An academic certificate is a document that certifies that a person has received specific education or has passed a test or series of tests. In many countries, a certificate is a qualification attained in secondary education. For instance, students in the Republic of Ireland sit the Junior Certificate and follow it with the Leaving Certificate. Other countries have awards, for instance, in Australia the Higher School Certificate in New South Wales, the Victorian Certificate of Education in Victoria, etc. is the examination taken on completion of secondary education. In parts of the United Kingdom the General Certificate of Secondary Education is the normal examination taken at age 16 and the General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level are taken at 17 and 18. In many other countries, certificates are qualifications in higher education. For example, in the Republic of Ireland, the National Certificate, soon to be replaced by the "Higher Certificate"; these have Graduate Certificate and Postgraduate Certificate.
In Hong Kong, students take the exams to receive Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education. Certificate is below the standard of the associate degree, higher diploma and advanced diploma, which are below the bachelor's degree. Postgraduate certificates are taken after the bachelor's degree and are sometimes more vocationally oriented than master's degrees. In Australia, a certificate is a qualification offered by a university or other higher education provider, shorter than a degree or diploma. Certificates are provided by TAFE colleges or non-academic registered training organizations. There are four ranks of certificate in Australia, indicated by Roman numerals, e.g. Cert. IV in Horticulture; the time spent varies, but in general a Certificate I will be granted after a course of only a few weeks, while a Cert. IV may take up to twelve months. A Diploma directly follows Cert. IV and may rightly be considered equivalent to a hypothetical Certificate V. In the United Kingdom, a Certificate of Higher Education requires successful completion of 120 credits at level four of the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications.
This is equivalent to one year of full-time university education at first-year level. Each credit is equivalent to a nominal ten hours of study, as such the CertHE is 1,200 hours of study; this compares with 360 credits for an honours bachelor's degree, 240 credits for a Diploma of Higher Education. A certificate can be a vocational qualification of between 13 and 36 credits at any of the levels of the Regulated Qualifications Framework, the level being specified in the qualification title. In the United States, a certificate may be offered by an institute of higher education; these certificates signify that a student has reached a standard of knowledge about a certain vocational or professional subject. Certificate programs can be completed more than associate degrees and do not have general education requirements. Undergraduate certificates represent completion of a specific program offered in coordination with a bachelors degree. Graduate certificates represent completion of studies beyond the bachelor's degree, yet short of a masters degree.
In the State of Maryland, a Certificate of Merit was, until issued to graduating high-school seniors who met certain academic requirements. It may be awarded as a necessary certification to validate that a student is considered competent in a certain specific networking skill area in information technology, thus a computer engineer or computer science graduation most will have to obtain additional certificates on and pertaining to the specific technologies or equipment used by the hiring corporation. It is becoming more common for higher education institutions to award certificates to continuing education students; these certificates vary involve rigorous courses, can be affiliated with many associations. Examples would include CMA or CGA. University certificates are becoming more common ways for people to engage in areas of interest while working full-time, they can be completed with a minimum grade in a series of university courses, are sometimes taken as a way to further one's professional career.
They are gaining ground in both the academic world and the working world. Graduate certificate Academic degree Doctorate
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. According to Kaplan business schools are "educational institutions that specialize in teaching courses and programs related to business and/or management"; such a school can be known as school of management, school of business administration, or colloquially b-school or biz school. A business school teaches topics such as accounting, strategy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, management science, management information systems, international business, marketing, organizational psychology, organizational behavior, public relations, research methods and real estate among others. There are several forms of business schools, including a school of business, business administration, management. Most of the university business schools consist of faculties, colleges, or departments within the university, predominantly teach business courses. In North America, a business school is understood to be a university program that offers a graduate Master of Business Administration degrees and/or undergraduate bachelor's degrees.
In Europe and Asia, some universities teach predominantly business courses. Owned business school, not affiliated with any university. Kaplan classifies business schools along four Corners: Culture: Independent of their actual location, business schools can be classified according to whether they follow the European or the US model. Compass: Business schools can be classified along a continuum, with international/ global schools on one end and regional/ local schools on the other. Capital: Business schools can either be publicly funded or funded, for example through endowments or tuition fees. Content: Business school can be classified according to whether a school considers teaching or research to be its primary focus. 1759 – The Aula do Comércio in Lisbon was the first institution to specialise in the teaching of accounting in the world. It provided a model for development of similar government-sponsored schools across Europe, closed in 1844. Therefore, the Aula do. 1819 -- The world's first business school, ESCP Europe was in France.
It is the oldest business school in the world and now has campuses in Berlin, Madrid, Paris and Warsaw. 1855 – The Institut Supérieur de Commerce d'Anvers and the Institut Saint-Ignace – École Spéciale de Commerce et d'Industrie were founded in the same year in the city of Antwerp, Belgium. After getting university status in 1965 and after 150 years of business education and rivalry between each other, both merged in 2003 into what became the University of Antwerp. 1857 – The world's first public business school, Budapest Business School was founded in Budapest in Austria-Hungary as the first business school in Central Europe. 1868 – The Ca' Foscari University was founded in Venice. It is one of the oldest in the world. 1871 – The Rouen Business School which has merged with Reims Management School under the name of NEOMA Business School. Rouen Business School is the second oldest French business school. 1871 – The ESC Le Havre was created. Created the same year than Rouen Business School it is the second oldest French business school.
1881 – The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the United States' first business school. HEC Paris was established by the Paris Chamber of Commerce. 1892 – The ESC Lille in northern France which has mergered with CERAM Business School under the name of Skema Business School since 2009. 1898 – On the west coast Haas School of Business is established as the College of Commerce of the University of California with Carl Copping Plehn as the Dean in 1898 and became the first public business school. The Booth School of Business The University of Chicago Booth School of Business traces its beginnings to 1898 when university faculty member James Laurence Laughlin chartered the College of Commerce and Politics. 1898 – Handelshochschule Leipzig, today Leipzig Graduate School of Management, was founded as the first Business School in Germany, so it is the oldest university teaching economics in German speaking regions. 1898 – The University of St. Gallen established the first university in Switzerland teaching business and economics.
1900 – The first graduate school of business in the United States, the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College, was founded. The school conferred the first advanced degree in business a Master of Science in Commercial Sciences, the predecessor to the MBA. 1902 – The Birmingham Business School of University of Birmingham is the United Kingdom's first business school. Established as the School of Commerce in Birmingham, United Kingdom. 1903 – The Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management of Université Libre de Bruxelles is the Belgium's first business school created by an entrepreneur Ernest Solvay, founder of the chemistry company Solvay. 1906 – The Department of Commerce was founded as part of McGill University in Montreal, Canada developing into the Desautels Faculty of Management. 1906 – The Warsaw School of Economics was established as the first university in Poland dedicated to teaching commerce and economics. 1907 – HEC Montréal is founded in Montreal, being the first Schoo
Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées
The Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées, Polytechnic Institute of Advanced Sciences, is a French private postgraduate school in aerospace engineering located at Ivry-sur-Seine, Lyon and Toulouse, recognized by the French state since 2010, whose diploma has been accredited by the French Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur since 2011. It was founded in 1961 and is part of IONIS Education Group since 1998. IPSA was founded in 1961 in Paris by Michel Cazin, the private secretary of Louis de Broglie and a teacher at the mechanical department of CNAM, Maurice Pradier and Paul Lefort. Twenty students started the training. In 1982, the first scholar trip was organized to the European Space Agency center in Guyana. In 1987 the school was bought by an airline pilot at Air France and an IPSA alumnus. In 1989 the institute moved into the towers Les Mercuriales at Bagnolet, where it stayed for ten years. Beset by financial difficulties, the university was bought by IONIS Education Group in 1998 and moved to Le Kremlin-Bicetre close to the university EPITA.
The Master issued by IPSA was recognized by the French state at level 1 in 2005, after accreditation by the Commission Nationale de la Certification Professionnelle. In 2007, IPSA opened a second campus in Toulouse, joined the Erasmus Programme and concluded double degree agreements with foreign universities. Following its establishment in Toulouse, the university joined the Institut au service du spatial, de ses applications et technologies in 2008; the next year, IPSA joined Aerospace Valley and moved to Ivry-sur-Seine close to the university ESME-Sudria before being accredited by the French state in 2010. In 2011, the university was accredited by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieur to grant the title of ingénieur diplômé de l'IPSA. During the evaluation process, the Commission noticed the strong points of the university and the weak points; the CTI asks for a new recruitment process, done by the creation of a competitive examination called Concours Advance. In January 2013, IPSA joined the Conference of the Directors of French Engineering Schools.
The CTI agreement is extended in May 2013. In 2018, the university gets the EUR-ACE label; the current director is Francis Pollet, director of École de l'air university from 2003 to 2016. He is the eighth person to hold that function since 1961, he was appointed director of IPSA in March 2017. The school is owned by IONIS Education Group, its president is the president of the group, Marc Sellam. IPSA aims to be close to other postgraduate engineering schools with a strong theoretical training for research and development jobs in order to graduate engineers specializing in aerospace engineering with a good general aerospace knowledge, it offers a five-year course with five possibilities in the fourth year: "energy, spacecraft propulsion and engine", "mechanics and aircraft structure", "telecommunications and radio navigation", "embedded systems", or "mechatronics". The students choose one of ten minors: "Entrepreneurship", "business marketing", "association management", "Research Management", "Conduct of an international project", "project personnel development", "Board and consulting", " human resource management", "cultural management", "financial management".
In the fifth year, four options are available independently of the choice made in the fourth year: "Avionics", "Aeronautical Systems Design", "Space Systems Design" and "Management and Industrial Logistics". From the first year on the school offers lessons relating to aeronautics in addition to basic scientific education, a large part of the teaching throughout the curriculum is project-based. Students have the opportunity to attend a technical and managerial course sanctioned by an MBA in "business and international negotiation" of the Institut supérieur de gestion in addition to the diploma of the school, or to make the last year of studies in a foreign university in partnership with IPSA. Eleven months of internship are planned in the curriculum. After graduation, graduates are represented by the association AAEIPSA. 70% of them work in the aerospace industry in research and development and in the Île-de-France region. Admission to the school is possible after a baccalauréat by succeeding at the competition "Advance" organized in partnership with EPITA and ESME-Sudria.
In total, the three schools offer 900 places. It is possible to enter the school in the second, third or fourth year of studies for students coming from classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles, Bachelor or Master. Since 2017, the school offers Bachelors in aeronautics in addition to the Master's degree program describe above. Partnerships allowing students to obtain a Master of Science in addition to the degree of IPSA exist with Shenyang Aerospace University in China, Cranfield University in the UK, Moscow State University in Russia, the Université Laval in Canada and the National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan. Students have access to the Erasmus Programme; the university has bilateral agreements with The University of Arizona, San Diego State University, University of California. In 2011, IPSA features three research laboratories: 3D computer graphics and calculation and fluid mechanics applied to aerodynamics; the laboratory of 3D computer graphics and calculation investigates new algorithms to solve problems of processing and analysis of signals and images.
An agreement of partnership with the laboratoire des signaux et systèmes (
École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées
The École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées, more known as EPITA is a private French Grande École specialized in the field of computer science and software engineering created in 1984 by Patrice Dumoucel. It is a private engineering school, member since 1994 of IONIS Education Group, accredited by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur to deliver the French Diplôme d'Ingénieur, based at Le Kremlin-Bicêtre south of Paris. In June 2013, EPITA becomes member of the Union of Independent Grandes Écoles, which includes 30 grandes écoles; the school is part of IONIS Education Group. The first two years of studies are preparatory years. During these two years, students study mathematics and electronics as well as algorithmics and computer science; the third year is the first year of engineering studies, where students learn the fundamentals in information technology and software engineering. This year is famous for its first month, during which students will be asked to make several projects, which lead them to code more than 15 hours per day.
Third year students are known to say that "sleeping is cheating" and remember this year as their most painstaking year at EPITA. During the fourth and fifth years students have to choose one of the eight majors: SRS, Systèmes, Réseaux et Sécurité MTI, Multimédia et Technologies de l'Information SCIA, Sciences Cognitives et Informatique Avancée GISTRE, Génie Informatique des Systèmes Temps Réel et Embarqués SIGL, Systèmes d’Information et Génie Logiciel TCOM, Télécommunications CSI, Calcul Scientifique et Image GITM, Global IT Management Official website The Multimedia and Information Technology major The Information Systems and Software Engineering major The Systems and Security major The Research and Development laboratory The Systems and Security laboratory The Innovation laboratory
In economics, a luxury good is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, so that expenditures on the good become a greater proportion of overall spending. Luxury goods are in contrast to necessity goods, where demand increases proportionally less than income. Luxury goods is used synonymously with superior goods and Veblen goods; the word "luxury" originated from the Latin word “Luxus,” which means indulgence of the senses, regardless of cost. Luxury goods have high income elasticity of demand: as people become wealthier, they will buy proportionately more luxury goods; this means, that should there be a decline in income its demand will drop more than proportionately. Income elasticity of demand is not constant with respect to income, may change sign at different levels of income; that is to say, a luxury good may become a necessity good or an inferior good at different income levels. Some luxury products have been claimed to be examples of Veblen goods, with a positive price elasticity of demand: for example, making a perfume more expensive can increase its perceived value as a luxury good to such an extent that sales can go up, rather than down.
Although the technical term luxury good is independent of the goods' quality, they are considered to be goods at the highest end of the market in terms of quality and price. Classic luxury goods include haute couture clothing and luggage. Many markets have a luxury segment including, for example, yacht, bottled water, tea, watches, clothes and high fidelity. Luxuries may be services; the hiring of full-time or live-in domestic servants is a luxury reflecting disparities of income. Some financial services in some brokerage houses, can be considered luxury services by default because persons in lower-income brackets do not use them. Luxury goods have special luxury packaging to differentiate the products from mainstream competitors; the three dominant trends are the main factors that have accelerated the rapid growth of the industry, including the customer base and variations in the consumptions of different brands. The three dominant trends in the global luxury goods market are globalization and diversification.
Consolidation involves the growth of big companies and ownership of brands across many segments of luxury products. Examples include LVMH, Kering, which dominate the market in areas ranging from luxury drinks to fashion and cosmetics. Global consumer companies, such as Procter & Gamble, are attracted to the industry, due to the difficulty of making a profit in the mass consumer goods market; the customer base for various luxury goods continue to be more culturally diversified, this presents more unseen challenges and new opportunities to companies in this industry. The luxury goods market has been on an upward climb for many years. Apart from the setback caused by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the industry has performed well in 2000. In that year, the world luxury goods market – which includes drinks, cosmetics, watches, luggage, handbags – was worth close to $170 billion and grew 7.9 percent. The United States has been the largest regional market for luxury goods and is estimated to continue to be the leading personal luxury goods market in 2013, with a value of 62.5 billion euros.
The largest sector in this category was luxury drinks, including premium whisky, Cognac. This sector was the only one; the watches and jewelry section showed the strongest performance, growing in value by 23.3 percent, while the clothing and accessories section grew 11.6 percent between 1996 and 2000, to $32.8 billion. North America is the largest regional market for luxury goods; the largest ten markets for luxury goods account for 83 percent of overall sales, include Japan, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Brazil and Switzerland. In 2012, China surpassed Japan as the world's largest luxury market. China's luxury consumption accounts for over 25% of the global market; the Economist Intelligence Unit published a report on the outlook for luxury goods in Asia which explores the trends and forecasts for the luxury goods market across key markets in Asia. In 2014, the luxury sector is expected to grow over the next 10 years because of 440 million consumers spending a total of 880 billion euros, or $1.2 trillion.
Though verging on the meaningless in modern marketing, "luxury" remains a legitimate and current technical term in art history for objects that are highly decorated to high standards and use expensive materials. The term is used for medieval manuscripts to distinguish between practical working books for normal use, illuminated manuscripts, that were bound in treasure bindings with metalwork and jewels; these are much larger, with less text on each page and many illustrations, if liturgical texts were usually kept on the altar or sacristy rather any library that the church or monastery who owned them may have had. Secular luxury manuscripts were commissioned by the wealthy and differed in the same ways from cheaper books."Luxury" may be used for other applied arts where both utilitarian and luxury versions of the same types of objects were made. This might cover metalwork, glass and armour, a wide range of objects, it is much less used for objects with no function beyond being an artwork: paintings and sculpture though the disparity in cost between an expensive and cheap work may have been as large.
With increasing "democratization" of luxury goods, new product categories have be
The Paris Graduate School of Digital Innovation European Institute of Information Technology in English is a private institution of higher education in general computer science, founded in 1999. Headquartered in Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, south of Paris, the school has campuses in Bordeaux, Marseille, Lyon, Nancy, Nice, Strasbourg and Saint-André, Réunion; the school has locations in Barcelona, Tirana and Brussels. The school has the particularity to teach with practical cases instead of theoretical.. Epitech has an Executive MBA in IT and entrepreneurship course targeting executive managers in computer science; the institution is part of IONIS Education Group. Epitech was created in 1999, taking advantage of the keen interest of the École Pour l'Informatique et les Techniques Avancées EPITA to train students with a specific interest for computer sciences related matter only. In 2007, Epitech opened new campuses in Casablanca, Bordeaux, Lyon, Nantes and Toulouse. Since January 2008, the degree delivered has been recognized by the Commission nationale de la certification professionnelle, as level 1.
In 2008, the campuses of Nice, Nancy and Rennes were opened. In early 2013, Epitech announced it would open a campus in Beijing, China in September 2013 and further international branches in California, United Kingdom and Spain by September 2014. EPITECH has partnered with the Zup de Co association to create the Web@cademie, a 2-year training free for students without the French Baccalaureate and with a strong motivation in computer science; this course has the goal to attain a job of software developer for young people who have stopped their regular studies. They are trained by EPITECH teachers in Lyon. Solomon Hykes, CEO of Docker, Inc..
The Grandes Écoles of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are selective and prestigious institutions. Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission as graduates of bachelor degree programs, while others select students at the third year of undergraduate-level study, based chiefly on the student's national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. Candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes for admission. Grandes écoles differ from public universities in France, which have a legal obligation to accept in the first year of undergraduate studies all candidates of the region who hold a corresponding baccalauréat.. Grande écoles do not have large student bodies: most give admission to few hundred students each year. Arts et Métiers ParisTech has the largest student population, with 6,000 students. Studying in some grandes écoles after passing the competitive exams is considered part of public service.
Students pay low or no fees, are paid monthly stipends by some institutions. They are committed to ten years of public service; the business schools charge higher fees. Economically disadvantaged students in grandes écoles may have access to grants and subsidies, just as they would at a public university; the phrase'Grande École' originated in 1794 after the French Revolution, when the National Convention created the École normale supérieure, the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot created the École centrale des travaux publics and the abbot Henri Grégoire created the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. The model was the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus; the system of competitive entry was a means to open up higher education to more candidates based on merit. Some schools included in the category have roots in the 17th and 18th century and are older than the phrase'Grande École', dated 1794, their forerunners were schools aimed at graduating civil servants, such as technical officers, mine supervisors and road engineers, shipbuilding engineers.
Five military engineering academies and graduate schools of artillery were established in the 17th century in France, such as the école de l'artillerie de Douai and the école du génie de Mézières, wherein mathematics and sciences were a major part of the curriculum taught by first-rank scientists such as Pierre-Simon Laplace, Charles Étienne Louis Camus, Étienne Bézout, Sylvestre-François Lacroix, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gaspard Monge. In 1802 Napoleon created the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint Cyr, considered a Grande École, although it trains only army officers. During the 19th century, a number of higher education Grandes écoles were established to support industry and commerce, such as École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in 1816, Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris, L'institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement in 1826, École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in 1829. Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries.
Until 1864, a quarter of its students came from abroad. Conversely, the quality of French technicians astonished southeastern Europe, the Near East, Belgium; the system of grandes écoles expanded, enriched in 1826 by the Ecole des Eaux et Forêts at Nancy, the Ecole des Arts Industriels at Lille in 1854, the Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise in 1857, the National Institute of Agronomy, reconstituted in 1876 after a fruitless attempt between 1848 and 1855. The training of the lower grades of staff, who might today be called ‘production engineers’, was assured to an greater extent by the development of Ecoles d’Arts et métiers, of which the first was established at Châlons-sur-Marne in 1806 and the second at Angers in 1811, with a third at Aix-en-Provence in 1841; each had room for 300 pupils. There is no doubt that in the 1860s France had the best system of higher technical and scientific education in Europe. During the latter part of the 19th century and in the 20th century, more Grandes écoles were established for education in businesses as well as newer fields of science and technology, including Rouen Business School in 1871, Sciences Po Paris in 1872, École nationale supérieure des télécommunications, Hautes Études Commerciales, Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales École supérieure d'électricité and Supaero.
Since France has had a unique dual higher education system, with small and middle-sized specialized graduate schools operating alongside the traditional university system. Some fields of study are nearly exclusive to one part of this dual system, such as medicine in universités only, o