewalls are categorized as network-based or host-based. Network-based firewalls are positioned on the gateway computers of WANs and intranets, they are either software appliances running on general-purpose hardware, or hardware-based firewall computer appliances. Firewall appliances may offer other functionality to the internal network they protect, such as acting as a DHCP or VPN server for that network.
Host-based firewalls are positioned on the network node itself and control network traffic in and out of those machines. The host-based firewall may be a daemon or service as a part of the operating system or an agent application such as endpoint security or protection; each has disadvantages. However, each has a role in layered security. Firewalls vary in type depending on where communication originates, where it is intercepted, the state of communication being traced. Network layer firewalls called packet filters, operate at a low level of the TCP/IP protocol stack, not allowing packets to pass through the firewall unless they match the established rule set; the firewall administrator may define the rules. The term "packet filter" originated in the context of BSD operating systems. Network layer firewalls fall into two sub-categories and stateless. Used packet filters on various versions of Unix are ipfw, NPF, PF, ip
Windows 8 is a personal computer operating system, produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. The operating system was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, with general availability on October 26, 2012. Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS. In particular, these changes included a touch-optimized Windows shell based on Microsoft's "Metro" design language, the Start screen, a new platform for developing "apps" with an emphasis on touchscreen input, integration with online services, Windows Store, an online store for downloading and purchasing new software. Windows 8 added support for USB 3.0, Advanced Format hard drives, near field communications, cloud computing. Additional security features were introduced, such as built-in antivirus software, integration with Microsoft SmartScreen phishing filtering service and support for UEFI Secure Boot on supported devices with UEFI firmware, to prevent malware from infecting the boot process.
Windows 8 was released to a mixed critical reception. Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was criticized for being confusing and difficult to learn when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. Despite these shortcomings, 60 million Windows 8 licenses were sold through January 2013, a number that included both upgrades and sales to OEMs for new PCs. On October 17, 2013, Microsoft released Windows 8.1. It addressed some aspects of Windows 8 that were criticized by reviewers and early adopters and incorporated additional improvements to various aspects of the operating system. Windows 8 was succeeded by Windows 10 in July 2015. Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for Windows 8 RTM on January 12, 2016, per Microsoft lifecycle policies regarding service packs, Windows 8.1 must be installed to maintain support and receive further updates.
Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped in 2009. At the Consumer Electronics Show in January 2011, it was announced that the next version of Windows would add support for ARM system-on-chips alongside the existing x86 processors produced by vendors AMD and Intel. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise." Details began to surface about a new application framework for Windows 8 codenamed "Jupiter", which would be used to make "immersive" applications using XAML that could be distributed via a new packaging system and a rumored application store. Three milestone releases of Windows 8 leaked to the general public. Milestone 1, Build 7850, was leaked on April 12, 2011, it was the first build where the text of a window was written centered instead of aligned to the left. It was probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, its wallpaper had the text shhh... let's not leak our hard work.
However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. The leaked copy was Enterprise edition; the OS still reads as "Windows 7". Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011; the traditional Blue Screen of Death was replaced by a new black screen, although this was scrapped. This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Build 7959, with minor changes but the first 64-bit version was leaked on May 1, 2011; the "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". On June 17, 2011, build 7989 64-bit edition was leaked, it introduced a new boot screen featuring the same fish as the default Windows 7 Beta wallpaper, scrapped, the circling dots as featured in the final. It had the text Welcome below them, although this was scrapped. On June 1, 2011, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8's new user interface, as well as additional features at both Computex Taipei and the D9: All Things Digital conference in California; the "Building Windows 8" blog launched on August 15, 2011, featuring details surrounding Windows 8's features and its development process.
Microsoft unveiled more Windows 8 features and improvements on the first day of the Build conference on September 13, 2011. Microsoft released the first public beta build of Windows Developer Preview at the event. A Samsung tablet running the build was distributed to conference attendees; the build was released for download in the day in standard 32-bit and 64-bit versions, plus a special 64-bit version which included SDKs and developer tools for developing Metro-style apps. The Windows Store was not available in this build. According to Microsoft, there were about 535,000 downloads of the developer preview within the first 12 hours of its release. Set to expire on March 11, 2012, in February 2012 the Developer Preview's expiry date was changed to January 15, 2013. On February 19, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new logo to be adopted for Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Additionally, the entire logo is now rend
DIVI Translation refers to a dual stateless IPv4/IPv6 translation technique. DIVI is an extension of 1:1 stateless IPv4/IPv6 translation with features of IPv4 address sharing and dual translation. DIVI-PD is a further extension of dIVI to be well used in Wireline and Wireless access environment, where the prefix delegation is preferred. DIVI-PD is now standardized as MAP-T in the IETF. dIVI Translation is intended to benefit the network operators to share the public IPv4 addresses among a set of customers. In parallel, it leverages IPv6 in the network in a manner that makes IPv4-customer originated traffic looks like native IPv6 traffic in the network, resulting in simplified operations. More dIVI/dIVI-PD does not require any Stateful NAT, DNS64 and ALG in the network, thereby benefiting the network operator to not deal with any NAT logging etc. dIVI maintains end-to-end address transparency and bidirectional-initiated communications. Address translation defined in RFC6052 is a stateless mapping scheme, which embeds IPv4 address in network specific IPv6 prefix and forms IPv4-converted and IPv4-translatable addresses.
The IPv4-converted IPv6 addresses are the IPv6 addresses used to represent IPv4 nodes in an IPv6 network. The IPv4-translatable IPv6 addresses are the IPv6 addresses assigned to IPv6 nodes for use with stateless translation. Suffix extension enables multiple IPv6 nodes sharing a single public IPv4 address, with each node managing a different range of ports; this is achieved by defining suffix of the address format RFC6052. Header translation and ICMP translation defined in RFC6145 are algorithms to perform header translation between IPv4 and IPv6, as well as between ICMP and ICMPv6. Dual stateless translation can restore original IPv4 address; the advantage of stateless NAT464 is that the DNS translation DNS64 and application layer gateway ALG are not needed. Prefix extension is only applied to dIVI-PD, it constructs different delegated prefixes for each CPE. Considerations for Stateless Translation in Large SP Network Stateless Translation techniques have been gaining traction at the IETF as well as production networks.
IVI is now an IETF informational RFC, where dIVI is being discussed. Many operators have submitted a motivation document to push the IETF to standardize Stateless 4v6 techniques such as dIVI. Stateless 4Via6 Address Sharing demystifies the upsides with any Statelss 4v6 techniques, it is worth pointing out that dIVI/dIVI-PD, unlike CGN44, DS-Lite, CGN64 etc. does not require any Stateful NAT, DNS64 and ALG in the network, thereby benefiting the network operator to not deal with any NAT logging etc. Due to the stateless nature, the dual stateless translation can become single stateless translation by removing the second translator, see IVI Translation. Www.ivi2.org
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies used in local area networks, metropolitan area networks and wide area networks. It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, has since retained a good deal of backward compatibility and been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET; the original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches. Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second to the latest 400 gigabits per second. The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames; each frame contains source and destination addresses, error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded.
As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up including the data link layer. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols including Wi-Fi wireless networking technology. Ethernet is used in home and industry; the Internet Protocol is carried over Ethernet and so it is considered one of the key technologies that make up the Internet. Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974, it was inspired by ALOHAnet. The idea was first documented in a memo that Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the luminiferous aether once postulated to exist as an "omnipresent, completely-passive medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves." In 1975, Xerox filed a patent application listing Metcalfe, David Boggs, Chuck Thacker, Butler Lampson as inventors. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper; that same year, Ron Crane, Bob Garner, Roy Ogus facilitated the upgrade from the original 2.94 Mbit/s protocol to the 10 Mbit/s protocol, released to the market in 1980.
Metcalfe left Xerox in June 1979 to form 3Com. He convinced Digital Equipment Corporation and Xerox to work together to promote Ethernet as a standard; as part of that process Xerox agreed to relinquish their'Ethernet' trademark. The first standard was published on September 1980 as "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network. Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications"; this so-called DIX standard specified 10 Mbit/s Ethernet, with 48-bit destination and source addresses and a global 16-bit Ethertype-type field. Version 2 was published in November, 1982 and defines what has become known as Ethernet II. Formal standardization efforts proceeded at the same time and resulted in the publication of IEEE 802.3 on June 23, 1983. Ethernet competed with Token Ring and other proprietary protocols. Ethernet was able to adapt to market realities and shift to inexpensive thin coaxial cable and ubiquitous twisted pair wiring. By the end of the 1980s, Ethernet was the dominant network technology. In the process, 3Com became a major company.
3Com shipped its first 10 Mbit/s Ethernet 3C100 NIC in March 1981, that year started selling adapters for PDP-11s and VAXes, as well as Multibus-based Intel and Sun Microsystems computers. This was followed by DEC's Unibus to Ethernet adapter, which DEC sold and used internally to build its own corporate network, which reached over 10,000 nodes by 1986, making it one of the largest computer networks in the world at that time. An Ethernet adapter card for the IBM PC was released in 1982, and, by 1985, 3Com had sold 100,000. Parallel port based Ethernet adapters were produced with drivers for DOS and Windows. By the early 1990s, Ethernet became so prevalent that it was a must-have feature for modern computers, Ethernet ports began to appear on some PCs and most workstations; this process was sped up with the introduction of 10BASE-T and its small modular connector, at which point Ethernet ports appeared on low-end motherboards. Since Ethernet technology has evolved to meet new bandwidth and market requirements.
In addition to computers, Ethernet is now used to interconnect appliances and other personal devices. As Industrial Ethernet it is used in industrial applications and is replacing legacy data transmission systems in the world's telecommunications networks. By 2010, the market for Ethernet equipment amounted to over $16 billion per year. In February 1980, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers started project 802 to standardize local area networks; the "DIX-group" with Gary Robinson, Phil Arst, Bob Printis submitted the so-called "Blue Book" CSMA/CD specification as a candidate for the LAN specification. In addition to CSMA/CD, Token Ring and Token Bus were considered as candidates for a LAN standard. Competing proposals and broad interest in the initiative led to strong disagreement over which technology to standardize. In December 1980, the group was split into three subgroups, standardization proceeded separately for each proposal. Delays in the standards process put at risk the market introduction of the Xerox Star workstation and 3Com's Ethernet LAN products.
With such business implications in mind, David Liddle an
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
IVI Translation refers to a stateless IPv4/IPv6 translation technique. It allows hosts in different address families communicate with each other and keeps the end-to-end address transparency. Stateless NAT64 can be used in 4 different scenarios: An IPv6 network to the IPv4 Internet The IPv4 Internet to an IPv6 network An IPv6 network to an IPv4 network An IPv4 network to an IPv6 networkStateless NAT64 is a replacement of SIIT. Address translation defined in RFC 6052 is a stateless mapping scheme, which embeds IPv4 address in network specific IPv6 prefix and forms IPv4-converted and IPv4-translatable addresses; the IPv4-converted IPv6 addresses are the IPv6 addresses used to represent IPv4 nodes in an IPv6 network. The IPv4-translatable IPv6 addresses are the IPv6 addresses assigned to IPv6 nodes for use with stateless translation. Header translation and ICMP translation defined in RFC 6145 are algorithms to perform header translation between IPv4 and IPv6, as well as between ICMP and ICMPv6.
DNS record translation defined in RFC 6147 describes mapping from A record to AAAA record defined in RFC 6052. Address sharing stateless NAT64 enables multiple IPv6 nodes sharing a single public IPv4 address, with each node managing a different range of ports; this can be achieved by defining suffix of the address format RFC 6052. Dual stateless translation is called dIVI Translation. Due to the stateless nature, after the second translation, the original IPv4 address can be restored; the advantage of stateless NAT464 is. RFC 6219: China Education and Research Network's IVI translation design and deployment for the IPv4/IPv6 coexistence and transition. RFC 7599: MAP-T is being used on the IPv6-only "CERNET2", expanding on the work done with CERNET; the stateless NAT64 forms the basic building blocks for stateful NAT64. Additional building block is the maintaining of the translation states defined in RFC 6146. Due to stateless nature, the second stateless translator can be introduced to translate the IPv4-translatable IPv6 address back to IPv4.
In this case, the DNS64 and ALG are not required. See dIVI Translation
Windows Mobile is a discontinued family of mobile operating systems developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs. Its origin dated back to Windows CE in 1996, though Windows Mobile itself first appeared in 2000 as PocketPC 2000, it was renamed "Windows Mobile" in 2003, at which point it came in several versions and was aimed at business and enterprise consumers. It became one of the most popular mobile operating systems as of the mid-2000s, but its popularity faded in the following years, by February 2010, facing competition from rival mobile OSs, including Apple's iOS and Android, Microsoft announced Windows Phone to supersede Windows Mobile; as a result, Windows Mobile has been deprecated. Windows Phone is incompatible with software; the last version of Windows Mobile, released after the announcement of Windows Phone, was 6.5.5. After this, Microsoft ceased development on Windows Mobile, in order to concentrate on Windows Phone. Most versions of Windows Mobile have a standard set of features, such as multitasking and the ability to navigate a file system similar to that of Windows 9x and Windows NT, including support for many of the same file types.
To its desktop counterpart, it comes bundled with a set of applications that perform basic tasks. Internet Explorer Mobile is the default web browser, Windows Media Player is the default media player used for playing digital media; the mobile version of Microsoft Office, is the default office suite. Internet Connection Sharing, supported on compatible devices, allows the phone to share its Internet connection with computers via USB and Bluetooth. Windows Mobile supports virtual private networking over PPTP protocol. Most devices with mobile connectivity have a Radio Interface Layer; the Radio Interface Layer provides the system interface between the Cell Core layer within the Windows Mobile OS and the radio protocol stack used by the wireless modem hardware. This allows OEMs to integrate a variety of modems into their equipment; the user interface changed between versions, only retaining similar functionality. The Today Screen called the Home Screen, shows the current date, owner information, upcoming appointments, e-mails, tasks.
The taskbar display the current time as well as the volume level. Devices with a cellular radio show the signal strength on said taskbar. Windows Mobile is based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system, it includes a suite of basic applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API, is designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. It allowed third party developers to develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service's lifespan. Most early Windows Mobile devices came with a stylus, which can be used to enter commands by tapping it on the screen; the primary touch input technology behind most devices were resistive touchscreens which required a stylus for input. Devices used capacitive sensing which does not require a stylus. Along with touchscreens, a large variety of form factors existed for the platform.
Some devices featured slideout keyboards. Microsoft's work on handheld portable devices began with research projects in 1990, with the work on Windows CE beginning in 1992; the OS and the user interface were developed separately. With Windows CE being based on Windows 95 code and a separate team handing the user interface, codenamed WinPad. Windows 95 had strong pen support making porting easy, it is treating pens right for the first time." WinPad was delayed due to price and performance issues, before being scrapped in early 1995 due to touchscreen driver problems relating to WriteTouch technology, made by NCR Microelectronic Products. Although WinPad was never released as a consumer product, Alpha builds were released showcasing many interface elements. During development of WinPad a separate team worked on a project called Pulsar; this project was canceled around the same time as WinPad. The two disbanded groups would form the Pegasus project in 1995. Pegasus would work on the hardware side of the Windows CE OS, attempting to create a form factor similar to a PC-esque PDA like WinPad, with communications functionality like Pulsar.
A hardware reference guide was created and devices began shipping in 1996, although most of these device bore little resemblance to the goal of a pen-based touchscreen handheld device. Pocket PC 2000 codenamed "Rapier", was released on April 19, 2000, was based on the Windows CE 3.0 kernel. It was the debut of what was dubbed the Windows Mobile operating system, meant to be a successor to the operating system aboard Palm-Size PCs, it retained backwards compatibility with such Palm-Size PC applications. Pocket PC 2000 was intended for Pocket PC devices. While, several Pocket PC 2000 phones were released, Microsoft's smartphone hardware platform was not yet created; the only resolution supported by this release was 240×320. Removable storage card formats that were supported were MultiMediaCard. At this time Pocket PC devices had not been standardized with a specific CPU architecture; as a result, Pocket PC 2000 was released on multiple CPU architectures. Infrared File beaming capability was amo