International Civil Aviation Organization
The International Civil Aviation Organization, is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of air transport to ensure safe. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The Air Navigation Commission is the body within ICAO. The Commission is composed of 19 Commissioners, nominated by the ICAOs contracting states, Commissioners serve as independent experts, who although nominated by their states, do not serve as state or political representatives. The development of Aviation Standards and Recommended Practices is done under the direction of the ANC through the process of ICAO Panels. Once approved by the Commission, standards are sent to the Council, the forerunner to ICAO was the International Commission for Air Navigation.
It held its first convention in 1903 in Berlin, Germany, at the second convention in 1906, held in Berlin,27 countries attended. The third convention, held in London in 1912 allocated the first radio callsigns for use by aircraft, ICAN continued to operate until 1945. Fifty-two countries signed the Convention on International Civil Aviation, known as the Chicago Convention, in Chicago, Illinois, on 7 December 1944. Under its terms, a Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization was to be established, accordingly, PICAO began operating on 6 June 1945, replacing ICAN. The 26th country ratified the Convention on 5 March 1947 and, consequently PICAO was disestablished on 4 April 1947 and replaced by ICAO, in October 1947, ICAO became an agency of the United Nations linked to the United Nations Economic and Social Council. In April 2013 Qatar offered to serve as the new permanent seat of the Organization, according to the Globe and Mail, Qatars move was at least partly motivated by the pro-Israel foreign policy of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper.
Approximately one month later, Qatar withdrew its bid after a proposal to the ICAOs governing council to move the ICAO triennial conference to Doha was defeated by a vote of 22–14. The 9th edition of the Convention on International Civil Aviation includes modifications from 1948 up to year 2006, ICAO refers to its current edition of the Convention as the Statute, and designates it as ICAO Document 7300/9. The Convention has 19 Annexes that are listed by title in the article Convention on International Civil Aviation, as of March 2016, there are 191 ICAO members, consisting of 190 of the 193 UN members, plus the Cook Islands. Liechtenstein has delegated Switzerland to implement the treaty to make it applicable in the territory of Liechtenstein, Taiwan attended the 38th Session of the ICAO Assembly in 2013, but in 2016 was denied such an invitation, despite expressions of support from the United States for Taiwan to participate. However, the Republic of China under the name of Chinese Taipei is a member of International Air Transport Association, the Council of ICAO is elected by the Assembly every 3 years and consists of 36 members elected in 3 categories
A card reader is a data input device that reads data from a card-shaped storage medium. Modern card readers are electronic devices that can read plastic cards embedded with either a barcode, magnetic strip, a memory card reader is a device used for communication with a smart card or a memory card. A magnetic card reader is a used to read magnetic stripe cards. A business card reader is a used to scan and electronically save printed business cards. See also, Contact smart card and Contactless smart card, a smart card reader is an electronic device that reads smart cards and can be found in the following form, Some keyboards have a built-in card reader. External devices and internal drive bay card reader devices exist for personal computers, Some laptop models contain a built-in smart card reader and/or utilize flash upgradeable firmware. External devices that can read a Personal identification number or other information may be connected to a keyboard. This model works by supplying the integrated circuit on the card with electricity and communicating via protocols, thereby enabling the user to read.
If the card does not use any standard transmission protocol, but uses a custom/proprietary protocol, the latest PC/SC CCID specifications define a new smart card framework. This framework works with USB devices with the specific device class 0x0B, readers with this class do not need device drivers when used with PC/SC-compliant operating systems, because the operating system supplies the driver by default. PKCS#11 is an API designed to be platform-independent, defining a generic interface to cryptographic tokens such as smart cards and this allows applications to work without knowledge of the reader details. A memory card reader is a device, typically having a USB interface, for accessing the data on a memory card such as a CompactFlash, most card readers offer write capability, and together with the card, this can function as a pen drive. Access control card readers are used in security systems to read a credential that allows access through access control points. An access control reader can be a stripe reader, a bar code reader, a proximity reader.
The organization and width of the lines is determined by the bar code protocol selected, there are many different protocols, such as the prevalent Code 39. Sometimes the digits represented by the dark and light bars are printed to allow people to read the number without an optical reader. The advantage of using barcode technology is that it is cheap and easy to generate the credential, however the same affordability and simplicity makes the technology susceptible to fraud, because fake barcodes can be created cheaply and easily, for example by photocopying real ones. One attempt to reduce fraud is to print the barcode using carbon-based ink, the barcode can be read with an optical reader tuned to the infrared spectrum, but can not easily be copied by a copy machine
Visa Inc. is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Foster City, United States. It facilitates electronic funds transfers throughout the world, most commonly through Visa-branded credit cards, in 2015, the Nilson Report, a publication that tracks the credit card industry, found that Visa’s global network processed 100 billion transactions with a total volume of US$6.8 trillion. Visa has operations across all continents worldwide with the exception of Antarctica, every transaction is checked past 500 variables including 100 fraud-detection parameters—such as the location and spending habits of the customer and the merchants location - before being accepted. Visa is the second largest card payment organization, after being surpassed by China UnionPay in 2015, based on annual value of card payments transacted. Because UnionPays size is based primarily on the size of its market, Visa is dominant in the rest of the world outside of China. In mid-September 1958, Bank of America launched its BankAmericard credit card program in Fresno, the original idea was the brainchild of BofAs in-house product development think tank, the Customer Services Research Group, and its leader, Joseph P.
Williams. Williams convinced senior BofA executives in 1956 to let him pursue what became the worlds first successful mass mailing of unsolicited credit cards to a large population. Williams pioneering accomplishment was that he brought about the implementation of the all-purpose credit card. The need for a financial instrument was already evident to the American financial services industry. There were already charge cards like Diners Club, and by the mid-1950s, these prior attempts had been carried out by small banks which lacked the resources to make them work. Fresno was selected for its population of 250,000, BofAs market share of that population, the 1958 test at first went smoothly, but BofA panicked when it confirmed rumors that another bank was about to initiate its own drop in San Francisco, BofAs home market. However, the program was riddled with problems, as Williams had been too earnest and trusting in his belief in the goodness of the banks customers. 22% of accounts were delinquent, not the 4% expected, BofA officially lost over $8.8 million on the launch of BankAmericard, but when the full cost of advertising and overhead was included, the banks actual loss was probably around $20 million.
However, after Williams and some of his closest associates left, BofA itself could not expand directly into other states due to federal restrictions not repealed until 1994. Over the following 11 years, various banks licensed the system from Bank of America. During the late 1960s, BofA licensed the BankAmericard program to banks in other countries. For example, In Canada, an alliance of banks issued credit cards under the Chargex name from 1968 to 1977, in France, it was known as Carte Bleue. The logo still appears on many French-issued Visa cards today, in Japan, The Sumitomo Bank issued BankAmericards through the Sumitomo Credit Service
It uses contactless smart card technology, including a microprocessor chip and antenna embedded in the front or back cover, or center page, of the passport. The currently standardized biometrics used for type of identification system are facial recognition, fingerprint recognition. These were adopted after assessment of different kinds of biometrics including retinal scan. The ICAO defines the biometric file formats and communication protocols to be used in passports, only the digital image of each biometric feature is actually stored in the chip. The comparison of biometric features is performed outside the chip by electronic border control systems. These standards intend interoperability between different countries and different manufacturers of passport books, some national identity cards are fully ICAO9303 compliant biometric travel documents. However others, such as the United States Passport Card, are not, Biometric passports are equipped with protection mechanisms to avoid and/or detect attacks, Non-traceable chip characteristics.
Random chip identifiers reply to each request with a different chip number and this prevents tracing of passport chips. Using random identification numbers is optional, BAC protects the communication channel between the chip and the reader by encrypting transmitted information. Before data can be read from a chip, the needs to provide a key which is derived from the Machine Readable Zone, the date of birth, the date of expiry. If BAC is used, an attacker cannot eavesdrop transferred information without knowing the correct key, PA is aimed at identifying modification of passport chip data. The chip contains a file that stores hash values of all files stored in the chip, the digital signature is made using a document signing key which itself is signed by a country signing key. If a file in the chip is changed, this can be detected since the value is incorrect. Readers need access to all used public country keys to check whether the signature is generated by a trusted country. As of January 2017,55 of over 60 e-passport-issuing countries belong to the PKD program, AA prevents cloning of passport chips.
The chip contains a key that cannot be read or copied. EAC adds functionality to check the authenticity of both the chip and the reader, furthermore, it uses stronger encryption than BAC. EAC is typically used to protect fingerprints and iris scans, in the European Union, using EAC is mandatory for all documents issued starting 28 June 2009
EMV is a technical standard for smart payment cards and for payment terminals and automated teller machines that can accept them. EMV cards are cards that store their data on integrated circuits in addition to magnetic stripes. These include cards that must be inserted into a reader. Payment cards that comply with the EMV standard are often called Chip and PIN or Chip and Signature cards, EMV stands for Europay, MasterCard, and Visa, the three companies that originally created the standard. The standard is now managed by EMVCo, a consortium with control split equally among Visa, MasterCard, JCB, American Express, China UnionPay, there are standards based on ISO/IEC7816 for contact cards, and standards based on ISO/IEC14443 for contactless cards. Visa and MasterCard have developed standards for using EMV cards in devices to support card not present transactions over the telephone, MasterCard has the Chip Authentication Program for secure e-commerce. Its implementation is known as EMV-CAP and supports a number of modes, Visa has the Dynamic Passcode Authentication scheme, which is their implementation of CAP using different default values.
Under that system, the customer hands their card to the clerk at the point of sale, in the former case, the system verifies account details and prints a slip for the customer to sign. In the case of an imprint, the transaction details are filled in. In either case, the clerk verifies that the customers signature matches that on the back of the card to authenticate the transaction. This system has a number of security flaws, including the ability to steal a card in the post, more recently, technology has become available on the black market for both reading and writing the magnetic stripes, making cards easy to clone and use without the owners knowledge. The first standard for smart payment cards was the Carte Bancaire M4 from Bull-CP8 deployed in France in 1986, geldkarte in Germany predates EMV. EMV was designed to allow cards and terminals to be compatible with these standards. France has since migrated all its card and terminal infrastructure to EMV, the EMV standard was initially written in 1993 and 1994.
JCB joined the consortium in February 2009, China UnionPay in May 2013, there are two major benefits to moving to smart-card-based credit card payment systems, improved security, and the possibility for finer control of offline credit-card transaction approvals. One of the goals of EMV was to provide for multiple applications on a card. With current processing regulations in the United States, new issue debit cards contain two applications — a card association application, and a common debit application, the common debit application ID is somewhat of a misnomer as each common debit application actually uses the resident card association application. The use of a PIN and cryptographic algorithms such as Triple DES, RSA and SHA provide authentication of the card to the processing terminal, whether or not PIN authentication takes place depends upon the capabilities of the terminal and programming of the card
Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to measure the sensitivity of digital imaging systems, highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality, in short, the higher the sensitivity, the grainier the image will be. Ultimately sensitivity is limited by the efficiency of the film or sensor. The speed of the emulsion was expressed in degrees Warnerke corresponding with the last number visible on the plate after development. Each number represented an increase of 1/3 in speed, typical speeds were between 10° and 25° Warnerke at the time. The concept, was built upon in 1900 by Henry Chapman Jones in the development of his plate tester. In their system, speed numbers were inversely proportional to the exposure required, for example, an emulsion rated at 250 H&D would require ten times the exposure of an emulsion rated at 2500 H&D.
The methods to determine the sensitivity were modified in 1925, the H&D system was officially accepted as a standard in the former Soviet Union from 1928 until September 1951, when it was superseded by GOST 2817-50. The Scheinergrade system was devised by the German astronomer Julius Scheiner in 1894 originally as a method of comparing the speeds of plates used for astronomical photography, Scheiners system rated the speed of a plate by the least exposure to produce a visible darkening upon development. ≈2 The system was extended to cover larger ranges and some of its practical shortcomings were addressed by the Austrian scientist Josef Maria Eder. Scheiners system was abandoned in Germany, when the standardized DIN system was introduced in 1934. In various forms, it continued to be in use in other countries for some time. The DIN system, officially DIN standard 4512 by Deutsches Institut für Normung, was published in January 1934, International Congress of Photography held in Dresden from August 3 to 8,1931.
The DIN system was inspired by Scheiners system, but the sensitivities were represented as the base 10 logarithm of the sensitivity multiplied by 10, similar to decibels. Thus an increase of 20° represented an increase in sensitivity. ≈3 /10 As in the Scheiner system, speeds were expressed in degrees, originally the sensitivity was written as a fraction with tenths, where the resultant value 1.8 represented the relative base 10 logarithm of the speed. Tenths were abandoned with DIN4512, 1957-11, and the example above would be written as 18° DIN, the degree symbol was finally dropped with DIN4512, 1961-10
The proximity cards are part of the contactless card technologies. Held near a reader for a moment they enable the identification of an encoded number. The reader usually produces a beep or other sound to indicate the card has been read, Proximity cards typically have a read range up to 50 cm which is the main difference with contactless smartcard with 2 to 10 cm. The card can often be left in a wallet or purse, the term proximity card refers to the older 125 kHz devices as distinct to the newer 13.56 MHz contactless smartcards. Second generation prox cards works in UHF frequency are in use for mass, Proximity cards cant hold more data than a magnetic stripe card. Only contactless smartcards can hold other type of data like electronic funds balance for contactless payment systems, when used without encoding data, only with the Card Serial number, contactless smartcard have similar functionalities to Proximity cards. They are used as keycards for access doors in office buildings. Contactless smartcards are used for all applications, library cards, contactless payment systems.
Active 125 kHz Prox cards, sometimes called vicinity cards, are powered by a lithium battery. They can have a range, up to 2 meters. The battery eventually runs down and the card must be replaced after 2 to 7 years, the card and the reader unit communicate with each other through 125 kHz radio frequency fields by a process called resonant energy transfer. The reader has its own antenna, which transmits a short range radio frequency field. This energy is rectified to direct current which powers the integrated circuit, the chip sends its ID number or other data to the antenna coil, which transmits it by radio frequency signals back to the reader unit. The reader checks whether the ID number from the card is correct, since all the energy to power the card comes from the reader unit, passive cards must be close to the reader to function, and so have only a limited range. An active card contains a lithium cell in addition to the above components to power it. The integrated circuit contains a receiver uses the batterys power to amplify the signal from the reader unit so it is stronger.
The battery powers a transmitter circuit in the chip which transmits a stronger signal to cover the greater distance. This is the case of the memory-based first generation of contactless smartcards and this means that there is no compatibility between the readers of a specific brand and the cards of another brand
NFC devices are used in contactless payment systems, similar to those used in credit cards and electronic ticket smartcards and allow mobile payment to replace/supplement these systems. NFC is used for networking, for sharing contacts, videos or files. NFC-enabled devices can act as electronic identity documents and keycards, NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more capable wireless connections. Similar ideas in advertising and industrial applications were not generally successful commercially, outpaced by technologies such as barcodes, NFC protocols established a generally supported standard. When one of the devices has Internet connectivity, the other can exchange data with online services. NFC-enabled portable devices can be provided with software, for example to read electronic tags or make payments when connected to an NFC-compliant apparatus. NFC reader/writer—enables NFC-enabled devices to read information stored on inexpensive NFC tags embedded in labels or smart posters, NFC peer-to-peer—enables two NFC-enabled devices to communicate with each other to exchange information in an adhoc fashion. NFC tags are passive data stores which can be read, and under some circumstances written to and they typically contain data and are read-only in normal use, but may be rewritable.
Applications include secure personal data storage, NFC tags can be custom-encoded by their manufacturers or use the industry specifications. The standards were provided by the NFC Forum, the forum was responsible for promoting the technology and setting standards and certifies device compliance. Secure communications are available by applying encryption algorithms as is done for credit cards, NFC standards cover communications protocols and data exchange formats and are based on existing radio-frequency identification standards including ISO/IEC14443 and FeliCa. The standards include ISO/IEC18092 and those defined by the NFC Forum, in addition to the NFC Forum, the GSMA group defined a platform for the deployment of GSMA NFC Standards within mobile handsets. GSMAs efforts include Trusted Services Manager, Single Wire Protocol, testing/certification, a patent licensing program for NFC is under deployment by France Brevets, a patent fund created in 2011. This program was under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories, a platform-independent free and open source NFC library, libnfc, is available under the GNU Lesser General Public License.
Present and anticipated applications include contactless transactions, data exchange and simplified setup of more complex such as Wi-Fi. This is used for identification and tracking,1983 The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton. 1997 Early form patented and first used in Star Wars character toys for Hasbro, the patent was originally held by Andrew White and Marc Borrett at Innovision Research and Technology. The device allowed data communication between two units in close proximity,2002 Sony and Philips agreed to establish a technology specification and created a technical outline on March 25,2002
MIFARE is the NXP Semiconductors-owned trademark of a series of chips widely used in contactless smart cards and proximity cards. The MIFARE name covers proprietary technologies based upon various levels of the ISO/IEC14443 Type A13.56 MHz contactless smart card standard, according to MIFARE themselves,10 billion of their smart card chips and 150 million of their reader modules have been sold. The technology is owned by NXP Semiconductors, which was spun off from Philips Electronics in 2006, the technology is embodied in both cards and readers. MIFARE Ultralight C The first low-cost ICs for limited-use applications that offer the benefits of an open Triple DES cryptography, the MIFARE Ultralight C can act as a single trip mass transit ticket, event ticket, or low cost loyalty card, and are used for device authentication. MIFARE DESFire Are smart cards that comply to ISO/IEC 14443-4 Type A with a operating system from NXP. MIFARE DESFire EV1 Includes AES encryption, MIFARE DESFire EV1 delivers a balance of speed and cost efficiency.
MIFARE Plus Drop-in replacement for MIFARE Classic with certified security level and is backwards compatible with MIFARE Classic. MIFARE SAM AV2 Secure access module that provides the storage of cryptographic keys. The MIFARE Classic card is fundamentally just a memory storage device and they are ASIC-based and have limited computational power. Thanks to their reliability and low cost, those cards are used for electronic wallet, access control, corporate ID cards. The MIFARE Classic 1K offers 1024 bytes of storage, split into 16 sectors. Each key can be programmed to allow operations such as reading, increasing value blocks, MIFARE Classic 4K offers 4096 bytes split into forty sectors, of which 32 are same size as in the 1K with eight more that are quadruple size sectors. MIFARE Classic mini offers 320 bytes split into five sectors, for each of these card types,16 bytes per sector are reserved for the keys and access conditions and can not normally be used for user data. Also, the very first 16 bytes contain the number of the card.
That brings the net capacity of these cards down to 752 bytes for MIFARE Classic 1K,3440 bytes for MIFARE Classic 4K. It uses an NXP proprietary security protocol for authentication and ciphering, the Samsung TecTile NFC tag stickers use MIFARE Classic chips. This means only devices with an NXP NFC controller chip can read or write these tags, at the moment BlackBerry phones, the Nokia Lumia 610, the Google Nexus 4, Google Nexus 7 LTE and Nexus 10 cant read/write TecTile stickers. MIFARE Classic encryption has been compromised, see below for details, the MIFARE Ultralight has only 512 bits of memory, without cryptographic security
Vicat softening point
Vicat softening temperature or Vicat hardness is the determination of the softening point for materials that have no definite melting point, such as plastics. It is taken as the temperature at which the specimen is penetrated to a depth of 1 mm by a needle with a 1 mm2 circular or square cross-section. For the Vicat A test, a load of 10 N is used, for the Vicat B test, the load is 50 N. Standards to determine Vicat softening point include ASTM D1525 and ISO306, Property information for specific grades of resin are available in the Prospector Plastic Database. Property Search lets you search for plastics by more than 400 material properties, Vicat Softening Temperature - ISO306 The vicat softening temperature can be used to compare the heat-characteristics of different materials. Four different methods may be used for testing, ISO10350 Note ISO10350 Vicat values are tested using the B50 method. Similar Standards, ASTM D1525 Property information for specific grades of resin are available in the UL IDES Prospector Plastic Database
Radio-frequency identification uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information, Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID readers interrogating radio waves. Active tags have a power source such as a battery. Unlike a barcode, the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, RFID is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture. These concerns resulted in standard specifications development addressing privacy and security issues, ISO/IEC18000 and ISO/IEC29167 use on-chip cryptography methods for untraceability and reader authentication, and over-the-air privacy. ISO/IEC20248 specifies a digital data structure for RFID and barcodes providing data, source. This work is done within ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC31 Automatic identification, in 2014, the world RFID market is worth US$8.89 billion, up from US$7.77 billion in 2013 and US$6.96 billion in 2012. This includes tags and software/services for RFID cards, fobs, the market value is expected to rise to US$18.68 billion by 2026.
In 1945, Léon Theremin invented a tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident radio waves with the audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which slightly altered the shape of the resonator, similar technology, such as the IFF transponder, was routinely used by the allies and Germany in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders are still used by most powered aircraft to this day, another early work exploring RFID is the landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman. Considerable research and development work has to be done before the basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved. Mario Cardullos device, patented on January 23,1973, was the first true ancestor of modern RFID, the basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, sound and light as transmission media. The original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in transportation, banking and medical. An early demonstration of reflected power RFID tags, both passive and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, and Robert Frayman at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973, the portable system operated at 915 MHz and used 12-bit tags.
This technique is used by the majority of todays UHFID and microwave RFID tags, the first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in 1983. A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified, two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its response. RFID tags can be passive, active or battery-assisted passive